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Instructor's Manual for Family in Society
Floyd Mansfield Martinson and Beatrice A. Martinson
Instructor's Manual for Family in Society
by Martinson, Floyd M. (Floyd Mansfield), 1916-2000
and Martinson, Beatrice Awes
First published by Dodd, Mead & Company, Inc. (New York, USA), 1970.
This edition by Books Reborn, July 2001.
Copyright © 1970 Dodd, Mead & Company, Inc.
i, 58 p. ; 24 cm.
This edition of Instructor's Manual for Family in Society has been OCR scanned from the 1970 edition for publication on the Internet. Pagination and layout of this edition closely mimics that of the 1970 edition, so references to specific pages of that edition remain valid here. The original copyright holder, Dodd Mead & Company, ceased business around 1989. It is assumed that the copyright on this volume reverted to Floyd Martinson at that time. Copyrights owned by Floyd Martinson were inherited by his widow, Beatrice Awes Martinson, after his death in 2000. Beatrice Awes Martinson has given permission to Books Reborn for this book to be made available to the public on the Internet. She retains all rights to this work.
To the Instructor
This manual contains questions of three kinds, essay or discussion questions, multiple choice questions, and true false questions for each of the chapters in FAMILY IN SOCIETY. The questions can be used as test and examination questions by the instructor or can be made available to the student as aids in studying the text. The questions are designed so as to concentrate on the significant themes and data in each chapter. Whether as student guides or as part of an examination, the questions can serve as a valuable aid in focusing the students' attention on that which is most important in each chapter.
For the instructor seeking literature, films, and other teaching aids to use as complements to the text, the author suggests the following as two of the best sources: Family Life Literature and Films: An Annotated Bibliography published and regularly revised by the Minnesota Council on Family Relations and the newsletter published by The Sex Information and Education Council of the United States (SIECUS).
The best sources of research articles on the family are the American Sociological Review, Journal of Marriage and the Family, American Journal of Sociology, and Social Forces. Also valuable as basic references are Harold T. Christensen (ed.), Handbook of Marriage and the Family (Chicago: Rand McNally, 1964), and Joan Aldous and Reuben Hill, International Bibliography of Research in Marriage and the Family, 1900-1964 (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota, 1967).
Floyd Mansfield Martinson
PART I. INTRODUCTION
CHAPTER 1. FAMILY IN SOCIETY: AN OVERVIEW
MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS
- The term nuclear family refers to
a. a scientifically oriented family.
b. a unit composed of father, mother, and child.
c. an explosive family situation.
d. divorced parents.
e. a closely-knit family unit.
- The network of which the nuclear family is a part, including relatives who are subordinate to the same authority, is called a(n)
b. feudal estate.
c. extended family.
- Type and size of locality networks of which the family is a part vary from society to society and include all but which of the following?
a. Families who habitually camp together, such as American Indian groups.
b. Groups of agricultural families close to their lands, such as a village.
c. Groupings around a trade center.
d. Groups whose only function is warfare.
- A type of settlement in which the local social network includes a number of farm families on adjoining farms who associate informally is called
a. a section.
b. a neighborhood.
c. a kinship group.
- Life-crises observances are frequently carried on by the larger kinship group as part of a kinship system. A common task is
a. the regulation and selection of marriage partners.
b. encouraging freedom of the individual.
c. advising youth in regard to vocations.
d. discipline of the nonconformists over the romantic love concept of sexual alliances.
- In America, social, economic, educational, and religious systems involve the family in many social patterns. But with the vast communications network and modern industrialization
a. kin groups play an even larger role today.
b. the extended family is dead.
c. the family has become less and less important.
d. kin groups play a relatively smaller role.
- The rate and nature of social change
a. does not affect the family.
b. tends to disorganize and disintegrate the family according to some behavioral scientists.
c. contributes to a new vitality and stability within the family according to some behavioral scientists.
d. cannot be evaluated.
e. b and c above.
- New cultural patterns bring conflict between parents and children
a. in nonreligious families.
b. in the immigrant family.
c. in educated families.
d. when the children have left home.
TRUE OR FALSE QUESTIONS
- [F] Nuclear family refers to the kin living together.
- [T] The network of which the nuclear family is a part varies from society to society.
- [T] All human societies structure a nurturant relationship between adults and dependent children.
- [F] In America the kinship system meets most of the basic and social needs.
- [T] No system in American society has been more circumscribed by normative patterns than has the family.
- [F] Our stable family system can survive any amount of rapid change according to all the scholars.
- [F] The American family is still basically patriarchal.
- [F] Families are not dependent on other social structures.
- [F] The rate and nature of social change do not affect the family.
- [F] The family has proven to be more dominant than adaptive.
- Based on your reading of the chapter and your general knowledge of American society, what do you see as the present and future role of the American family?
- What is the significance of the kinship structure as you have experienced it?
PART II. FAMILY IN SOCIETY: THE HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE
CHAPTER 2. PURITANISM AND THE FAMILY
MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS
- The majority of the inhabitants of New England in the early days
a. were or had been servants.
b. lived a pleasant life.
c. had slaves.
d. were desperately poor.
- Sex laws promulgated in the New England colonies were
a. borrowed almost directly from the Old Testament.
b. were from England.
c. were the direct ancestors of our present constitution.
d. were based on reason rather than conscience.
- A good Puritan father looked upon the system of state supervision of the family as
a. basically an odious interference with liberty.
b. a matter of conflict.
c. interference with conscience.
d. an indispensable support to his authority.
- As settlements grew and it became more difficult for selectmen
a. a group of officers was established for the specific purpose of inspecting and reinforcing family government.
b. the selectmen's role was abandoned.
c. personal freedom became popular.
d. laws were made stricter so as to keep control.
- Despite precautions, Puritan villages were not as pure in terms of
true believers as the Puritans would have liked
a. the unregenerate controlled positions of power.
b. but the regenerate controlled the positions of power in the community.
c. this was caused by people falling away from the faith.
d. the church withdrew to protect itself.
- The colonists were known to consume liquors;
a. but because of their strong religious convictions drunkenness was no problem.
b. drinking was a problem.
c. to prevent too much drinking taverns were outlawed from the colonies.
d. the laws and church were able to confine the drinking to special ceremonies.
- In Puritan society houses were of every description; generally speaking,
a. they were especially ornate and decorated with folk art.
b. elaborateness was one common characteristic.
c. most had some lovely luxurious items that had been brought along to the new land.
d. they were simple, unpainted and not given to luxury.
- Ideally, every morning and evening the father led his household in prayer, scripture reading, and song, offered thanks at mealtime, catechized children and others, and sought the salvation of souls under his charge in the
a. average frontier family.
b. new lusty families coming over from England.
c. godly Puritan home.
d. all New England homes since it was a requirement of the church and state.
- The New England Puritan family was
a. authoritarian, with women playing a subordinate role to men.
- One of the requirements of a Puritan father was that he
a. be a leader in the community.
b. be responsible for the souls of his children.
c. make sure his children were turned over to the church for instruction.
d. provide a comfortable living situation for his family.
- Courting while in bed with the mutual understanding that innocent
endearments should not be exceeded was in colonial times called
a. bed courting.
b. sparking or smooching.
- Sexual irregularities both before and after marriage were common in Puritan society. All but which of the following were contributing factors?
a. Many settlers from England bringing along a fund of coarse sensuality.
b. A pioneering area where the labor of all was in demand.
c. An ascetic people.
d. Stern morality did not allow for a class of prostitutes.
- A ceremonial betrothal preceding marriage and often taking place before a witness was called, in Puritan society,
a. the banns.
c. seven-months rule.
- Love was highly controlled in the Puritan society and so
a. did not enter prominently into mate selection.
b. encouraged the concept of romantic love.
c. passion ruled.
d. parents contracted for a mate without any decision by their offspring.
- To prevent sexual behavior outside of marriage, the Puritans made rules and laws, one of which called for the couple to humble themselves before the congregation by making confession of the fact that they had had sexual intercourse prior to marriage. This was called
d. the seven-months rule.
- In Puritan society (outside of domestic service) the only career
really open to a young woman was
c. marriage and parenthood.
- Unmarried adults were looked upon with disapproval in Puritan society. An "ancient" maid of 25-30 was referred to as
b. a thornback.
- The Puritans regarded marriage as
a. a sacrament.
b. taking place in the church.
c. a civil contract.
d. to be performed only by the clergy.
- In Puritan society marriage could be dissolved by the civil authorities. Puritan thought on divorce was
a. extremely rigid, and divorce was nearly impossible.
b. that even though a couple did not get along, they must live together.
c. that separations were permissible.
d. the most liberal of the times.
e. a and b above.
- Personality difficulties were inherent in the Puritan system because
a. of consistent abandonment of a person's own desires and feelings.
b. members of the Puritan family were schooled to give up future rewards.
c. divorce was so difficult.
d. of the emphasis on love and passion.
e. of danger from the Indians.
- One of the important reasons for the failure of Puritanism in America was its
c. independent thought.
d. lack of uncompromising principles.
e. a and c above.
- The Puritan strategy was to depend on the family as the basic system responsible for providing covenanted citizens for the state. The problem was
a. too few families.
b. the children did not convert easily.
c. not enough selectmen to properly oversee the family training.
d. not enough preaching, praying, and punishment for backsliders.
- In forming a society the Puritans
a. established a free, democratic ideal.
b. glorified the individual.
c. covenanted with God.
d. set the pattern for independent thought.
e. a and b above.
TRUE OR FALSE QUESTIONS
- [T] Never has the family in America operated under a stricter polity than during Puritanism.
- [F] The Puritans were less educated and less intelligent than other Americans of that time.
- [F] Children were not used generally as laborers in Puritan settlements.
- [F] The Puritan father looked upon the state as interfering with his private rights.
- [F] The family did not have a major role in the Puritan value system.
- [T] In interchanges between the Puritan governmental system and the family system the government was dominant.
- [T] In Puritan society the "tithing man" not only visited families, he also kept a close check on single persons entering the village.
- [F] In Puritan New England, because of strict supervision of the family, drinking was not a problem.
- [T] Family residences in New England had to be quite large to accommodate unattached relatives, apprentices, servants, and wage employees.
- [F] In the Puritan family weekdays were devoted to much religious activity.
- [T] Woman's place in Puritan society was in the home.
- [T] A great deal of the integration of the Puritan family was the result of external conditions rather than internal activity.
- [T] Harsh theology and harsh environment complicated the problems of the Puritan family.
- [T] Beyond the usual teaching of skills the Puritan family was responsible for teaching the child a vocation.
- [T] A common Puritan practice was to place children in other than their homes of orientation.
- [T] Sunday night dating was popular in New England.
- [F] Puritan parents could insist that their child marry even someone he did not like.
- [T] Spinsters and bachelors were looked upon with disapproval in Puritan society.
- [F] Puritan prohibition of divorce was most rigid.
- [T] Puritanism was too rigid a system to survive in America.
- [T] Aspects of Puritan thought became one of the continuing factors in American culture.
- [F] Puritanism was more humanistic than religious.
- Describe the Puritans, their philosophy, values, and government.
- Explain the Puritan conception of the family in regard to marriage, children, discipline.
- What duties was the early Puritan family responsible for?
- Elaborate on leadership and authority in the Puritan society.
- What was the status of the Puritan single adults?
- List some of the remnants of Puritan philosophy that are part of our present society.
- Discuss courtship in the Puritan society.
- Why did Puritanism fail?
CHAPTER 3. THE FAMILY AND A NEW NATION
MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS
- Thomas Jefferson was a politically influential philosopher of his age, and he assumed that man
a. is basically good.
b. will act rationally.
c. will choose the wise and good if given a choice.
d. is sinful and needs a strong governmental system of checks and balances to prevent anarchy.
e. all but d above.
- The moneyed classes during the Revolutionary War were
a. in sympathy with democratic principles.
b. felt a democratic government would insure their rights.
c. were not interested in agriculture but in land speculation.
d. were used to the European practice of entail and primogeniture and were not favorable to the theory of equality of all persons.
- The period of national emergence was threatening to the traditional family because some of the ideologies led to
b. family experimentation.
c. loss of religious fervor.
- An explicit right of inheritance to the first born is called
- The family becoming a dominant social system in American society
a. was assured early in colonial history.
b. was dealt a serious blow with the demise of entail and primogeniture.
c. was legally assured in 1776.
d. was never a serious threat to democracy.
- The most radical and yet most successful of the experimental communities was
a. New Harmony.
b. the Oneida Community.
c. Brooks Farm.
d. the Shakers.
- New Harmony--one of the first, largest, and best known utopian communities--failed because
a. communes are unrealistic.
b. the necessary detail to organization was neglected.
c. applicants were not screened for admission.
d. wide publicity and a general invitation to all resulting in a community of nonconformists.
e. all but a above.
- John Noyes believed in strict birth control by
a. male continence of a special kind--intercourse with ejaculatory control.
e. sex education.
