Library 4

Found 404 results

Journal Article
Reuters; Losing virginity early or late tied to health risks; American Journal of Public Health, Dec 04 2007
NEW YORK (Reuters Health) - People who start having sex at a younger or older than average age appear to be at greater risk of developing sexual health problems later in life, a new study suggests.
The findings, according to researchers, cast some doubts on the benefits of abstinence-only sexual education that has been introduced in U.S.public schools.
Walter, Peter Fritz; Love or Laws: When Law Punishes Life; Essays on Law, Policy and Psychiatry; 4,
Love or Laws: When Law Punishes Life (Essays on Law, Policy and Psychiatry, Vol. 4, 2018) is a study on so-called ‘sex laws’ or age-of-consent laws. The study takes a critical point of departure and attempts to demonstrate that ages of consent are rather arbitrary legal instruments for so-called child protection. In fact, they are ineffective and do not protect children effectively against sexual abuse. [...]
The essays sets out to propose an altogether different solution: a love reform instead of a law reform, which means a different way of looking at the problem.
[...] With links to PDF and paper edition of the book
Tromovitch, Philip; Manufacturing Mental Disorder by Pathologizing Erotic Age Orientation; Archives of Sexual Behavior; 2008(Publishe on line), , Oct 16 2008
Regrettably, [...]Blanchard et al. [2008] did not merely report on their research and draw appropriate conclusions. Instead, they recommended a potentially dramatic expansion or addition to the DSM diagnostic categories of mental disorders without any evidence or reasoning that those who would be newly included under the mental disorder rubric can be properly categorized as mentally disordered.

Blanchard et al. did not define mental disorder. They did not measure mental disorder. They did not examine associations with mental disorder. They did not provide reasoning that leads to a conclusion of mental disorder.
Cowburn, Malcolm, & Dominelli Lena; Masking hegemonic masculinity: reconstructing the paedophile as the dangerous stranger; British journal of social work; 31(3), 399-414
In this article we argue that the current social construction of ‘the paedophile’ creates a media-orchestrated ‘moral panic’ that masks hegemonic masculinity and diverts attention from the extensive variety of forms of sexual abuse perpetrated upon women and children that take place in both the private and public domains.
Fitzpatrick, Michael; The memories linger on; LM
Dr Michael Fitzpatrick asks why the professional reaction against this psychotherapeutic irrationality has been so slow and so muted.
The Brandon report is widely regarded as the final nail in the coffin of the recovered memory movement. Published in April this year in the form of an article: 'Recovered memories of child sexual abuse: implications for clinical practice', British Journal of Psychiatry, 172, S Brandon, J Boakes, D Glazer and R Green, the committee chaired by professor Sydney Brandon is categorical in its condemnation of the theory and practice of the movement.
Brandon's conclusion is that 'there is no evidence to support the wholesale forgetting of repeated experiences of abuse, nor of single episodes of brutality or sadistic assault, apart from the normal experience of infantile amnesia'.
[...]
The Brandon report notes that a significant proportion of abused children grow up to become well-adjusted adults, and that there is no evidence that childhood abuse leads to any specific pattern of symptoms in adults, or that recovering memories of abuse helps to alleviate such symptoms (indeed there is much evidence to the contrary).
Furthermore, the report insists that 'no evidence exists for the repression and recovery of verified, severely traumatic events, and their role in symptom formation has yet to be proved'.
Otgaar, Henry, Houben Sanne T. L., Rassin Eric, & Merkelbach Harald; Memory and Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing Therapy ...; Memory; August 2021,
Does Eye Movement and Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) therapy affect the accuracy of memories? This recurrent issue in recent memory research bears relevance to expert witness work in the courtroom. In this review, we will argue that several crucial aspects of EMDR may be detrimental to memory.
Bailey, Michael J.; Michael Jackson’s Dangerous Liaisons - Review; Archives of Sexual Behavior
This is an unusual book, especially for review in an academic journal. Its subject is pop icon Michael Jackson, one of the most famous, talented, and financially successful entertainers of all time — and also one of the strangest. Specifically, the book focuses on Jackson’s interest in children, and whether that interest was sexual in nature. The author, Tom O’Carroll (under the pseudonym ‘‘Carl Toms’’), is himself an unapologetic pedophile, and his pedophilia has influenced both his insight into Jackson and his aspirations for the book. [... ... ...]
This book is fascinating, challenging, and discomfiting. Anyone wanting to understand Michael Jackson will need to read it. [...] It certainly illuminates the most controversial aspect of Jackson’s life, one that was surely important to Jackson. [..]
Dangerous Liaisons is also worth reading for the challenges it raises regarding pedophilic relationships and their consequences. I suspect O’Carroll believes that this is a suitable tribute to Michael Jackson’s unfinished life.
Fazio, Rachel L., Dyshniku Fiona, Murray Michelle E., Lykins Amy D., & Cantor James M.; Minor Physical Anomalies as a Window into the Prenatal Origins of Pedophilia; Archives of Sexual Behavior; 2015(564), , Jun 10 2015
Evidence is steadily accumulating to support a neurodevelopmental basis for pedophilia. This includes increased incidence of non-right-handedness, which is a result primarily of prenatal neural development and solidified very early in life. Minor physical anomalies (MPAs; superficial deviations from typical morphological development, such as un-detached earlobes) also develop only prenatally, suggesting them as another potential marker of atypical physiological development during the prenatal period among pedophiles.

