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5) Methodological Approach

5.1 Research plan 
5.2 Demographic data and factors influencing components of self-concept, feelings of being under stress, and sense of well-being 
5.3 Summary of Demographic Characteristics 
5.4 Procedures Employed 
5.5 Data Analysis Methods

5. 1 Research plan

The present pilot study is aimed primarily at obtaining an explorational quantitative and qualitative understanding of the so-called ‘dark number.’ Here, 

the 'dark number’ is comprised of a non-random cross-section of primary pedophilic men, from normal, everyday walks-of-life, from the (necessarily) previously-unknown overall total. 
The 'light number,' by contrast, comprises the official statistics, encompassing those specific cases which have been prosecuted as well as completely institutionalized men in need of therapy. Also part of the ‘light number’ are patients in ambulatory settings receiving court-imposed therapy or counseling.

Though it is true that different approaches to the 'dark number' and the use of the snowball method cannot ensure representativeness, this way of going forward does help to minimize gross statistical distortions in the selection of research participants. The original intention was to carry out the present study in the form of semi-structured interviews, which were to be validated with the Heidelberg Structure-Imposition Technique. (Scheele & Groebeo, 1988).

Although it had gotten as far as a rough draft for the interview procedure, at a later point in time, that too was ultimately discarded. It may be found in the appendix of the present work (pg. 138).

In the final analysis preference was given to the questionnaire method, because through it, a large number of respondents can be reached relatively quickly. Moreover, in contrast to the interview method, the questionnaire method has the advantage of better ensuring participants' anonymity.

5.1.1 Establishing contact; recruitment sources and methods

The initial contact established with the ‘dark number' occurred over the Internet, with members of self-help groups. The author represented himself as an interested citizen who wanted to be informed on the subject of pedophilia directly by those affected, as well as become acquainted with their point of view.

At the same time, he also mentioned his research interests (pedophilic men’s social and psychical situations).

Furthermore, personal contact was established with disseminators who were widely trusted by this sexual scene.

The ’dark number’ recruitment occurred exclusively through reliable third persons who were involved with the civil rights organization AHS (Human Sexuality Working Group). 
'Light number' participants were contacted through two psychologists who helped with the distribution of the questionnaires.

Sixty-seven 'dark number' participants were recruited, along with an additional five 'light number' participants.

With 37.5% of the participants we are talking about members of self-help groups (domestic and neighboring countries);
for an additiona1 55.6%, due to the snowball method, the recruitment source was not determinable.

The collection period stretched over some six months (February 2004 until the end of July 2004.

Table 1 - Overview of recruitment sources /methods

'Dark number'

'Light number'

Self-help groups Classified ad Snowball method JVA Counseling center Forensic psychiatry
27 0 40 1 4 0

5.1.2 Participation Rate

[47] The participation rate can only be determined in a very rough sense. Overall, there were close to 200 questionnaires in written form distributed to various third persons, only a small portion of which could have been exhaustively circulated. About 60 questionnaires were presumably not distributed at all. This figure represents a rather low estimate. The established gross rate of participation would amount to at least 60% (82 participants; including secondary pedophiles, with a net participation rate of at least 50% (72 participants; excluding secondary pedophiles). The following factors have presumably contributed to this relatively high participation rate:

the way the subject was conveyed;
participants' anonymity was to be guaranteed;
references by professionals to the topic;
committed distributors of the questionnaires within the pedophile scene;
pre-paid return envelopes;
the “endorsement" of Dr. K. Seikowski, President of the Society for Sexual Science, Inc. (GSW). Although perceived as critical due to its convocation of a pedophilia congress in Leipzig in 1999, it is also seen as reliable, and a sexual-science association that evaluates the phenomenon in a discerning manner.

5.2 Demographic data and factors influencing components of self-concept, feelings of being under stress, and sense of well-being

5.2.1 Sexual Orientation

There were 82 participants recruited, of whom 72 were, based on their sexual representations, classified as primarily pedophilic. The remaining ten participants were classified as secondarily pedophilic, and are not considered in the analysis. 

With the major portion of primarily pedophilic participants, what we have are 

homosexually pedophilically-oriented men (N=61; 84.7%). 
Only a small number of heterosexually pedophilic (N=7; 84.7%) and 
bisexually pedophilic (N=4; 5.6%) 

participants were able to be recruited.

Fig 7 - Sexual orientation of primarily pedophilic participants Approach to Determining Primary Pedophilia in This Study

For the presence of "true" pedophilia, the classification criterion of “sexual fantasies" with regard to the characteristics of orientation, intensity, and temporal duration (of their existence) was chosen. 