- The apparent lack of closeness in the early American family was attributed to
a. exaggerated emphasis on individualism and independence.
b. expanding economic opportunities turned eyes of family members outward rather than in upon the family itself.
c. the fact that men were too busy.
e. all of the above.
- Despite growth in political and social thought in early America
a. the authoritarian family was still strong.
b. the husband-father was the only person recognized by law.
c. public opinion was behind the idea of concentration of authority in the hands of one.
d. the husband had the entire right to his wife, her property and possessions.
e. all of the above.
- During the Revolutionary period in America the difference between single and married women was
a. that married women lost entire personal control over their property to their husband.
b. single women were not legally responsible to anyone.
c. single women were denied freedom and pleasure.
d. married women were noticeably happier.
- During the early American period, birth control information was circulated largely by
a. government pamphlets.
b. word of mouth.
- In Benjamin Franklin's time a seemingly limitless supply of arable land supported the idea that
a. all should marry and beget children.
b. neither providence nor natural law should be interfered with in regard to population control.
c. early marriages were desirable.
d. all of the above.
- The child guidance literature of the first half of the 19th century emphasized that
a. an infant was born in sin and needed to be redeemed.
b. a child needed to be hardened for a difficult life.
c. a child should be led not driven.
d. all of the above.
- In the early 1800s dating customs included
a. unchaperoned dating.
b. entertaining boys in girls' homes.
c. girls selecting their own boy friends.
d. all of the above.
- It was said of American men of the 1800s that they
a. had neither the leisure nor desire to make themselves loved.
b. were not skillful in winning women.
c. were businesslike in their courtship.
d. had relatively high standards of sexual behavior.
e. all of the above.
- Strict moral standards of the 1800s were explained partly by
a. the principle of equality.
b. the brevity of courtship.
c. emphasis on reason and morality over romance.
d. all of the above.
- In the early 1800s marriage in the United States
a. was highly esteemed.
b. was not especially glorified.
c. was characterized by women who had been advised to be romantic in marriage but not before marriage.
d. allowed for men to be sexually promiscuous.
TRUE OR FALSE QUESTIONS
- [F] The period of national emergence was not threatening to the family.
- [T] After Puritanism came a humanitarian revolt.
- [F] Thomas Jefferson's philosophy was a faith in social systems rather than in personality.
- [T] Many aristocratic Loyalist families in America had to give up their property because of Britain's defeat.
- [T] The emigration of the Loyalists largely defeated the prospect of an elite family dynasty in America.
- [F] Entail and primogeniture were popular ideas in America.
- [F] In the period of unrest during the birth of this nation, all major social systems were subjected to critical appraisal except the family.
- [T] The Oneida Community advocated abolishment of private property and exclusive paired sexual relationships.
- [T] As a method of birth control in the Oneida community male continence was practiced.
- [F] America has witnessed many periods in history of experimental family communities.
- [F] Most Americans were involved in some experimental family communities during the 1840s.
- [T] Exaggerated emphasis on individualism during America's history turned the eyes of family members outward from the family.
- [T] Women suffered a loss of freedom when they married in colonial times, as all their goods became their husband's.
- [T] It was felt that to protect women from dangers in a democratic social system their will and reason had to be developed.
- [F] Unchaperoned dating was uncommon in early America.
- [F] Marriages in early America were alliances of families not of persons.
- [T] It was said of American men in the 1800s that they were businesslike in their lovemaking.
- [T] Early American society emphasized reason and morality over romance and courtship.
- [F] The American attitude toward marriage in the 1800s was pessimistic.
- [T] General reforms leading to emancipation of women had to wait until after the Civil War.
- Why was Puritan society doomed?
- Discuss the "new" philosophy and faith in man that accompanied the birth of America as a nation.
- Describe some of the experimental family systems, their leadership and their success.
- What were some of the characteristics of the emerging family models after Puritanism?
- Describe some of the characteristics of courtship and marriage during the Revolutionary period.
- What were the rights of women during the Revolutionary period?
CHAPTER 4. SLAVERY AND THE BLACK FAMILY
MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS
- No natural experiment so destroyed the family as an organized functioning social system as did
a. the Puritans.
b. the New Harmony experimental community.
c. the Shakers.
e. the frontier.
- The motive for the system of slavery in the United States was
b. a plot to destroy a culture.
c. a method of annihilating a people.
e. a means of raising the cultural and economic level of a backward race.
- In order to resolve the conflict between the need for slaves for cheap labor and the rising spirit of democracy, Southern intellectuals claimed that
a. every civilization rested on labor exploitation of some kind, and the patriarchal ties between planter and slave were most humane.
b. a wage system was not possible with such ignorant people.
c. it was up to each individual's conscience as to the rightness or wrongness of slavery.
d. God ordained slavery.
e. slavery benefited all.
- Indentured servants in America
a. were never Negroes.
b. were entitled to earn their freedom.
c. were rare in America.
d. were a religious order.
- Slaves became more valuable
a. with the invention of the cotton gin.
b. if they were sold as a unit with their families.
c. in the period just preceding the Civil War.
d. if they were disciplined by flogging.
e. the older they became.
- Slave revolts and fear of revolts caused Southern whites to believe
a. that peaceful coexistence could prevail only under the strictest of master-slave relations.
b. that slaves should be treated less harshly.
c. that educating slaves would help the problem.
d. that discouraging slaves from having children would be more economically profitable.
e. that more religion was needed.
- The following way was used to keep slaves in line:
a. threat of excommunication from the church.
b. early curfew.
c. laws against teaching slaves to read and write.
d. passes required for slaves to leave their plantation.
e. all of the above.
- The effect of African culture on Negro family life in America
a. had a marked influence.
b. lingered long in the memories of the slaves.
c. contributed to a folklore which gave real support in the struggle for status in America and made the slave life bearable.
d. had no marked influence because the kinship system was destroyed.
- Life in a Southern mansion
a. was commonly a lonely, isolated and actively busy life for the white mistress as she supervised home and slaves.
b. was one of ease for the owner as the slaves did everything.
c. was usually efficiently run and highly organized by the slave servants.
d. operated smoothly because of so much cheap labor.
- With regard to physical care and housing quarters, Southern planters
a. were careful that their slaves had adequate housing.
b. were careful to provide privacy and comfort for their slaves as a rule.
c. varied in their providing adequate shelter, from the meanest of quarters to brick cottages.
d. provided generously for their slaves.
e. let the slaves provide their own quarters.
- Slave marriages differed from that of a white man and wife joined in wedlock in that
a. slaves were not found to be faithful to each other.
b. slaves were not stable.
c. women were more important in that they bore the children.
d. it could be dissolved at the will of the white owner or by the sale of one of the partners.
e. it was never performed by a clergyman.
- The slave family developed in part as a natural organization based on feelings of affection and sympathy
a. from close, overcrowded conditions in the cabins.
b. because of greater natural affection of Negro people.
c. because of their religious nature.
d. at the insistence of the owner.
- Sexual liaisons between black and white
a. were uncommon.
b. were overemphasized.
c. were a constant threat to both black and white families.
d. were usually approved in the early days.
e. only occurred in the South.
- One aspect of the slave trade in Southern cities was
a. the traffic in mulatto women for purposes of prostitution.
b. resentment over the concubine by the white wife.
c. that concubinage was legalized.
d. that persons of all classes of whites were involved in sexual relations with slave women.
e. all but c above.
- 15. The male under slavery was not able to control his tools or person, and he earned no income. The result of this
a. insured his being docile.
b. was the only economic solution to the problems.
c. gave him no prerequisites for being head of the household.
d. made slaves more religious.
e. gave the male a higher place of authority in the family.
- 16. Slave owners wished good care for black offspring. This resulted in
a. treating slave mother and child as a unit.
b. making the black father legally responsible for his children.
c. punishing slaves for incontinence and adultery.
d. treating the black family as an economic unit.
e. more education for blacks in health problems.
- Defining a slave child's status according to the father's condition would have had economic consequences. It would have meant
a. that there would have been a category of free mulattos.
b. a law saying the father of a slave is responsible for his child.
c. making the white father legally responsible for his mulatto offspring.
d. the legal right to black fathers of their marital bed.
- The black father's authority in his family in the post-slavery period was established chiefly through
a. economic superiority of women.
b. the acquisition of property.
c. white efforts.
e. disillusionment of promiscuity.
- The matricentric black family which developed under slavery became
a. more integrated after emancipation.
b. more precarious after emancipation.
c. paternalistic after emancipation.
d. more religiously oriented after emancipation.
e. wealthy after emancipation, much to the disgust of former owners.
- Contemporary American Negro family life fears the marks of a culture shattered by slavery, then emancipation, and finally discrimination and injustice. Evidence suggests that
a. the black family is still excessively burdened by social and economic deprivation.
b. blacks have now risen above these problems.
c. laws have remedied these evils.
d. people cannot change.
e. the black family is better for having suffered.
TRUE OR FALSE QUESTIONS
- [F] Slaves kept the cultural patterns from their mother country alive and meaningful during slavery.
- [F] The Christian church was unequivocally against slavery.
- [T] Southern intellectuals explained slavery in terms of the Greek ideal of inequality of status.
- [T] Some blacks brought to America in the earliest years came as indentured servants.
- [T] Slaves were always regarded as too valuable an economic asset to mistreat.
- [T] Birth rates among the Southern white population were high, and care of children was eased by the black "mammy" during slavery.
- [F] Slave women were expected not only to bear children but to do as much as an able-bodied man in the field.
- [T] Slaves were usually closely confined to their cabins when not in the fields.
- [F] Blacks and whites were meticulously careful not to form any sexual liaisons with each other during slavery.
- [T] Traffic in mulatto women for purposes of prostitution became a regular part of the slave trade in Southern cities.
- [T] Interracial liaisons resulted in the principle that "the father of a slave is unknown to our law."
- [T] A white father had no legal responsibility for his mulatto offspring.
- [T] Jim Crowism was invented as an alternative to slavery.
- [F] Most blacks left the plantation after emancipation.
- [F] The adaptive urban matricentric black family is found in the suburbs and is the best adjusted of black families.
- [T] Acculturated black families have taken on many of the family life patterns present in the culture of the white majority.
- [T] While many young blacks are moving ahead to higher levels of achievement, many more are falling farther and farther behind whites in income.
- Explain the value system supporting slavery.
- Describe a plantation including some of these aspects: slave life, physical plant, housing, clothing, leisure, children, marriage, and restrictions on slaves as property.
- What did the Emancipation Proclamation do to the South and to black families?
- Comment on the reasons for matricentric black families.
- Describe externally adaptive and acculturated families.
CHAPTER 5. THE INMIGRANT AND THE CITY
MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS
- Two of the most significant factors in American history bringing about an imbalance between the family and other social systems is
a. technological advance.
b. urban growth.
c. the growing inflexibility of the family.
d. a and b above.
e. a and c above.
- 2. The major economic force responsible for the modern American family is
a. immigration of Northern Europeans.
b. the Puritan ethic of self-denial.
c. the industrial revolution of the 19th and 20th centuries.
d. the frontier.
- The immigration of Europeans during the period of industrial growth was the largest movement in American immigration in all history. In 1914, the peak year,
a. the heaviest northern European immigration took place.
b. nearly 3/4 of the total immigrants came from southern and eastern Europe
c. the U.S. decided it had too many workers.
d. workers from the farms exceeded immigrants.
- Family heads who found employment in industry around the turn of the century also found
a. poor wages.
b. many dangerous jobs without safeguards.
c. uncertain employment.
d. wage increased commensurate with productivity.
e. a, b, and c above.
- The industrial supremacy achieved by America was due to material factors but also such a result would not have been possible without
a. a view of life compatible with technological advancement.
b. the stability of our economic system.
c. the influence of the nuclear family.
d. our religious background.
- Historically, American industry's preference for mobility and versatility rather than for
b. simple skill requiring short apprenticeship
c. family business
d. development of professional skills
was in harmony with the techniques of mass production developed in American industry.
- Historically, techniques were not considered good just because they were traditional. Americans looked toward a future
a. that was expected to be bigger and better than present.
b. that they did not want changed.
c. that could be arrived at without polluting the atmosphere.
d. with pessimism.
- Economic views popular at the time of urban industrial emergence treated the notion that personal and family misery caused by economic change was
a. preventable by government.
b. inconsequential compared with the benefits.
c. an unavoidable social evil.
d. a natural result of the welfare state.
- Historically, government support to business and industry has been substantial; government support to families has been minimal. Families needing special governmental support were
a. not much of a problem.
b. regarded as families that had failed.
c. well taken care of.
d. provided for only if the husband was willing to work.
- Two key reference points in the city are the factory and the slum. In the interchange and transactions over sites, losing out to the factory which got the best and scenic sites was the
b. business district.
d. schools and churches.
- A decline of community and neighborhood as integrated units and a decline of their influence upon individuals and families (except in those cases where strong ethnic communities held off some of the effect of the impersonal city) were ushered in by
a. the Puritan ethic.
b. the move to industrial cities.
c. the new generation of undisciplined children growing up.
d. lack of morals.