This study administered the Waldrop Physical Anomaly Scale to assess the prevalence of MPAs in a clinical sample of men referred for assessment following a sexual assault, or another illegal or clinically significant sexual behavior.

Significant associations emerged between MPA indices and indicators of pedophilia, including penile responses to depictions of children, number of child victims, and possession of child pornography. Moreover, greater sexual attraction to children was associated with an elevated craniofacial-to-peripheral anomalies ratio. The overall sample demonstrated a greater number of MPAs relative to prior samples of individuals with schizophrenia as well as to healthy controls.
Walter, Peter Fritz; Minotaur Unveiled: The Truncated Account of Adult-Child Erotic Attraction; Essays on Law, Policy and Psychiatry; 5,
Minotaur Unveiled: The Truncated Account of Adult-Child Erotic Attraction (Essays on Law, Policy and Psychiatry, Vol. 5) — 2019 Apple Books Edition — is a historical assessment of adult-child sexual relations as they are to be found not only in historical and forensic literature, but also in the poetic writings of many famous authors around the world. [...]
The study establishes a basis for the view that adult-child sexual interaction is a universal phenomenon that passes over cultural and epochal borders. [...]
Sadly, many of those adult-child sexual relations were and are the result of social and moral corruption and have to be called abusive and exploitative.
The article gives links to the PDF edition and the paperback edition of the book.
Underwager, Ralph, & Wakefield Hollida; Misinterpretation of a Primary Prevention Effort; Child Abuse Accusations, 6(2), 96-107. (1994).; 1994(6(2), ), 96-107., Jan 01 1994
In 1990, Ralph Underwager and Hollida Wakefield gave an interview to the editor of Paidika, The Journal of Paedophilia, a scholarly journal published in Holland. The interview was published in 1993.
Since that time, statements from the interview have been taken out-of-context and misinterpreted as indicating that RU and HW approve of pedophilia and child sexual abuse.
Here, they respond to these criticisms and accusations.
The authors add an Appendix: A Proposal: Primary Prevention Program for Child Sexual Abuse.
Parker-Pope, Tara; The Myth of Rampant Teenage Promiscuity; New York Times, Jan 27 2009
The myth of the rampant teenage promiscuity is simply not true. Teens are more conservative now, less busy with sex, and far more careful in preventing unwanted births. In the long term, those births are lessened. Frequently, oral sex replaces genital sex.
Fedoroff, Paul J., & Moran Beverley; Myths and misconceptions about sex offenders.; The Canadian Journal of Human Sexuality.; 6(4), , Sep 01 1997
One of the clearest articles addressing the current sad state of affairs regarding valid research on the topic of pedophilia.