- 12. The first purpose for which immigrant individuals and families organized into ethnic societies in America was usually
a. for protection against criminals.
b. for worship.
c. for mutual help in emergencies.
d. because the immigrants could not speak English.
- 13. For native Americans who were not a part of any ethnic community the move to the city resulted in
a. accidental groupings.
b. being part of any available ethnic group.
c. a move to an integrated, cohesive neighborhood.
d. membership in a settlement house.
- 14. The extent to which settlement houses served to moderate cleavage between native American and foreign-born Americans was
c. probably of limited utility.
d. the important factor in the adjustment of the various ethnic groups.
- 15. A major step in the adjustment of the urban-industrial worker's family came when the workers
a. emphasized specialization more.
b. required insurance.
c. organized themselves across nationality lines.
d. got the benefits of private enterprise.
- 16. Of all the elements in the traditional immigrant pattern none was in more fundamental conflict with the American environment than
a. the relationship with the Catholic church.
b. neighborhood organizations.
c. views on education.
d. the tradition of the patriarchal family.
- 17. In a patriarchal family, childbearing was a woman's source of distinction. Children were economically useful in an agricultural
society. This was reinforced by teachings of the church.
a. The urban community also promoted large families.
b. Pressure toward family limitation was strong in the urban community.
c. Birth control groups were helping to limit families.
d. Since the U.S. needed workers, the factories actively propagandized for larger families.
- 18. In the face of drastic changes from producer to consumer, from an agriculture to a money economy
a. family members found difficulty in defining their new roles.
b. the patriarchal form flourished for a while.
c. the family broke down completely.
d. the family became largely unnecessary.
- Since the family had lost its ancient economic functions in the age of industrialization
a. new functions must be found for it.
b. the state can take over the family tasks, and the individual can have more freedom.
c. personal affection can serve as the central binding force
d. the family has deteriorated badly.
- The socialization of millions of immigrant children, the welding of different groups into a national unity was the primary function of
a. the community.
b. the public schools.
c. the church.
d. government-sponsored programs.
- 21. Immigrant children who attended the American public school found a great stress on
b. gang life.
c. a high standard of living.
d. intellectual achievement.
22. Industrialization and urbanization provided opportunities for older
children and women and for financial independence. This
a. did not relieve men of the burden of caring for unwed females, however.
b. contributed to the emancipation of women.
c. encouraged bachelorhood.
d. was considered unwholesome by nearly everyone.
- Traditionally among Italian peasants interaction between the sexes after adolescence was assumed to be
a. natural and encouraged.
b. up to each individual.
c. solely with a view to marriage.
d. acceptable only among relatives.
- The hope in early urbanization was that the city would result in comfort, opportunity, glamour.
a. By urban renewal this has been realized.
b. Cities are still the acme of crime, pollution, filth, and discomfort.
c. Getting people out into the suburbs is solving the problems.
d. Private enterprise has relieved the housing shortage in lower-income areas.
- 25. The movement of people to the suburbs has created new problems for the central cities. Especially the fact that
a. there are so many empty apartments in the city.
b. there are too few highways.
c. many affluent citizens are working in the city but paying taxes in the suburb.
d. all the old people are left in the city.
TRUE OR FALSE QUESTIONS
- [T] The widespread availability of the automobile has been a major factor in the development of dating patterns in America.
- [F] The supply of free land in America was the major factor responsible for the development of the high standard of living.
- [F] America's great economic wealth is fairly evenly distributed between classes insofar as family income is concerned.
- [F] Slum conditions have improved greatly since the 1900s.
- [T] Polish immigrant women would expect no support in limiting family size from their husbands, tradition, or the church.
- [F] The immigrant child was introduced into the wider social life of the city through the family.
- [T] In the 1900s many children worked long hours in factories under unfavorable conditions.
- [F] In immigrant families home played a larger part in the life of the son than of the daughter.
- [T] The breakdown of the Italian culture of immigrant families in the U.S. was traceable in the changed position of Italian women and girls.
- [T] In the old-world Polish community each extended family took care to enforce the traditional rules of behavior on its married members.
- [F] After the development of the factory the functions of the family increased.
- [F] Interchanges between the family and the economy became less and less contractual after the industrial revolution.
- [T] Social Darwinism is the notion that success comes to those who survive the struggle; the poor are less fit.
- [T] Cramped living quarters are typical of both small and large industrial cities.
- [F] Settlement houses were started by the immigrants and other lower-class families in urban areas.
- [T] Technological advance and urban population concentration contributed to an imbalance between the family and other social systems.
- [T] With industrialization, industry became the new frontier for family heads seeking employment.
- [T] Historically, one of the hazards of industrial work as a source of income for families was that often the work was uncertain and dangerous.
- [T] With industrialization, Americans acquired a bent toward the dominating of nature, putting it to so-called useful purposes.
- What problems did the factories create for immigrant workers and their families?
- Describe the old-world values and life of Italian and Polish families. How did these conflict with the new life in America?
- What was the place of the settlement house in immigrant communities?
- What purpose did political machines serve for immigrant families?
- Comment on the disorganization of the immigrant family in adjusting to a new environment with old-world values.
- Discuss conflicts in dating and old-world traditions.
PART III. THE NUCLEAR FAMILY
CHAPTER 6. FAMILY ORGANIZATION AND ACTIVITIES
MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS
- A majority of American families have their material needs abundantly cared for as a result of
a. welfare checks.
b. a highly productive economy.
c. America's having a democratic form of government.
d. a and c above.
- The hardest hit by poverty, those having an income under $2,000 a year, are
a. lazy, not ambitious people.
b. the ones on welfare.
c. the uneducated.
d. the nonwhite fatherless families.
e. the migrants.
- One strong reason for the mother taking the integrative and emotional role within the home is her
a. preference for staying home.
b. function of bearing and giving early care to children.
c. ability for this role in preference to other roles.
d. becoming bound by custom.
e. domineering husband.
- American family norms continue to affirm that
a. the American male should take responsibility for support of his wife and children.
b. the male is head of the house.
c. marriage partners share all responsibility equally.
d. the more children the better.
- The American family is essentially a(n)
a. productive unit.
b. consumption unit.
c. religious unit.
d. educational unit.
e. unit having only secondary functions in modern life.
- Home production by the wife has come to be valued as
a. fulfilling an economic need.
b. necessary for family stability.
c. a way of achieving a high level of economy.
d. woman's work.
e. creative art.
- Despite the reduced volume of work within the home itself, there
is an incredible increase in what has to be done if the home is to
b. a community asset.
c. an exhibit of high status.
d. a place where members can be clothed and fed.
e. a meeting place.
- The professionalization of the mother's functions within the home is due to
b. her emotionalism.
d. her husband's occupation.
- Since in America a premium is placed on equality and self-fulfillment, wives of successful men resent being regarded
a. as professional women.
b. as merely adjuncts to their husband's career.
c. as too brilliant.
d. as having to do all the community projects.
e. as uneducated.
- 10. In today's American family
a. all tasks are clearly differentiated between father and mother.
b. family tasks are differentiated.
c. children are expected to share in the tasks more than the father.
d. the father's part is clearly differentiated.
e. husbands are unresponsive to household tasks primarily in the upper class.
- 11. The period in the family cycle in which there is the most sharing of tasks is the
a. child bearing period.
b. old age.
d. the teen age launching period.
- Indicators of a husband's dominance or decision-making power in a family are
a. his success in the eyes of the community.
b. his education.
c. his earnings.
d. his occupational prestige.
e. all of the above.
- The present day-to-day situation within the middle-class family suggests that the father's dominance is
- 14. One fairly common facet of parental motivation in the disciplining of children in the middle-class family is
a. fear of alienating the children.
b. harsh discipline.
c. no discipline.
d. letting father discipline.
e. asking the community to help.
- 15. The "other-directed" parent has a problem in that he needs to win not only his child's good behavior but also his child's
a. friend's good opinion.
b. good will.
c. school over to the parent's side.
- 16. Guarding the family from divisive tendencies that follow from specialization of roles is
a. common values and norms.
b. a high standard of living.
c. an accepting community.
d. the extended family.
- 17. A culturally-integrated family can be expected to be
a. more receptive to change.
b. less receptive to innovation.
c. one with a high standard of living.
d. one that ignores the community.
- 18. Modern open communities with their plurality of cultural patterns encourage
a. more conforming citizens.
b. family openness.
c. a closed type of family and family solidarity.
d. less family uniqueness.
- 19. In America the criterion that largely establishes social status of the family is
a. mother not working.
b. number of children.
c. occupational role of father.
d. neighborhood family lives in.
e. level of education.
- 20. Persons who report the most family ritual and feel it to be important in their lives tend to perceive
a. a rather high degree of family solidarity.
b. more community pressures.
c. that the family is too demanding.
d. outmoded folklore.
- 21. A close relationship between the child and the father
a. has to be worked at.
b. is resented by mothers.
c. indicates a problem child.
d. encourages disenchantment.
e. usually indicates the highest type of family solidarity.
TRUE OR FALSE QUESTIONS
- [T] Despite abundance, a large number of Indian, black, Puerto Rican, and Mexican families fall below the poverty line.
- [F] In families, role differentiation is not necessary for the performance of tasks.
- [T] One of the internal activities of the family is disposing of negative feelings of family members.
- [F] As a group, married women no longer spend the greater share of their energy in the home.
- [T] The division of labor in the modern home tends to be similar to the division of labor in the traditional family.
- [F] American women generally feel that they are fulfilled if they are successful in promoting their husband's career.
- [F] An American woman's premarital life experiences prepare her particularly well for the role of mother and wife.
- [F] Middle-class democratic norms dictate that the father direct the spending of the family income.
- [F] Autocratic methods of maintaining order in the American family are generally viewed with approval.
- [F] Generally speaking the higher the husband's social status the less he has to say at home.
- [F] Nonwhite husbands tend to have more power at home than do white husbands.
- [T] Responses by youth indicate that they are closer to the family than had been supposed.
- [F] A culturally integrated family is more receptive of innovation.
- [T] Persons are stimulated toward favorable attitudes toward their own families if the community gives high priority to the family.
- [F] At family celebrations it is the father who is the central figure.
- [F] Parents are not bothered by sibling rivalry.
- [T] The companionship type of family is the emerging form.
- [F] American parents find family togetherness to be pleasant and natural.
- [F] American husbands aspire to the position of patriarch within the family.
- [T] Because they desire to be liked, many parents find it difficult to govern their children.
- Explain why differentiated roles are necessary to an orderly family.
- What factors determine leadership in the family?
- What makes for an integrated family?
- Discuss individualism vs. togetherness as family values.
- Happiness is mentioned as a goal of family living. What contributes to family happiness?
- What changes have occurred within the family as it changed from a productive to a consumption unit?
- How does family ritual affect family solidarity?
- How has the child's place within the family changed over the years?
CHAPTER 7. PROCREATION AND SOCIALIZATION
MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS
- The birth control movement has been largely
a. a government program.
b. a legal battle.
c. a women's movement.
d. unnecessary as most couples have felt family planning important.
- The social unit responsible for the procreative function is
a. the family.
b. the family agency.
c. the community.
d. the society as a whole.
e. the married couple.
- In our early history, contraceptives came to be classified legally with the obscene and pornographic largely due to the influence of
a. Anthony Comstock.
b. the church.
c. the Supreme Court.
d. the Quakers.
- Most couples practice contraception control. Of those remaining outside the population practicing effective fertility control are
a. mostly urban couples.
b. a disproportionate number of nonwhite families.
c. working-class families.
d. a large number of Protestants.
e. the majority of orthodox Jews.
- Recently, the increase in contraceptive use is greater among the
c. couples in the lower socioeconomic groups.
d. rural groups.
e. newly married.
- Family planning and birth control practices will likely be affected by one of the most serious problems in the world today, that of
a. less effective church authority.
c. the welfare state.
d. the population explosion.
- Personality is a system of activities, orientations, and motivations with some internal cohesion. The infant is born
a. with potential for personality.
b. a person.
c. with nothing but a physical body.
d. somewhat socially developed.
- The small child's role is primarily that of
a. a passive member of society.
b. society adjusting to a new individual.
c. one being socialized.
d. one chafing under family authority.
- The more complex the society and the more differentiated the functions performed by the various systems of society
a. the less the family can be adaptive.
b. the less specialization there is apt to be.
c. the less the family is able through task performance to contribute to the skills necessary for the individual to maintain himself in society.
d. the more the family can contribute to necessary individual skills.
- Preparing the child to accept the rewards as well as the frustrations entailed in the proscriptions and prescriptions of society is in large measure the responsibility of
a. the peer group.
c. community agencies.
d. the family.
- 11. In a recent study it was found that while middle-class parents appear to be more attentive to the internal dynamics of their children, working-class parents
a. want the child to be ambitious.
b. feel their children should be religious.
c. value conformity to externally imposed standards.
d. want happiness.
- 12. Parents who are most apt to read what the experts say on child rearing, search for additional information and advice, and discuss child rearing practices with physicians, friends, teachers are
a. upper class.
b. middle class.
c. lower class.
d. all classes.
- 13. Growing out of behavioristic and Freudian theories of child care was the home seen as child-centered and the child's needs as paramount over those of father and mother. This approach to child training is the
a. humane one.
b. permissive approach.
c. democratic approach.
d. most accepted theory today.
- 14. The family in which individual members must be ready to adapt and change is person centered, and in which parents and children are flexible and worthy of attention from each other is
b. a family with a philosophy of self assertion.
c. a developmental family.
d. somewhat patriarchal.
- 15. The difficulties in child rearing are especially magnified in a society in a time of
c. too many laws and restrictions.
d. rapid social change.
- 16. In disciplining children, parents of both middle and working classes act on the basis of long range goals. Middle-class parents feel one must act according to the dictates of one's own principles; working-class parents
a. feel desirable behavior consists essentially of not violating proscriptions.
b. have the same goals.
c. leave the discipline to the father.
d. rely heavily on the school.
- 17. Community views against child beating are strong, and recent findings suggest that
a. beating is most uncommon today.
b. it is confined to a particular group and among those suffering from psychopathic personalities.
c. beating is not uncommon today.
d. child beating has decreased as modern theories of child raising have become known.
- 18. The fact that the median number of years in school for Americans gives testimony to the fact that education more and more is replacing kinship as the system having the responsibility for
a. socializing the child.
b. keeping the person in the family.
c. selecting a mate.
d. simple education.
- 19. The sphere of ethical and religious training of the child is not clearly assigned. According to the text
a. the home and school show much conflict over this.
b. the church makes a major impact on the views of the child.
c. parents dominate the teachers in their religious views.
d. the school has largely replaced the church as an ideological source.
- 20. The distinction between home and school is no longer considered feasible. Parents are actively enlisted for support by the school for without their support and cooperation
a. children do not do well in school.
b. legal difficulties arise.
c. school boards would become too autocratic.
d. the school would not be democratic.
TRUE OR FALSE QUESTIONS
- [F] Generally, it has been found that the decision to bear and rear children is characterized by impulsive action on the part of parents.
- [T] Women spacing their children at longer intervals have fewer children.
- [F] Contraceptives and information about them could be passed through the mails for the first time in 1900.
- [T] Only lately has the birth-control movement come to be generally regarded as respectable.
- [F] Welfare mothers want many illegitimate children so as to get larger welfare payments.
- [F] Studies show that lower-income families want more children than do higher-income families.
- [F] Differences between fertility rates of various religious groups are really socioeconomic differences.
- [T] Catholics educated in secular schools behave much like Protestants in their fertility behavior.
- [F] The ability to bring a baby successfully through the first year of life is a feminine characteristic with which all women are endowed.
- [F] The United States has the lowest infant mortality rate of any country in the world.
- [T] The birth of an infant to a marriage tends to usher in a stage of normlessness.
- [T] The infant's primary role in the family is that of being socialized.
- [F] Preparing the child to accept the rewards and frustrations of society is the responsibility of the community not the family
- [T] A rigid family value system makes socialization to society difficult.
- [F] The higher a mother's social status the more she values obedience rather than self-direction in her children.
- [T] The middle-class child lives in a parent-dominated world.
- [F] The advice on child rearing provided by experts over the decades has been pretty consistent.
- [T] Neither working mothers nor middle-class mothers are quick to use physical punishment in disciplining children.
- [T] As the children enter their teens, the father's disciplinary responsibility seems to increase, especially for boys.
- [T] Closely organized cooperation between home and school, of the kind that is found in America, is not common in most nations.
- Describe the growth of family planning.
Tell about the historical development.
Does it vary by classes?
Does religion play a part?
- Why is parent education necessary? What groups assist with this?
- Explain the socialization of the individual.
What factors assist in socialization?
What are the problems?
What are the different goals of the different classes?
- What are the various theories of child rearing?
- What part in socializing of the child does the school play today?
PART IV. THE FAMILY AND OTHER SOCIAL SYSTEMS
CHAPTER 8. THE FAMILY AND THE ECONOMY
MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS
- One factor in the decline in family control of large industries was
b. craft unions.
c. decline of the large family.
- Textiles, brewing, packing, chemicals, soap, newspapers, banking, and shipping are all examples of middle-sized industries that have been
a. family enterprises.
b. eroded by the government.
c. untouched by slavery.
d. involved in price fixing.
- The majority of family businesses today are not on a continuum with the corporation. They are vital in that they
a. engage in primary industry.
b. have the highest employment record.
c. are integrated.
d. service the economy.
- Contemporary America is characterized as big and bureaucratic in industry and government, and
a. the tendency is toward less concentration of power.
b. it has been suggested that it would be more efficient if the family would turn over some of its power to the government.
c. some feel that the family should assume more responsibility for producing goods.
d. the tendency is toward an even greater concentration of power in the corporation as small units are being consolidated into larger ones.
- There is no profit to be made from large-scale production unless
a. an efficient marketing system exists.
b. there is no unemployment.
c. there is more control by family enterprises.
d. the family asserts itself as an economic force, necessary to combat socialism.
- Since advertising has inclined toward domination of the communications media and exercised vast power to shape popular standards it has been criticized for being
a. a deterrent to prudent family financial planning.
b. lacking in understanding of the psychology of the consumer.
c. responsible for wars.
d. disinterested in the black consumer.
- In the interchange between the family and the economic system, a lack of responsibility and lack of inherent social purpose to balance social power has characterized
a. the government.
c. the advertising business.
d. the family.
- Although Americans have only about 6% of the world's population and only 7% of its land area they consume
a. one-third of the world's goods and services.
b. a small amount of luxuries.
c. less than their share.
d. little in comparison to India and China.
- Poverty which manifests itself as an island of poverty is called
a. insular poverty.
b. hereditary poverty.
c. family poverty.
d. black poverty.
- 10. To bring the poor families out of their state of poverty would require
a. taking goods and services away from others.
b. producing additional goods and services.
c. fostering class antagonism.
d. raising the general standard of living.
- 11. Movement representing change in status in the occupational system is called
a. physical or geographic mobility.
b. social mobility.
c. case mobility.
d. insular mobility.
- 12. America has an economic system that fosters social mobility of the worker. This implies
a. only upward mobility.
b. moving from town to town.
c. downward as well as upward mobility.
d. roles reserved for the executive class.
- 13. Men who are entrepreneurs (and not bureaucratic technicians) and have control of their own work schedules
a. have more leisure.
b. seem to become less interested in their work.
c. often work extremely long hours.
d. leave little time for other workers.
- 14. A life plan or career, fostering achievement, willingness to train, and a stable progression over the work life
a. does not materialize for most workers. Their work histories instead show various degrees of disorder.
b. is the usual pattern.
c. is only true of lower-class work histories.
d. can be had if the workers will show initiative.
- 15. Men who had orderly work careers were found to
a. establish fewer friendships.
b. contributed less to charities.
c. range widely in secondary attachments.
d. have few and weak community ties.
e. have stronger attachments to the local community.
- 16. Early training for independence related to high achievement motivation is most characteristic of
a. working-class families.
b. middle-class families.
c. especially bright children.
d. children from the middle of the U.S.
- 17. The successful businessman has in the majority of cases
a. made it on his own.
b. been greatly aided by influence of family background.
c. gone farther by not following the rules of middle-class morality.
d. has proven himself fittest in the struggle for success.
- 18. The high incidence of married women employed outside the home
a. has been usual throughout the history of our country.
b. has not brought financial rewards.
c. has proved to be a passing fad.
d. has continued to increase.
- 19. Factors responsible for women's entry into the labor force include
a. economic necessity.
b. technological advances.
c. smaller families.
d. the prestige it gives.
e. all of the above.
- 20. It has been found that the adolescent children of the part-time employed mother
a. have a better relationship with their parents.
b. are more delinquent.
c. are undisciplined.
d. are embarrassed.
- 21. The great increase in women working outside the home can be taken to mean
a. that women are finding their major functions to be outside the home.
b. that the number of mothers with small children is markedly decreased.
c. that they are playing a noncontinuously employed role; the primary female role continuing to be anchored in the home.
d. a major structural change in most women's lives.
TRUE OR FALSE QUESTIONS
- [F] The corporation is the least important of the organized, societal, bureaucratic structures.
- [T] Historically, a major function of the family has been the production of goods.
- [T] The corporation, not the family, has now become the responsible production entity in the economic system.
- [T] In many families, the total cost of an item becomes less significant than the monthly payments on it.
- [F] The person who is upwardly mobile in industry represents a major fraction of the population.
- [T] The family man who struggles to get ahead does so often at the expense of participation in family life.
- [F] Entrepreneurs and men in charge of their own work schedules have more leisure and work shorter hours than do other men.
- [T] The vast majority of the labor force has not been found to be progressing through a life career plan in an orderly way and can instead expect a work life of unpredictable ups and downs.
- [T] Unsatisfactory interpersonal relations in the family of orientation are significantly related to high aspiration levels.
- [F] It is a man's own genius rather than family influence and background which is important in his success.
- Discuss the relationship between the passing of family-controlled enterprises and the coming of the corporation.
- What are the effects on family budgets of the advertising business?
- What effect does married women working have on marriage, parent-child relationships, and the personal adjustments of the mother?
CHAPTER 9. FAMILY, CLASS, AND COMMUNITY
MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS
- A collectivity of families sharing a limited territorial area as a base for carrying out many of the activities of family members is called
a. a business.
b. a religious group.
c. a community.
- The sentiment of community solidarity without a spatial referent is called
- If the head of the house is to be free to move according to the demands of his occupational role
a. community commitments of family members must be tenuous.
b. it is better if his wife is also employed.
c. the affectional emphasis should be on the community rather than on his personal family.
d. the family need not be adaptive.
- When a householder has a clear choice between staying and moving, the most important factor impelling families to move has been found to be
a. integration of the schools.
b. poor city government.
c. crime in the community.
d. amount of space in the present dwelling.
- In upwardly mobile families, the factor far outweighing all other considerations in producing residential mobility is
a. expectation of upward social mobility.
- What effect does family mobility have upon those families who remain in the community? Its direct impact has been found to be
b. difficult to evaluate.
c. greater than the effects of family dismemberment.
- 7. The family's existence by and large is not threatened by changes in the population resident in its community. Organizations, however, prove quite sensitive to the existence of family mobility.
a. They are all hurt by it.
b. It proves beneficial in most cases.
c. It is either an asset or a problem depending on the activities and structures of the organization.
d. It has been found to be one of the greatest of modern day problems.
- Organizations largely exempt from the impact of family mobility are those
a. that are metropolitan-oriented organizations.
b. that are the small, neighborhood business type.
c. that have much interaction between clients.
d. that constitute social systems.
- Keeping up with community work has become one of the new imperatives of families. In this connection it can be said that
a. American society is relatively simple, and it is easy for all classes to be involved.
b. for decades there have been community activities available for all members of the family.
c. community centeredness is the favorite activity of the lower-class.
d. experience, intelligence, and education are necessary for the more complex levels of organization.
- 10. The people who enjoy home-centered leisure engage in most of it around their own residence. This style of life is stronger
a. in the upper middle class.
b. among welfare clients.
c. in integrated neighborhoods.
d. in the lower class.
- 11. Reasons why low-status people belong to relatively few associations include all but which of the following?
a. Their work leaves them with less free time.
b. Lack of money for membership.
c. There is less of a tendency to live on the surface, they are more concrete.
d. Interests and perspectives are limited.
- 12. The favorite leisure style of the upper middle class is
a. activity centered in the home.
b. activity centered in the church.
c. community centered.
d. being curtailed.
- 13. The reasons for women being initiators of social activities and participating in community organization is due to all but which of the following?
a. Man's time and energy are absorbed in his job.
b. Children draw a woman into many school, church, and club activities.
c. Part of the emancipation from domesticity.
d. Less serious cultivation of the humanitarian.
- 14. Advantaged-class parents are liberal in providing their children with associational activity. Their reasons include all but which of the following?
a. Generosity on the part of the parents.
b. That it is a way of ensuring the child's social status.
c. It is a way of forcing the child to organize his leisure rigidly.
d. It is a way of grooming him for later adult status in his kind of community.
- 15. Children's organizations contribute most to family disorganization and busyness; however, adults' motives for this busyness include all but which of the following?
a. To know their children better.
b. Desire to be good parents.
c. Desire to be good community members.
d. The belief that the more organizations of any kind a child is in the more he will succeed.
- 16. Residential suburbs are characterized by all but which of the following?
a. More of their population having completed high school.
b. More white-collar occupations.
c. Higher median family income.
d. Loss of population through migration.
e. Higher median rate of population increase.
- 17. Working-class people who move to the suburbs
a. take on the life style of the suburban middle class.
b. extend their own style of life to the suburbs.
c. increase formal associations drastically.
d. indulge in evening visiting often.
- 18. Family interchanges in the community can be a source of tension for parents. One way in which families control family-community interchange is by
a. educating their children for involvement.
b. integration of the family.
c. developing an affectional relationship.
d. isolating family members from the community as much as possible.