Individuals who commit sex crimes present problems for everyone who deals with or is affected by them. Among those who commit such crimes, some are caught, some are convicted, and some are eventually sent to mental health care providers. Although many are never caught and never get help, a growing number seek help through such avenues as: self-help groups like Sex and Love Addicts Anonymous; chat-rooms on the internet; reading books and watching afternoon talk shows; or presenting with vague or unusual complaints (e.g., "Doc, I think I like sex too much"). They are, by definition, criminal and they are always in hiding, despised even by other criminals. They are the subject of increasing media attention which is at once salacious, superficially probing, and almost universally condemning. Victims of sex crimes have become increasingly vocal and have lobbied for the attention of politicians who, in turn, have become convinced that sex crimes are a new epidemic which cries out for corrective legislative countermeasures.
With so many powerful interest groups converging on the issue of sex offenders and what to do with them, it is important that the scientific community be sure of what it is saying. It is important that mental health experts make clear how much of what they are saying is opinion and how much is known scientifically. When a statement is communicated as a fact, it is important that the reasons for believing it and the limitations of evidence supporting the "fact" be stated.
The topic of treatment of sex offenders is a "hot potato" that, if not handled correctly, will damage the reputation of the mental health field. Unfortunately, this is among the most complex, controversial, and political topics faced by mental health care professionals. There seems to be something about sex that makes even scientists stop thinking logically.
[...]
Statements that are poorly supported by the scientific literature are made daily about the nature of sex offenders, even by experts. The purpose of this paper is to alert those who deal with sexual offences and sex offenders to some common assumptions that are poorly supported by scientific evidence.
Tenbergen, Gilian, Wittfoth Matthias, Frieling Helge, Ponseti Jorge, Walter Martin, Walter Henrik, et al.; The Neurobiology and Psychology of Pedophilia: Recent Advances and Challenges; Frontiers in Human Neuroscience; 2015(9), 344, Jun 24 2015
A pedophilic disorder is recognized for its impairment to the individual and for the harm it may cause to others. Pedophilia is often considered a side issue and research into the nature of pedophilia is delayed in comparison to research into other psychiatric disorders.
However, with the increasing use of neuro-imaging techniques, such as functional and structural magnetic resonance imaging (sMRI, fMRI), together with neurop-sychological studies, we are increasing our knowledge of predisposing and accompanying factors contributing to pedophilia development.
At the same time, we are faced with methodological challenges, such as group differences between studies, including age, intelligence, and comorbidities, together with a lack of careful assessment and control of child sexual abuse.
Having this in mind, this review highlights the most important studies investigating pedophilia, with a strong emphasis on (neuro-) biological studies, combined with a brief explanation of research into normal human sexuality.
We focus on some of the recent theories on the etiology of pedophilia such as the concept of a general neuro-developmental disorder and/or alterations of structure and function in frontal, temporal, and limbic brain areas.
With this approach, we aim to not only provide an update and overview but also a framework for future research and to address one of the most significant questions of how pedophilia may be explained by neurobiological and developmental alterations.
The chosen format is here (on Ipce): Quotes and summaries from this article.
McNally, Richard J., & Geraerts Elke; A New Solution to the Recovered Memory Debate; Perspectives on Psychological Science 2009; 4(2), 126-134
The controversy regarding recovered memories of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) has been characterized by two perspectives.
[1] According to one perspective, some people repress their memories of abuse because these experiences have been so emotionally traumatic, and they become capable of recalling the CSA only when it is psychologically safe to do so many years later.
[2] According to the other perspective, many reports of recovered memories of sexual abuse are false memories, often inadvertently fostered by therapists.