- 19. Studies of scientists, gifted children, and geniuses show that families of those who become exceptional
a. keep their children isolated from other children.
b. encourage more participation with other children.
c. deemphasize involvement with adults.
d. have very wide associations with a varied type of people.
- 20. If families regard the community as hostile to the interest of family members,
a. they have been found to still be democratic and not avoid those with less determination and education.
b. the family may be closed to interchange or selectivity opened to allow only proper interchanges.
c. they are helped by integration.
d. men more than women are a factor in producing an elite group.
TRUE OR FALSE QUESTIONS
- [T] The presence of local community within the city has been demonstrated as an empirical reality.
- [T] American society has been committed to the almost impossible ideal of horizontal and vertical mobility for everyone, with consequent insecurity and tension in society.
- [F] Mobility of families helps make for lack of uniformity of culture patterns across the nation.
- [T] There have never been so many people moving in so many different directions in America as today.
- [F] Young families with children are least likely to move.
- [T] Organizations within the community are more sensitive to residential mobility than are families.
- [F] The larger the area served, the more vulnerable an organization will be to residential mobility.
- [T] The more rigidly families use the "similar-friend" device the farther they go up the educational ladder.
- [F] Community centeredness is the favorite leisure-type activity of the lower class.
- [T] Low-status people belong to relatively few associations.
- [F] In advantaged classes it is the men who carry much of the responsibility for community activities.
- [T] Client-oriented organizations are not so strongly affected by mobility as are member-oriented organizations.
- [F] It is organizations for adults that contribute most to family disorganization.
- [F] All suburbs are characterized as places with special propensity for social life and community activity.
- [T] Isolation is a method by which so-called successful families maintain themselves in unfavorable community settings.
- Discuss reasons for mobility in America and the effects on family members.
- Discuss the types of community organizations that can best adjust to residential mobility and indicate why they are able to adjust.
- Discuss social-class differences in family-community interchange. Who engages in community activities and why? Women, children, men, and social status should all be considered in the discussion.
- Families of scientists, gifted children, and geniuses (families of those who become exceptional) keep their children isolated from other children. Why do they become exceptional? Will this pattern of isolation be a popular family pattern in the 1970s?
CHAPTER 10. FAMILY AND KIN
MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS
- A modified extended kinship system or kin network may serve as an alternative to the isolated nuclear family and more accurately describes the American kinship system. A kin network differs from a classical extended family in that it
a. is characterized only by geographical propinquity.
b. must involve kinship occupational involvement.
c. includes hierarchical authority in every case.
d. has an emphasis on kin family interchange as an end value.
- The typical household unit in America is
a. the isolated nuclear family.
b. the family of orientation.
d. involved in economically-productive activity.
- A peculiar set of temporal and accidental factors in each generation results in the formation of solid kin systems;
a. it is not a friendship relationship.
b. these go out of existence or change with the next generation.
c. it is a continuous, non-shifting structure.
d. it must be based on a prior kin structure.
- Family solidarity as nuclear family integration and family solidarity as kinship orientation are two kinds of family solidarity.
a. This is the same in both nuclear and kin networks.
b. Those showing high kinship orientation have been shown to be maladjusted.
c. Persons high in family integration are not necessarily high in kinship orientation.
d. Solidarity today is of decreasing value.
- The most intimate and solid relationship in the American kinship system is
a. based on economic factors.
b. the kinship system.
c. the marriage relationship.
d. unfortunately disappearing.
- The fact that an unmarried sibling is more likely to regard the kin relationship as "family" and not as "relative" can cause problems in that
a. the married siblings regard the relationship to the unmarried as "relative".
b. families tend to get too large.
c. it makes for poor organization.
d. parents always regard their children, married or unmarried, as "family".
- The high rate of mobility of the American people
a. does not permit kin interchange.
b. is a problem that must soon be solved.
c. is mostly an urban problem.
d. disperses kin.
- The most important determinant of frequency in interaction with a specific kin is the type of relationship and
a. distances between residences.
b. how much you like them.
c. the older you are the less you care for kinship interaction.
d. economic factors.
- 9. Persons with close family identification
a. are not likely to change residence.
b. are as likely as others to move for occupational reasons.
c. end up with more personal problems.
d. on the upswing of their career are not likely to move.
- 10. Kinsmen are less apt to object to a move on the part of a family member today than in the past for all but which of the following reasons?
a. It is best not to associate with relatives so much.
b. It is the accepted thing to do.
c. Technological improvements make it possible to keep in touch.
d. Affluence makes it easier to keep in touch.
- 11. With marriages occurring at young ages and with increased longevity, there is increasing overlap of generations. This overlap
a. has decreased in later years.
b. has resulted in the increasing popularity of multi-generation households.
c. provides a supportive base for continuity of family unity and traditions.
d. does not give proper recognition to the older members of the kin relationship.
- 12. Common residence is not an accepted feature of kin-family network relations in the United States. Young people are expected to break away from their parental families.
a. This is not good for the young and is the cause of much rebellion.
b. Therefore it is extremely uncommon for any kin to be found residing with the family.
c. When a three generation household is established it turns out to be of very long duration.
d. When the young do not break away from the family, it is looked upon as a failure, an unwarranted expression of dependency.
- 13. A home for kinsmen will more likely be provided by
a. success-oriented families.
b. tradition-oriented families.
c. the wealthy.
d. the educated.
- 14. The intrusion of the aged person as a functionless member of the family means that the structure of the system must be changed or he will be
b. in his usual primary role.
c. wielding too much authority.
d. economically destitute.
- 15. Being without status in a kin system is most noticed
a. by the mobile.
b. on holidays.
c. in the city.
d. by the success oriented.
- 16. Americans generally feel they have an obligation to keep in touch with their kin. According to empirical evidence
a. most do.
b. few feel it necessary.
c. only old folks feel that they should.
d. it depends on whether they like their relatives.
- 17. Membership in a kin family network means that an individual's status is enhanced or degraded according to
a. his ability.
b. the statuses and actions of other members.
c. his economic worth.
d. the value placed on his kin group by society as a whole.
- 18. The kin family network in the United States can have significant functions for the personalities of kin family members by providing
a. a secure, ascribed status on a widened basis.
b. a smaller unit than the nuclear family for intensive care.
c. a great status-conferring power.
d. social position based on ascription.
- 19. In times of disaster
a. kin are the major source to which victims turn for help.
b. victims prefer welfare agencies to kin.
c. unions and churches have been asked for aid before kin.
d. kin are the last resource that victims choose.
- In the American family each man is expected to succeed and support his family. There is no prestige in accepting support from kin.
a. Family members reflect this in that they do not care to admit to such support.
b. It shows that the nuclear family is not independent.
c. Socio-emotional and ritual activities are not discussed.
d. None-the-less kin freely admit to support and services from fellow kinsmen.
- 21. More kinsmen than not see
a. kin as more of a problem than help or pleasure.
b. the lack of a respectful attitude toward the integrity of the nuclear family.
c. the kin network as more functional than dysfunctional.
d. that it is necessary for the nuclear family to be isolated from kinsmen.
TRUE OR FALSE QUESTIONS
- [T] The functions of the kinship system in America are on behalf of nuclear families and more specifically on behalf of personalities.
- [T] The expressive nature of extended kin contact is clearly seen in the large family gatherings.
- [T] Without the greater concern of women for keeping in touch with kin, many kinships relationships would not be maintained.
- [F] It appears that the kin network is characterized more by dysfunction than by function.
- [T] The most commonly mentioned dysfunction in the kin relationship is competition and jealousy.
- [T] Concern over potential interference of relatives is one of the factors indicating a respectful attitude toward the privacy of the nuclear family.
- [F] The kinship system when compared with other systems in society is both structurally and functionally strong.
- [T] There is little direct articulation between the kin family network and other systems in American society.
- [T] Most families from the middle and working classes are involved in giving or receiving help from kinsmen.
- [F] In the upper-class families in the United States kinship relationships are not maintained to any extent.
- [F] Interest in kin decreases with age.
- [F] Since parents continue to think of their children as "family" and not as "relatives" and because of a heavy emphasis on marriage as a real bond, the children's spouses are regarded as in-laws and really are never assimilated.
- [F] Females favor their own kin and males favor theirs.
- [T] A primary reason for not seeing more of relatives is distance.
- [T] Significant changes in interaction of kin are related to family-cycle changes.
- [F] Multi-generation households are usually of long duration.
- [F] The brunt of redefining and clarifying role expectations for an older relative in the home, so that he can find his role satisfying, falls to the husband.
- Discuss problems of having the aged in the home--the multi-generation household.
- Discuss factors affecting kin relationships.
- What are the functions of the kinship system in contemporary American society?
- Is the kin network more functional or dysfunctional? What are some common complaints?
- Social class makes a difference in kin-family interchange. Elaborate.
CHAPTER 11. THE FAMILY AND SYSTEMS OF CONTROL
MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS
- In interchange with polity systems the family contributes loyalty in exchange for
b. financial support.
d. peace of mind.
- The history of western societies has evidenced an intervention of the state into the structure and activities of family life
a. less and less.
b. more in the good old days.
c. ever increasingly.
d. that is inconsistent with the goals and activities of a free society.
- Since coitus and reproduction are biological processes, completely effective control by the state
a. is necessary.
b. is reflected in bureaucracy.
c. would be communistic.
d. is not possible.
- Traditionally, under common law, the husband-wife relationship was defined by suspending the
a. legal personality of the wife.
b. affectionate element.
c. non-religious aspects.
d. responsibility of the children.
- In general, the disabilities imposed on the wife by traditional common law
a. are still pretty much in effect.
b. are becoming more severe.
c. are necessary because of the immaturity of women.
d. have been lessened through legislation.
- 6. The prevailing standard for awarding custody in child-custody cases is
a. preference of the mother.
b. purely a legal matter.
c. best interest of the child.
d. an economic matter.
- Although national goals affirm that the family is the heart of society, the goals of the major American systems--political, social, and economic
a. attest to an interest in enhancing the dignity of the individual.
b. have reflected the familistic emphasis.
c. have largely ignored the development of individualistic capabilities
d. have completely left out individual choice.
- The major religious groups are interested in a national family policy, but they
a. do not feel an important position should be given to the family in practice.
b. would likely not be able to agree on details of such a policy.
c. refuse to work on it.
d. feel it will come about without concerted effort by the churches.
- Complicating the formulation of a national family policy is the fact that although society is committed to the nuclear family as the only recognized system,
a. the government is not realistic.
b. social workers are oriented to individualism.
c. there is a diversity of family types within society.
d. divorce interferes.
- 10. Under the influence of the traditions of individualism and diversity of traditions, national planning for the family has taken a peculiar and uncertain course. Propositions guiding planning include all but which of the following?
a. If persons are served so will families be served.
b. Individualism must be served at all costs.
c. Family changes succeed best if they are part of other developments.
d. Change comes about as a direct response to specific issues.
- The law emphasizes the individuality of the persons making up the nuclear family, but there is a growing movement aimed at treating the family
a. on a still more individualistic basis.
b. less as a system.
c. in terms of new and popular national policy.
d. more as a unit and its problems as group problems.
- 12. The presence of three major religious groups, a multiplicity of denominations, and the American spirit of individualism work to
a. break down the religious particularity of American families.
b. increase state dominance.
c. make the church totally ineffective.
d. hinder integration.
- 13. In America, many view the church primarily as a bundle of activities--the same basic activities as other character-building organizations perform.
a. No families are willing to take a stand against this duplication of effort.
b. The church is not seen as teaching morality.
c. It is primarily an institutional view of the church that prevails.
d. The church is therefore on the way out.
- 14. A minimum of religiously-oriented families worship at home;
a. nor do they go to church.
b. but they read much church literature.
c. and youth are therefore concerned over their religious training.
d. but many of them go to church.
- 15. Parishioners show an interest in the pastor as counselor
a. over others from the helping professions.
b. only as a last resort.
c. if they are religious.
d. except where their youth are concerned.
- 16. Church-affiliated parents feel their awn authority over adolescents slipping away from them, and they
a. resist the church's efforts to correct this.
b. are glad to be able to discuss intimate problems with the pastor.
c. show interest in support from the church and from the pastor as a counselor.
d. feel the church has no interest.
- 17. The sociological aspect of the ideology which the church traditionally has accepted is the proposition that
a. the family is dependent on no other system.
b. there should be a national family policy.
c. the family is less important than the government.
d. the family is the basic unit of society.
- 18. That religious affiliation is related to difference in patterns of family life
a. is not true.
b. has been empirically demonstrated.
c. is being advocated.
d. has no practical consequences.
- 19. In America the care of persons is ultimately charged to
a. the kinship system.
b. the state.
c. the church.
d. the biological parents.
- 20. The dominant democratic political theory, laissez faire, the emancipation of women, the securance of the rights of children have been major contributions to the principle of
b. other social systems.
- 21. In our complex differentiated society the primary system charged with administrative function for social control is
a. the market.
b. the family.
c. the kinsmen.
d. the government.
TRUE OR FALSE QUESTIONS
- [T] The family cannot choose to disassociate itself from control by government and remain in the good graces of society.
- [T] Family law reflects the values of society.
- [T] Since family law is enacted by states rather than by the federal government, the statutes and their enforcement varies.
- [T] Development of American family law from 1850 to the present reflects the emergence of the married woman as a legal personality.
- [F] America's goals are stated in familistic rather than individualistic terms.
- [T] In recent years, there has been some departure from defense of the patriarchal family and more recognition of the family system as a democracy of equals.
- [T] Women manifest greater interest in the church than do men.
- [T] Students of religion and society see a tendency in America to regard faith in the American way of life as synonymous with religious faith.
- [F] Clergymen generally are of the opinion that their profession allows them to spend a great deal of time with their families.
- [F] The concern of the church for the family has diminished over the years.
- [T] According to empirical evidence, the Protestant church appears to treat the family as something of a competitor.
- Elaborate on the traditional common law husband-wife relationship.
- Why is national planning for the family referred to as sporadic and ineffective? How might it be improved?
- Why do many families consider the church a useful community resource?
- What do families consider to be the major criticism of the church's activities?
PART V. THE INDIVIDUAL AND SOCIO-SEXUAL SYSTEMS
CHAPTER 12. YOUTH, SOCIO-SEXUAL NORMS AND SYSTEMS: I
MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS
- A gradual transference of personal allegiance from the family to other systems is to be expected in a society
a. with a nuclear family system.
b. with a patriarchal base.
c. with a tradition of constitutional government.
d. that is not communistic.
- One major way adolescent girls cope with areas in which there is disagreement between peer and parental values is by
a. running away.
b. becoming a protester.
c. becoming secretive.
d. compensating through greater involvement in the academic aspects of the high school program.
- The adolescent's orientation is split between family of orientation and peers.
a. Choices involving group status tend to favor the judgment of peers.
b. Parents are chosen as guides even though it makes youth noticeably different from peers.
c. Youth do not choose parental guidance when it involves future adult-status positions.
d. Teachers rate highest as advisors.
- The rate of attenuation of parental attachment to youth as well as extent of attenuation
a. is not important to the life adjustment of boys or girls.
b. creates a distinct life style for the male.
c. is not affected by one's peers.
d. may reflect the sex of the offspring.
- Changes in the relationship between the sexes in regard to responsibility for the support of home and family have been in the direction of
- Teen-age society is comprised of youth of middle and upper class and is marked by distinctive clothing, cars, records, cosmetics, and is in many respects a society
a. that is impossible to understand.
b. that is totally irresponsible.
c. that is anarchist.
d. of the leisure class.
- The great majority of youth
a. behave in the conventional manner.
b. are rebellious.
c. are irresponsible.
d. do not put enough emphasis on school.
- Middle-class parents report that
a. a large percentage
d. the most popular
of their adolescents have passed through a stage which could be described as group dating.
- Dating that does not involve commitments, that brings peer recognition, that is a means of providing date security, is called
b. playing the field.
d. going steady.
- 10. Since American society does not provide an adult-supervised pattern that all single persons are expected to follow in passing from the single to the married state,
a. dating provides a way for the inexperienced in heterosexual relationships to gain experience.
b. the family introduces its youth to sexual companions.
c. there is no way to develop skills in interpersonal relations.
d. marriage must be arranged by other adults.
- 11. One of the major events in modern times that broke the silence on sex was
a. the papal encyclical.
b. the law allowing homosexuals to marry.
c. sex education in the elementary and secondary schools.
d. publication of the Kinsey report.
- 12. The individual has tended to be isolated in his sexual fears in American society and what the Kinsey report said to society as a whole was that
a. there was little variety in sexual conduct.
b. there was an almost universal involvement in sexual life.
c. there should be more suppression of folk knowledge.
d. most scientific surveys were unreliable.
- 13. Sexual asceticism was never without challenge from competing sex norms in America's history. The first organized challenge came
a. in the form of experimental communities over the United States.
b. in the first half of the 19th century in the form of isolated experimental communities.
c. too late in the 18th century to have much effect on people.
d. as romantic love became popular instead.
- 14. One manifestation of the sexual revolt of the 1920s was the full flowering of a folk belief in romantic love.
a. Romantic love and the Judaic-Christian tradition easily complemented each other.
b. The romantic model and Christian model of marriage support a strong conservative sex code.
c. The ideal of romantic love provided an antithesis to ascetic strains in the Judaic-Christian tradition.
d. America did not provide fertile soil for the romantic love concept to flourish.
- 15. Sexual behavior that brooks no legislation, or invocation of social sanctions against sex acts performed by responsible persons who do not use force or injure their partners, and who participate privately, would be sexual behavior from a liberal point of view.
a. Few sex acts would be considered to be illegal or illegitimate from this point of view.
b. This view is denounced roundly by responsible people.
c. Our present laws are necessary to curb such deviance.
d. This view is the cause of increased illegitimacy.
- 16. In studies comparing college girls and their mothers, the younger generation become involved with sexual activity
a. at an older age.
b. not as much.
c. at an earlier age.
d. more secretly.
- 17. In several studies of college girls and their mothers, regarding attitudes toward virginity at the time of marriage and intercourse during engagement, it was found that
a. girls and their mothers had the same attitudes.
b. the girls were significantly more permissive.
c. the mothers were more liberal.
d. low-income groups had changed the most over the years.
TRUE OR FALSE QUESTIONS
- [F] Boys from homes characterized as "friendly and cooperative" are not held in as high esteem by their classmates as are other boys.
- [T] Adolescents are more likely to accept their parents as models if the parents explain their rules of procedure and discipline.
- [F] Girls who most frequently choose peer-favored alternatives tend to be better accepted by their peers.
- [T] Adolescents want to avoid decisions that make them noticeably different from their peers.
- [F] It never works to try to avoid conflict with parents by being secretive.
- [T] Sons are given earlier and more opportunity for independent action than are daughters.
- [F] Youth society uses facilities primarily designed for youth society.
- [F] Today, nearly all boys and girls pass through a withdrawal period from each other before they begin to date.
- [F] The trend is toward beginning dating at older ages.
- [T] Those who seek status in the youth society must contend with group pressures to date.
- [T] Dating in the youth culture is a valued activity.
- [F] Every person has a wide repertory of personal qualities and the qualities that win favor are a matter of chance in the social life of teen-agers.
- [T] For a teen-ager, a mark of the highest status is acceptance into the leading crowd in high school.
- [T] Peers exert control over dates through their ability positively or negatively to influence a person's reputation.
- [F] Youth society operates free of the influences of adult society.
- [F] American law dealing with sexual behavior reflects a liberal public morality.
- [F] There is not much ignorance and sexual naïvete in American society because we live in a literate society.
- [T] A diversity of attitudes regarding sexual behavior is extant in America.
- [T] Liberal jurists assert that a rational code of sex offense laws is overdue.
- [F] Studies show that sexual satisfaction is not necessary to marital success.
- What is involved in the problem of attraction for youth in their interpersonal relations?
- Dating is a popular activity among youth. What values if any are gained from the experience?
- Elaborate on the various kinds of sexual revolutions in this country. What causes them to happen?
- What is the new morality?
- Is there actually a generation gap in sexual norms and behavior?
- Describe the kinds of facilities available for youth society. What problems do they create?
CHAPTER 13. YOUTH, SOCIO-SEXUAL NORMS AND SYSTEMS: II
- The incidence of illegitimate births is one of the empirical indicators of the incidence of sexual intercourse among teen-agers. It is an inadequate indicator, however, since no more than perhaps one pregnancy results from every 1,000 acts of intercourse. Aside from contraception a major reason for the low incidence is
a. adolescent sterility.
b. venereal disease.
c. secret abortions.
d. the rhythm method used by the young.
- For teen-agers affection in a sexual relationship is
a. not important.
b. purely an individual matter.
c. of great importance.
d. not part of the youthful experiential relationship.
- In a group of student respondents, it seemed to be the violation
of their own sexual standards rather than the extent of intimacy
a. mental illness.
b. parental disapproval.
c. legal problems.
d. guilt feelings.
- Evidence indicates that teen-agers on the whole are
a. lax in sexual morality.
b. wilder than those in their 20s.
c. conservative and responsible.
d. not in harmony with adult goals.
- During 1957-1965 the number of illegitimate births increased not because of an increase in the rate of illegitimacy but largely because
a. we were changing our morals.
b. the number of unmarried women in the population increased.
c. fewer abortions were performed.
d. statistics were not being properly interpreted.
- The marked differences in the illegitimacy rates between white and non-white is due in part to
a. the fact that the non-white have a higher proportion of more than one illegitimate birth.
b. the fact that a white woman is more likely to marry after pregnancy.
c. the fact that illegitimacy rates for the white have been going down.
d. the high rate among teen-agers.
e. a and b above.
- According to Kinsey and Reiss, changes in teen-age sexual behavior are more in the area of
a. an increase in sexual intercourse.
b. increased body fondling.
c. permissiveness without affection.
d. female aggression.
- Those daters most likely to accept only kissing as proper in dating are
a. under sixteen years of age.
b. older people.
c. very religious.
d. the "brains" in the student body.
- Bell and Blumberg attempted to determine the feelings about dating intimacy after the intimacy had occurred, and they found that
a. it was the parents who felt things had gone too far.
b. 54% of the females and 25% of the males felt that they had gone too far.
c. the couple in general thought it "was great."
d. the girls had overwhelming guilt feelings over their activity.
- 10. Among lower-status boys in American society, coitus before marriage is
a. considered boring.
b. a requirement for marriage.
c. severely sanctioned by parents.
d. relatively important in securing status within the peer system.
- 11. A major difference between lower- and middle-class females in respect to premarital intercourse is that lower-class girls are more apt to perceive of "sex as sex" while middle-class girls must justify sexual relationships as
a. wrong but necessary.
b. involving love.
c. only within marriage.
d. too strong a drive to resist.
- 12. It is not acts of sexual involvement that bring young people to the attention of their parents or legal authorities. It is
a. the consequences of these acts, pregnancy and venereal disease.
b. the laws against them.
d. the church.
- 13. Chances for a girl being labeled a sex delinquent are greater than for a boy because
a. girls are supposed to be nicer.
b. when taken into custody boys are seldom questioned about their sex activity or given as complete a physical examination.
c. boys don't get caught.
d. parents protect their boys.
- 14. As long as sexual involvement remains a private affair between an adolescent boy and girl,
a. society does little to find them out.
b. it is the parents' business.
c. it is hard to catch them and correct them.
d. it is the girl's responsibility.
- 15. Sex education is seen as a family function today. Because of the emotions involved
a. it has been found that parents do the best and most complete job.
b. parents are perhaps the last ones to help their children in this area.
c. the school cannot do it because of the bad morals it instills.
d. kids find out from whichever parent is willing to talk.
TRUE OR FALSE QUESTIONS
- [T] There is a continued rise in illegitimacy rates for young white women.
- [F] The highest rates of illegitimacy in the United States are found among teen-agers.
- [T] Studies show that responses of black students indicate greater sexual permissiveness than is true among white students.
- [T] There appears to be a change in sexual standards in the direction of greater permissiveness with increasing age of the participants.
- [F] Coitus plays a very important part in the activities of teen-agers today.
- [T] Age is a crucial factor in the extent of teen-age sexual intimacy.
- [F] Affection is a more important prerequisite for the boy indulging in sex play than for the girl.
- [F] There is not a double standard in teen-age sex culture as there is in adult sex culture.
- [F] The girl who is known to consent to premarital coitus with a variety of boys does not lose her reputation in teen society.
- [T] Young couples on dates are not chaperoned or supervised in any systematic way in America.
- [T] Most premarital coitus between adolescents occurs through mutual consent.
- [F] Youthful Americans now feel parents provide by example and precept the necessary sex instruction for a mature sexuality.
- What are the significant youth norms and behavior patterns today? Have they changed over the years, and are there differences between black and white?
- Are there social class differences in youth behavior? If so, what are they?
- Comment on parents as sex educators for youth.
CHAPTER 14. THE CHOICE OF A MATE
MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS
- In American society the person determines whether or not he will marry, when, whom he will marry, and the conditions. This helps to make marriage
a. a distinct social system.
b. a subsystem of the family.
c. formed by the kin network.
- In societies in which the person or group in authority in the kinship system decides when the single individual in the system shall marry, whom, and the conditions, marriage can be treated as a
a. separate social system.
b. subsystem of the family.
c. independent system.
- When the dating relationship between couple members becomes serious
and no longer primarily fun-oriented, society views the relation
a. with tolerance.
c. as a unit that must now be responsible to society.
- Because breach of promise suits (1) do not always provide adequate recompense, (2) have been subject to abuse, and (3) are used reluctantly by many persons,
a. they have fallen into disrepute.
b. they must be backed up by law.
c. they must be used with the whole family cooperating.
d. have been made legal in more and more states.