In this article, we provide evidence for a third interpretation that applies to a subset of people reporting recollections of CSA; it does not require the concepts of repression, trauma, or false memory. These people did not experience their CSA as traumatic; they either failed to think about their abuse for years or forgot their previous recollections, and they recalled their CSA spontaneously after encountering reminders outside of psychotherapy. Their recovered memories are corroborated at the same rate as those of people who never forgot their abuse. Hence, recalling CSA after many years is not the same thing as having recalled a previously repressed memory of trauma.
Cantor, James M., & McPhail Ian V.; Non-offending Pedophiles; Current Sexual Health Reports; 8(3, september 2016; on line May 2016), 121-128
Non-offending pedophiles are a unique population of individuals who experience sexual interest in children, but despite common misperceptions, have neither had sexual contact with a child nor have accessed illegal child sexual exploitation material.
An emerging body of research has examined the prevalence of pedophilic interests, characteristics of non-offending pedophiles, correlates of pedophilic interests, and stigma associated with pedophilia.
Treatment programs are beginning to produce findings regarding the effectiveness of treatment in supporting non-offending pedophiles to remain
offense-free.
The current review spans these areas of research and discusses potential treatment options for working with non-offending pedophiles based on that research base.
Wolak, Janis, Finkelhor David, Mitchell Kimberly J., & Ybarra Michele L.; Online "predators" and their victims: Myths, realities, and implications for prevention and treatment.; American Psychologist; Vol 63(2)(Feb-Mar 2008), , 111-128
The publicity about online "predators" who prey on naive children using trickery and violence is largely inaccurate. Internet sex crimes involving adults and juveniles more often fit a model of statutory rape--adult offenders who meet, develop relationships with, and openly seduce underage teenagers--than a model of forcible sexual assault or pedophilic child molesting. This is a serious problem, but one that requires approaches different from those in current prevention messages emphasizing parental control and the dangers of divulging personal information. Developmentally appropriate prevention strategies that target youths directly and acknowledge normal adolescent interests in romance and sex are needed. These should provide younger adolescents with awareness and avoidance skills while educating older youths about the pitfalls of sexual relationships with adults and their criminal nature. Particular attention should be paid to higher risk youths, including those with histories of sexual abuse, sexual orientation concerns, and patterns of off- and online risk taking. Mental health practitioners need information about the dynamics of this problem and the characteristics of victims and offenders because they are likely to encounter related issues in a variety of contexts.
Berlin, Fred S.; Pedophilia and DSM-5; Journal of American Academic Psychiatry Law 42:404 –7, 2014; 42(4), 404 - 407
Psychiatric terminology should convey information in as clear and unambiguous a manner as possible. In light of the associated stigma, that is especially so of the terms Pedophilia and Pedophilic Disorder. Although from a psychiatric perspective the term Pedophilia is intended to define a recognized clinical entity, in the collective consciousness of contemporary society, the term has become a demonizing pejorative.
Many in society are likely to equate Pedophilia with child molestation. They are not the same. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5) may be contributing inadvertently to the misconception that they are the same ...
Berlin defends to view Pedophilia as a Sexual Orientation, thus not by definition as a distortion.
Ng, Emil M. L.; Pedophilia from the Chinese perspective; Archives of Sexual Behavior; 31, 491–492
In traditional Chinese medicine, there has never been a mental disease called pedophilia (or an equivalent term), or homosexuality, or most of the other so-called sexual variations for that matter. Depictions of “child-romance” in ancient or modern Chinese literature are not difficult to find. Children are usually described as natural sexual beings and erotic stimulation and sex-play are seen as beneficial to their healthy development.
[...]
Some writers very vehemently question the capacity of children to give valid consent to sexual activity with adults. Despite their arguments, to the Chinese [...] the focus of discussions on the child consent issue in pedophilic activities is blatantly irrelevant and hypocritical.
[...]
There are certain occasions when the adults do respect the children’s wishes and ask for their consent, but only when the choices are within the adult acceptable range. [...]
Indeed, when it comes to a child’s sexual activity, the debate begins ...
Walter, Peter Fritz; Pedophilia Revisited; Essays on Law, Policy and Psychiatry; 7,
Pedophilia Revisited: The Making of a Crime for Justifying Lacking Social Policy (Essays on Law, Policy and Psychiatry, Vol. 7) — 2019 Apple Books Edition — is an extended study on the controversial subject of pedophilia, the sexual love of adults for children — humans who by legal definition are to be considered a ‘child’ for the purposes of criminal law.
This form of love, also called ‘child-love’ by those who feel sexually attracted to children, can be exclusive or non-exclusive, but the author’s research clearly points to the fact that pedophile attraction is not inborn, just as homosexual attraction is not inborn, but a conditioned response.
The article gives links to the PDF edition and the paperback edition of the book.