- Open interference of relatives in the choice of a marriage partner
for one of their kin is frowned upon in America as a violation of
b. one's God-given right.
c. common law.
d. the free expression of love feelings.
- Being in love is a sufficient cause for marriage: no other reason need be present or any other qualifications exist
a. according to the romantic tradition.
b. for the young.
c. among middle-class Americans.
d. except for the demonstrated ability of the male to provide a livelihood and the female to run the house.
- One place where happiness is expected to be found is in a love relationship in marriage with a chosen one,
a. but marriage is becoming less popular.
b. and to marry is a dominant life goal for Americans.
c. young people feel that it is society's fault and parent's fault if a suitable mate cannot be found.
d. however, a relatively large percentage do not marry.
- It has been found that the love relationship that leads to marriage is
a. in general the first serious relationship.
b. an immediate strong physical attraction.
c. often not the first serious love relationship.
d. the culmination of love at first sight.
- A courtship in which dating, going steady, falling in love, and becoming engaged are compressed into a very short span of time
a. does not often happen.
b. is a foolish way to fall in love.
c. reflects a more intellectual type of commitment.
d. is called a "telescoped" courtship.
- The term "mate selection" can be a poor choice of terms when applied to the American system, for instead of implying a process of building a human relationship over a period of time it implies
a. a simple act of choice or selection.
b. lack of love.
c. parental interference.
d. shopping around.
- 11. In a study of Jewish-Gentile courtship, it was found that a variety of factors contributed to the breakdown of resistance to such a relationship:
a. sympathetic friends.
b. one of the couple was willing to make concessions.
c. living away from home.
d. the boy felt in the beginning that he would not become emotionally involved.
e. all of the above.
- 12. One of the basic factors leading to dating in America is
a. that absence makes the heart grow fonder.
c. the parents willingness to help their offspring find dates.
- 13. A person may carry in his mind an idealized notion of the characteristics of the person he thinks he would like to marry. A majority of respondents feel this ideal important in selecting their mates.
a. But authorities on marriage think it should not be.
b. Many feel cheated as they did not find someone close to the ideal.
c. The ideal remains consistent throughout the years.
d. In reality mates are selected without regard to pre-existing ideal mate images. The ideal seems to change with each new relationship.
- 14. There is no reliable factual basis for determining nationwide trends in interfaith marriages because
a. people won't tell.
b. it is not important. It is a religious matter.
c. there have not been official statistics on the incidence.
d. there has been such a small incidence of interfaith marriages.
- 15. A formal engagement is commonly dispensed with among
a. the middle and upper classes.
b. the lower classes and those who remarry.
c. the church and religiously oriented people.
d. by men more than by women.
- 16. The significance of the act of engagement has changed. In the Judaic-Christian tradition, engagement was regarded as synonymous with commitment to marry. Now it is
a. faithfulness to one's vows
b. not much used any more.
c. sort of a testing period.
d. upheld only by the church in modern society.
- 17. Attempts have been made to delineate factors predictive of marital success.
a. The predictive quality of the measures is not especially reliable.
b. The factors are most significant and consequently of great use in counseling.
c. The samples were too small.
d. This has greatly raised the prestige of marriage counseling as a profession.
- 18. Authorities on marital prediction studies conclude that prediction of success in marriage based on current research findings
a. is not feasible within reasonable limits of reliability.
b. is a new and exciting approach to marriage adjustment.
c. is strongly resisted by youth.
d. has proved to be reliable and accurate.
- 19. There are strong sanctions against interfaith marriages
a. by law.
b. mostly in the south.
c. by Orthodox Jews and Roman Catholics.
d. among young adults.
- 20. Surveys of characteristics of persons who marry each other indicate that
a. opposites attract.
b. blonds tend to marry brunettes.
c. like is attracted to like.
d. there are no patterns.
TRUE OR FALSE QUESTIONS
- [T] Marriage as a social system largely separate from the family is a characteristic of the kinship structure in Western societies.
- [T] In societies in which the procreative and child-rearing function is regarded as the primary function of marriage, marriage is commonly a subsystem of the family.
- [F] In American society loyalty to one's family takes precedence over loyalty to one's spouse.
- [F] Open interference by kin in the choice of a mate is accepted as a matter of course in America.
- [F] The choice of a mate not approved by one's family of orientation is usually reflected in a poor adjustment with one's family of orientation.
- [T] The majority of engaged couples appear to intend to commit themselves to marriage without reservation.
- [F] Correlations between various factors delineated by behavioral scientists and marital success are high.
- [T] Common-sense prediction of marital success is nearly as accurate as are the predictions of the experts.
- [T] Ideal mate images may be resultant rather than determinant of mate selection.
- [T] Black-white marriages are increasing.
- [T] Cultural disparity and social prejudice have created problems for the interracially married and their children.
- [F] Catholic and Jewish religious groups have largely given up their strong sanctions against interracial marriage.
- [F] Engagement as a prelude to marriage is universally practiced in America.
- [F] Church and state support the idea of engagement as a firm commitment to marry.
- [F] Couples reported difficulty in knowing when they are in love.
- [T] As intimacy between a courting couple increases, traditional-type male-female behavior declines.
- [F] Timing is the most important factor in attraction of couples who later become engaged.
- Contrast modern dating norms and practices with those of the past.
- What is the nature of kinship influence on mate selection?
- What factors are related to mate selection?
- Discuss the future of interracial marriage.
- Comment on interfaith marriages; reasons for, church attitude, and parental influence.
- Contrast ideas of engagement past and present.
- Is marital-success prediction reliable?
CHAPTER 15. MARRIAGE
MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS
- Marriage is popular with Americans. It has
a. grown in popularity.
b. however, decreased in popularity lately.
c. involved older couples during the last few decades.
d. not been as prevalent among the younger couples today.
- Many couples find it possible to enact family roles and marriage roles without necessarily sacrificing the one for the other
a. by marrying late in life.
b. by voluntarily limiting family size.
c. by living with in-laws.
d. by marrying younger.
- In earlier times family members had to spend most of their working hours in economic pursuits and families were large. The possibility of elaborating marriage roles
a. was impossible except for the most resourceful.
b. was never considered in that day.
c. was advocated by the church.
d. made for happier marriages in that day.
- Since society makes few demands on marriage, the spouses can
a. take or leave marriage.
b. get more satisfaction outside of marriage.
c. develop their own patterns of interaction.
d. enlist many outside pressures to make it work.
- Marriage is affected by dependence on the environment, presence of children, relatives, in-laws, neighbors, occupation of spouse, school, church, and other conditions. Compared with the family
a. it must adjust to many more outside pressures.
b. it is an open system.
c. it cannot be satisfying in and of itself.
d. it is relatively independent of outside pressures.
- The majority of marriages in the U.S. are performed
a. by civil authorities.
b. in rural areas.
c. by a relative of the couple.
d. in the church.
- Before marriage could emerge as a separate system and remain a separate system
a. the laws had to be changed.
b. integration had to become more general.
c. reliable methods of conception control had to be developed.
d. the church had to change to be more in keeping with the general value system.
- The differentiation process that has led to the recognition of marriage as a social system apart from family has accompanied the emphasis on
a. serving society.
b. the economic.
c. personal freedom.
- Many societies have placed marriage on a level of expectancy that is unreasonably low. Americans have
a. followed suit.
b. an unreasonably high level of expectancy.
c. not expected anything but the reasonable.
d. tried to legislate happiness.
- 10. In our highly mobile society couples see marriage as
a. mostly unstable.
b. providing an enduring relationship.
c. becoming unnecessary.
d. an economic necessity for most.
- 11. There is a sharp separation of man's work and woman's work and play. Also couples do not appear to be dependent on each other emotionally
a. in the upper class.
b. among the educated.
c. in the city.
d. in the working and lower-income classes.
- 12. A strong case can be made for viewing marriage and family as separate systems
a. by referring to the sexual function.
b. by regarding emancipated families as the coming thing.
d. for the emotionally adjusted.
- 13. It has been felt that decline of segregation of the sexes as it has been occurring in America would reduce the erotic and romantic behavior of couples.
a. This has been generally true.
b. Interest in sex has increased instead.
c. it has caused a more limited sex role.
d. it has made women militant.
- Credited in part to the more frank attitudes, freer discussion of sex, to the scientific and clinical understanding of the biology and psychology of sex, and to increased premarital socio-sexual experience of young people is
a. better health and vitality.
b. an increased frigidity among the sexes.
c. a universal experience of orgasm now.
d. the marked reduction of frigidity in only four decades.
- 15. Much has been made of woman's declining domestic role. A marriage role that has been rapidly emerging is that of
b. community volunteer.
c. professional collaborator with husband.
d. the role of sexual playmate.
- 16. It is the male rather than the female who appears to be responsible for
a. deciding on the number of children.
b. deciding on birth control methods.
c. regularity of coitus.
- 17. Kinsey found a steady decline with age in the frequency of coitus in marriage which he attributed to
a. the romantic tradition in America.
b. the age of the female.
c. too early marriages.
d. the aging process in the male.
- 18. Patterns of marital sexuality among the lower classes suggest a
a. generally negative attitude toward wives' enjoyment of sexual relations.
b. developing close relationship between spouses.
c. view of sex as a duty.
d. high value placed on mutual sexual satisfaction.
- 19. Low-status and non-white wives are particularly plagued by
a. not getting out of the home enough.
b. sickness and financial problems.
c. lack of companionship.
d. restrictions in the caring for children.
- 20. The top ranking problem in having children, so far as college educated wives and families of high social status, seems to be
a. worry, and being homebound, unable to participate in outside activities.
c. how to teach children the values of money and property.
d. moral training.
TRUE OR FALSE QUESTIONS
- [F] Working-class fathers are inclined to relieve their wives of the burden of child care frequently.
- [T] Coitus as a core function of marriage receives statutory support.
- [T] A greater amount of orgasm among females is associated with more active sex play.
- [F] A decreasing number of females are reaching orgasm today.
- [F] The male, unlike the female, is not self conscious about his sexual image.
- [T] Among the lower classes there is a generally negative attitude toward a wife's enjoyment of sexual relations.
- [F] If a man is sexually potent he is not sterile.
- [F] Treatment of infertility is now easy because of artificial insemination.
- [F] It is not common for a couple to have a period of life together as a couple before having children.
- [T] Because of transfer of many functions previously performed in the home to other systems, more time is left for marital functions.
- [F] Society makes many demands upon marriage compared to the demands it makes upon family.
- [F] Most states permit solemnizing marriage before a clergyman.
- [F] Many American couples choose to remain a marriage and not become a family.
- [T] In the future, not bearing children may come to be positively sanctioned with rewards for infertility.
- [T] Few societies have relied on the emotive aspect of personality as the basis for establishing and maintaining a marriage.
- [F] It was found that women almost always take their troubles to their husbands.
- [T] Sterile couples are in the minority.
- [F] Sterilization procedures have become less popular as a conception control method.
- [T] In general marriages that are childless are not childless by choice.
- What are some of the goals of marriage?
- Contrast marriage and family as separate social systems.
- How do working-class and middle-class marriages differ?
- What functions previously engaged in by husbands and wives are now carried out by other social systems?
PART VI. CRISES AND THEIR RESOLUTION
CHAPTER 16. MARRIAGE CRISES
MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS
- Similarity in age appears to be positively associated with marital accord. The very young, those under twenty years of age,
a. are overrepresented in the divorce statistics.
b. had marriages of longer duration.
c. were engaged longer.
d. tend to marry a much older mate.
- Marriages which ultimately end in divorce and are subject to earlier termination are the ones
a. in which the couple married too soon.
b. reporting sexual maladjustment.
c. troubled with in-laws.
d. that did not have the ceremony performed in the church.
- The professional classes contribute somewhat less than their proportion of divorces. These classes may not appear in the divorced categories because
a. they marry younger.
b. they are more accepting of conflict in marriage.
c. education makes sublimation fairly easy.
d. they have a greater likelihood of remarriage.
- A monogamous marriage is a unique social system; its membership being limited to only two adults and limited to their life spans. Compared to other social systems,
a. monogamous marriage is relatively short lived.
b. monogamy is the least desirable form of marriage.
c. marriage is enduring.
d. marriage is increasing in popularity.
- Marriage is a system of process;
a. therefore the accumulation of wisdom and knowledge is shared.
b. it benefits less from experience than do most social systems.
c. it goes through constantly repeatable cyclical phases.
d. members learn much from each passing phase.
- A progressive loss of satisfaction in marriage appears to be a consequence of the passage of time and is referred to as
b. sociological enrichment.
d. lack of reality.
- The first months of marriage are characterized by a high degree of euphoria. The ideal would be to
a. continue to live at this high emotional pitch.
b. repress conflicts so women would not become so disenchanted.
c. accept the fact that euphoria must subside.
d. accept the fact that conflicts in the love relationship strengthen the marriage.
- Pineo found a general drop in marital satisfaction and adjustment
a. among the upper classes.
b. in the middle years.
c. among those who married late.
d. when there were children.
- Once the preschool stage of dependency is passed, declining satisfaction characterizes each succeeding stage in the family-life cycle.
a. Not having children solves this problem.
b. This is helped by the increase in intimacy in later years.
c. The lessened enthusiasm is at least in part offset by deepened habituation.
d. In most cases it could end only in divorce or separation.
- 10. Middle-aged husbands and wives seldom find as much satisfaction in each other as younger couples do. They may find satisfaction
a. outside of marriage (friends, employment, children, etc.)
b. in a new development--group marriage.
c. by pepping things up with wife swapping.
d. by deciding on divorce in the majority of cases.
- 11. Marriages characterized by disorganization, breakdown of interaction patterns of the spouses, and disenchantment
a. all disintegrate.
b. are often maintained intact.
c. are characterized by too short engagement periods.
d. are generally being terminated so the partners can marry again.
- 12. Chronic marital failure appears to damage most severely
c. the community.
d. close relatives or kinsmen.
- 13. Disorganized but intact marriages result in
a. personal disorganization of the partners.
b. a little conflict but basically a possible adjustment.
c. a "cross" that the partners should be willing to bear.
d. rewards in more emotional maturity.
- 14. Often extramarital activities lead to the development of emotional attachments that interfere with the relationship with the spouse. It has been found that being able to carry on satisfactory emotional relationships with two or more partners simultaneously
a. could be done easily by the male.
b. is a coming modern trend.
c. is something which few of either sex find possible.
d. is now condoned by society.
- In most marriages that terminate in divorce, there is a period of separation of varied length preceding the divorce.
a. This is a help in getting couples back together again.
b. This often ends up as a period of promiscuity.
c. Couples who separate in less prosperous times obtain their divorces in the period of prosperity.
d. This has grown longer over the years.
- 16. Persons who are not legally separated by divorce, annulment, or separate maintenance proceedings are commonly referred to as
a. desertion cases.
b. welfare cases.
c. bad risks.
d. child deserters.
- 17. In some societies the divorced person is taken back into his family of orientation.
a. American society has clearly defined norms for relating to the divorced person.
b. In America, kinsfolk know what to do and take over.
c. The clear and defined new status of the divorced person is recognized.
d. American society has no clear cut patterns for reabsorbing the divorced person into other groups in society.
- 18. The high divorce rate does not in itself indicate an unstable society if large numbers of the divorced
a. do not marry again.
b. remarry successfully.
c. are older.
d. see marriage counselors.
- 19. It has been found that a divorced woman's
a. associates and friends
c. future husband
are not really interested in her divorce problems.
- 20. The results of a number of studies indicate a direct relationship between excessive drinking and
a. the incidence of divorce.
b. sloppy housekeeping.
c. age at marriage.
d. amount of mobility.
TRUE OR FALSE QUESTIONS
- [F] Tension in marriage usually develops late in the relationship.
- [F] Sociologically, there is an enrichment in a three person group and therefore an offspring could not be treated as an interloper by a married couple.
- [T] Men appear to suffer more disenchantment in the early years of marriage than women.
- [T] Men are more inclined to break the engagement if they have doubts about the relationship than are women.
- [T] With the loss of intimacy in later years of marriage, more couples report that they are lonely.
- [F] The majority of married persons do not go through life with their original spouse.
- [T] Disorganized but intact marriages result in personal disorganization of the partners.
- [F] Divorce rates generally decline during periods of prosperity.
- [F] The states with the highest divorce rates are in New England.
- [F] Urban communities have the lowest percentage of divorced persons.
- [T] There has been a significant decrease in the duration of marriage prior to divorce in the past fifty years.
- [T] There is a lack of uniformity of divorce statutes from state to state.
- [F] Adultery is the most common ground reported for divorce.
- [F] A short engagement is characteristic of happily-married couples.
- [F] Pregnancy resolves some of the sexual conflicts between a married couple and makes divorce less likely.
- [T] The most frequent complaint in marriages terminating after a short duration is sexual maladjustment.
- [F] There is little or no relationship between excessive drinking and divorce.
- [F] Men can expect to outlive their wives.
- [F] Divorced persons are usually favorably disposed toward their ex-spouses.
- [F] Few divorced persons remarry.
- [F] Remarriages are less likely to end in divorce than are first marriages.
- Describe and explain tension management in marriage.
- Why is parenthood a crisis for a married couple?
- What is disenchantment? Is it inevitable?
- Explain the real and the stated grounds for divorce. Why aren't they the same?
- Elaborate on the causes of divorce.
- Comment on the relationship between personal adjustment and marital adjustment. Are they the same thing?
CHAPTER 17. FAMILY CRISES
MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS
- In high problem families, it has been found that the women consider as problems mostly
b. housing problems.
d. women's rights.
e. b and c above.
- Most family crisis situations of any severity involve
a. divorced members.
c. the church.
d. children born out of wedlock.
- The increase in manless households since the turn of the century is due to
a. women's longevity.
b. the number of divorces involving children.
c. increase in number of children born out of wedlock.
d. the phenomenal growth in strength of the women's liberation movement.
e. all but d above.
- Families differ in their capacity to adjust to crisis situations.
a. Working-class families are more successful than middle-class families.
b. Religious families are usually adequate.
c. Some families are crisis prone.
d. Some families just never have any good luck.
- Since the nuclear family rather than the kinship system is the major responsible family system in America, there is no assurance of kin-protection and support if the nuclear family fails to function properly.
a. This is the reason for orphanages.
b. Social security remedies most of the problem.
c. The state takes responsibility for supervising placement of children, for instance.
d. So the church has to take over.
- It is considered increasingly important in placing children for adoption
a. to match physical characteristics to prospective parents.
b. that the child be normal and healthy in every respect.
c. that the children of various races be placed in homes of similar race.
d. that agencies be willing to take greater risks to increase number of adoptive placement
- Child-caring institutions have concentrated mostly on shelter, custody, and the child's adjustment to routines. During the last decade
a. case-work services have been added in many institutions.
b. institutions have been expanded and considered more ideal.
c. studies have shown children adjust very well to this form of care.
d. it has been found they make good boarding schools.
- One way of relieving overwhelmed and overburdened mothers of the care of their preschool children during the day has been traditionally through
a. foster home placement.
b. day nurseries.
c. housekeeper service.
d. reducing the father's work day.
- Created in 1912 with a mandate from the Congress to investigate and report upon all matters pertaining to the welfare of children among all classes of people was the
a. Family Life Congress.
b. Welfare Department.
c. Federal Bureau of Investigation.
d. Children's Bureau.
- 10. The Social Security Act provided for
a. better education.
b. employment and social insurance.
c. life insurance.
d. federal grants-in-aid to states for public assistance.
e. b and d above.
- 11. Family assistance programs available to needy persons and families under public assistance programs attempt to provide a substantial contribution to
a. an independent spirit by restrictive measures making welfare not so comfortable to live off.
b. only those who have proven themselves worthy of help.
c. the welfare state.
d. the stability of the family.
- 12. Many families plagued by unemployment, illness, death of the breadwinner, may not need casework services, but it has been shown
a. they are always hopelessly inadequate families.
b. that there is not much to do with them except require them to help themselves for a change.
c. they may be adequate families needing only the temporary resource of public assistance to manage.
d. that they are always the uneducated.
- 13. In many families the father is absent or incapacitated or economically needy. The unit has been sustained as a family through a program especially designed for this purpose, known as
a. The Neighborhood League.
b. concerned Christians.
c. Aid to Families of Dependent Children.
d. Civil Service.
e. The Red Cross.
- Casework in a family agency intends to contribute to harmonious family relationships and promote healthy personality development. Its focus is
a. on the family as a system.
b. not enough on individual needs.
c. mostly granting relief.
d. community rather than family centered.
- 15. A major, basic problem for a supportive private family social agency has been
a. government interference.
b. community antagonism.
c. lack of cooperation of families.
d. lack of professionally-trained caseworkers.
- 16. It has been found that a small percentage of families take a disproportionately large share of social welfare services and they have a high concentration of problems. In order to treat these families it is recognized today that
a. family members must be first of all impressed with the need to stand on their own feet and stop using the community for their support.
b. the approach needs to be family-oriented with work centered on the whole family in its total situation.
c. each separate problem must be dealt with promptly as it comes to the attention of the agencies.
d. each malfunctioning individual needs more attention than the family as a unit needs.
- 17. A private social agency which attempts to help continue the family as a working system is called
- 18. When either the values or roles in marriage are in conflict or in a state of tension
a. children become more independent.
b. the development of patterns of consistent child raising are inhibited.
c. the couple always get divorced.
d. the community takes over.
- 19. Studies have shown that adolescents from broken homes may have
a. better adjustment
b. more psychosomatic difficulties
c. more delinquent behavior
d. more long range problems
than do children in disorganized unbroken homes.
TRUE OR FALSE QUESTIONS
- [F] Most families are free of tension and crisis.
- [T] Problem families are usually characterized by more than one area of tension.
- [F] The number of children born out of wedlock has decreased.
- [T] An upturn in economic and social status may constitute a family crisis.
- [F] Capacity to adjust to crises is pretty equal among families.
- [F] If the nuclear family is non-functioning, the kin network usually takes over.
- [F] Adoptions of children have decreased in the United States.
- [F] There are adequate day-care centers for all children in this country who need them.
- [F] Public assistance is provided through a number of programs administered from the Federal government.
- [F] The focus of casework in a family agency is on the individual.
- [T] Voluntary social agencies have developed a technical interest in the psychology of the person.
- [T] A small percentage of families take a disproportionately large share of welfare services.
- [T] The Cooperative Extension Service is a program of service to families.
- [F] The war on poverty is a war solely on economic deprivation.
- [F] Children are the factor that makes the difference between families that remain stable and those that end in divorce.
- [F] Disorganized marriages result always in disorganized families.
- [F] That kin will help with the care of children of divorced parents can generally be taken for granted.
- List problems that families are prone to have.
- What part can family welfare services play in family crises?
- What is the nature of present thinking on adoptions?
- What types of child welfare services are most valuable for the care of young children?
- Elaborate on the services available to the family as a system.
- What are settlements and neighborhood centers? What services do they perform?
- What effects do family and marriage crises have on each other?
PART VII. CONCLUSION
CHAPTER 18. FAMILY IN SOCIETY: RETROSPECT AND PROSPECT
MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS
- In the process of differentiation and specialization
a. the autonomy of setting its own standards
b. the socialization of its members
c. the function of being an economic consuming unit
d. its adaptive role
has been removed as a family function.
- The family to a greater extent than other major social systems facilitates social change by
a. its organizational structure and representative voice.
c. being a dominant social system.
d. resisting changes initiated by others.
- Other social systems respond to the changing needs and demands of the family, and the family can be selective in its adaptations. In other words between other social systems and the family there is
a. lack of dominance.
b. resistance to change.
c. reciprocal adaptation.
d. a redistribution of roles.
- In American society families have had the exclusive right to the basic root function of socializing children. In preparing children for life in society children need flexibility in adjusting to collective living. There is some feeling that
a. this is done well by the family.
b. socialization of the child as a parental function has been overemphasized.
c. that this could be better done by another system.
d. it is individualism that counts.
- Behavior in the family is often less determined by present situations than by what family members anticipate and desire.
a. Low-class families, particularly, plan to change their situations.
b. But it is not as prevalent now as it was in the past century.
c. Planning for the future is a general characteristic particularly of middle-class families.
d. But this is difficult in our rigid society.
- Marriage has come more and more to be regarded as a relationship based on affection and companionship between consenting adults
a. and less legal.
b. and the individuals are free to experiment at will.
c. and less on the responsibility of bearing and rearing children.
d. but deteriorating because of the new morality.
- The possibility of concentrating on the affectional and companionship features of marriage is made more possible because
a. of early marriage and small family size.
b. women working.
c. of the resurgence of the romantic love tradition.
d. of government welfare aid eliminating worry over an uncertain future.
- The sanctioning of sexual intimacy seems
a. more likely to be
b. to be a past issue and
c. to be part of society's disorganization and
d. less likely to be
a dominating factor in the decision to marry in the future.
TRUE OR FALSE QUESTIONS
- [T] As society has experienced change in structure and function so has the family.
- [F] It is true that the family is gradually disintegrating.
- [F] The family is a dominant social system initiating change.
- [T] The family is aided in its functioning to the extent that other social systems respond to the changing needs and demands of the family.
- [F] The trends in form and functioning of families in industrialized countries throughout the world are quite different.
- [F] The exclusive socialization of the child as a parental function cannot be over-emphasized.
- [F] Sexual permissiveness outside of marriage is generally condoned by American society.
- How has the family survived the rapid emergence of America as a complex society? What functions has it lost and what functions has it retained?
- Explain reciprocal adaptation of society and family.
- What should the family's main function be today? In the future?
- Comment on R. Hill's three generational study. How did the generations change? In what areas?
- Elaborate on modern sex expression. Does it differ from the past? What might be the attitudes and behavior patterns of the future?
Floyd M. Martinson