Blanchard, Ray, Lykins Amy D., Wherrett Diane, Kuban Michael E., Cantor James M., Blak Thomas, et al.; Pedophilia, hebephilia, and the DSM-V; Archives of Sexual Behavior; 38, 335-350
The present study sought to validate the concept of hebephilia by examining the agreement between self-reported sexual interests and objectively recorded penile responses in the laboratory.
[...]
These results indicated that hebephilia exists as a discriminable erotic age-preference.
The authors recommend various ways in which the DSM might be altered to accommodate the present findings. One possibility would be to replace the diagnosis of Pedophilia with Pedo-hebephilia [...].
O'Hear, Michael M.; Perpetual Panic; Federal Sentencing Reporter; 21(2), pp. 69–77
The account of recent developments that unfolds in these pages may be viewed as yet another chapter in the story of a child sex abuse panic that is now well into its third decade - [Especially in the USA]
Underwager, Ralph, & Wakefield Hollida; Poor Psychology Produces Poor Law; Law & Human Behavior; 16(2), 
Both psychology and law are concerned with human behavior. Law depends upon what everyone knows and believes about human behavior, upon common knowledge. In contrast, psychology distrusts common knowledge and substitutes knowledge based on empirical data systematically gathered and rationally analyzed. This conflict may cause misunderstanding between law and psychology. However, a common ground of both law and psychology is the goal to reduce error.
The authors especially write about children's testimony in court. The APA's and the Supreme Court's demand that a psychologist before a testimony has to predict possible harm for the child, placed the psychologist for an impossible task and a difficult dilemma.
In APA's amicae Curiae letter about this topic, the authors find no evidence, only weak argumentation by means of weak research.
Diamond, Milton, Jozifkova Eva, & Weiss Petr; Pornography and Sex Crimes in the Czech Republic; Archives of Sexual Behavior; 2010 Nov 30,
Pornography continues to be a contentious matter with those on the one side arguing it detrimental to society while others argue it is pleasurable to many and a feature of free speech. The advent of the Internet with the ready availability of sexually explicit materials thereon particularly has seemed to raise questions of its influence.

Following the effects of a new law in the Czech Republic that allowed pornography to a society previously having forbidden it allowed us to monitor the change in sex related crime that followed the change.

As found in all other countries in which the phenomenon has been studied, rape and other sex crimes did not increase. Of particular note is that this country, like Denmark and Japan, had a prolonged interval during which possession of child pornography was not illegal and, like those other countries, showed a significant decrease in the incidence of child sex abuse.
Kingston, Drew A., Fedoroff Paul, Firestone Philip, & Bradford John M.; Pornography Use and Sexual Aggression; Aggressive Behavior; 35, 1-11
In this study, we examined the unique contribution of pornography consumption to the longitudinal prediction of criminal recidivism in a sample of 341 child molesters. We specifically tested the hypothesis, based on predictions informed by the confluence model of sexual aggression that pornography will be a risk factor for recidivism only for those individuals classified as relatively high risk for re-offending. [...]
Results for both frequency and type of pornography use were generally consistent with our predictions. Most importantly, after controlling for general and specific risk factors for sexual aggression, pornography added significantly to the prediction of recidivism. Statistical interactions indicated
(1) that frequency of pornography use was primarily a risk factor for higher-risk offenders, when compared with lower-risk offenders, and
(2) that content of pornography (i.e., pornography containing deviant content) was a risk factor for all groups. The importance of conceptualizing particular risk factors (e.g., pornography), within the context of other individual characteristics is discussed.
Levenson, Jill S., & Grady Melissa D.; Preventing Sexual Abuse: Perspectives of Minor- Attracted Persons About Seeking Help; Sexual Abuse
The primary aim of this exploratory research was to gain information from minor-attracted persons (MAPs) about their
(a) formal and informal experiences with help-seeking for minor attraction,
(b) perceived barriers to seeking help for concerns about minor attraction, and
(c) treatment priorities as identified by consumers of these services.
A nonrandom, purposive sample of MAPs (n = 293, 154 completed all questions) was recruited via an online survey.
Results show that 75% of participants did seek formal help from a professional; however, just less than half of them found the experience to be helpful. Characteristics of helpful therapeutic encounters included nonjudgmental attitudes, knowledge about minor attraction, and viewing clients in a person-centered and holistic way. Barriers to help seeking included uncertainty about confidentiality, fear of negative reaction or judgment, difficulties finding a therapist knowledgeable about MAPs, and financial constraints. Understanding or reducing attraction to minors were common treatment goals, but participants also prioritized addressing general mental health and well-being related to depression, anxiety, loneliness, and low self-esteem.
Implications for effective and ethical counseling and preventive interventions for MAPs are discussed.