The orientation characteristic encompasses the orientation towards children and/or adults, as well as with the child/adult category, the respective orientation in terms of gender. 
The intensity characteristic is to be understood as follows: 
The categories of "always” and/or "often" point [48] to the frequent and dominant existence of particular sexual fantasy activity (inclusion criterion). 
The categories of "rarely" or “never" point to the non-existence of particular sexual representations (exclusion criterion). 
In contrast to those already mentioned, the category of "sometimes" does not constitute a true classification or exclusion criterion, but is an issue of an in-between area (“buffer zone"). This in-between area is meaningful, in order to do justice to sexual reality. 
The temporal duration characteristic was based on an ICD-10 determination (at least six months). Intensity and Direction of Sexual Fantasies (Classification Schema)

Among the men in this sample classified as homosexually pedophilic, there was a minority who also had a slight sexual erotic interest in girls (five participants). In close to a fourth of the homosexually pedophilic men (24.6%), a small degree of attraction to adult partners was also found. More of the subjects "sometimes" felt themselves drawn to men than to women. 

Fig 8a - Intensity and direction of sexual fantasies among men classified as primary homosexually pedophilic (N=61)
41 20 0 0 0 0
0 0 5 20 32 4
0 0 13 21 23 4
0 0 2 20 34 5

Among the men in this sample classified as heterosexually pedophilic, five research participants also evinced a slight sexual/erotic interest in boys. Furthermore, in one participant, a slight attraction to women as sexual partners was detected.

Fig 8b - Intensity and direction of sexual fantasies among men classified as primary heterosexually pedophilic (N=7)
0 0 5 2 0 0
5 2 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 2 4 1
0 0 1 3 3 0
Fig 8c - Intensity and direction of sexual fantasies among men classified as primary bisexually pedophilic (N=4)
0 3 0 0 0 0
0 4 0 0 0 0
0 0 3 0 1 0
0 0 1 3 0 0

The men classified as bisexually pedophilic showed a clear interest in boys and girls (Fig. 8c). All four participants from this sub-sample also felt themselves drawn [49] sexually to adults to a slight degree (three participants towards men, one participant towards women. 

Of the ten selected-out secondarily pedophilic participants, half were heterosexual and half were homosexual. Two of the homosexual men evinced a slight bisexual tendency. The classification criterion, whether someone is hetero-, homo-, or bisexually-assessed, was determined here -- in contrast to the primarily pedophilic participants -- solely by the gender of the adult sexual attraction.

Fig 8d - Intensity and direction of sexual fantasies among men classified as secondary pedophilic 
(N=10, of which five are heterosexual, five homosexual)
0 4 5 1 0 0
0 2 1 2 4 1
0 5 0 2 3 0
0 5 2 0 2 1

With regard to sexual arousability by children, among the heterosexuals in this sample, it was shown that two of the participants "often” felt themselves sexually attracted to boys, and one participant "often" felt himself sexually drawn to girls. In one participant there existed a stronger ("often"), and in an additional one, a less strongly pronounced ("sometimes”) interest in boys or girls. 

Heterosexual participants' interest in child stimuli was present in homosexually pedophilic, heterosexually pedophilic, and bisexually pedophilic forms. The homosexuals in this sample evinced an exclusive sexual interest in boys. In one participant, more of a pronounced attraction ("often") was present, and in an. additional four, a less pronounced ("sometimes”) attraction was present.

5.2.2 Age

At the time the data was collected, the bulk of the research participants were between 26 and 50 years of age. The youngest participant was 19, the oldest, 68. The average age was 38.5 years, with a standard deviation of 12.6 years. 

As the age distribution in Table 2 makes clear, both young as well as older men were receptive to the study. The 21-30 and 31-41 age groups were somewhat more strongly represented than other age groups.

Table 2 - Age of research participants
Age group
< 21 years old 1 1.4
21-30 years old 21 29.2
31-40 years old 24 33.3
41-50 years old 13 18.1
51-6- years old 7 9.7
61-70 years old 6 8.3
Table 3 - Age-group distribution of participants
Combined age groups
1 19-30 years 22
2 31-40 years 24
3 41-50 years 13
4 > 51 years 13

The research participants were combined into four age groups. Due to the lower representations of the higher age groups (51-60 as well as 61-70), [50] these two groups were combined into a single category of those 5l or older. The 19-year-old was considered part of Age Group 1, in order to avoid having an under-21 category. 

The distribution in Table 3 constitutes the basis for age-group comparisons of participants with regard to pronounced psychical characteristics. 

Age Group 1 encompasses early adulthood, 
Age Group 2 early middle-age, 
Age Group 3 middle-age, and 
Age Group 4 middle-age and the beginning of old-age.

Homosexually, heterosexually, and bisexually pedophilic participants are relatively homogeneously distributed over the four age-groups. There is no significant relationship between the characteristics of age-group and pedophilic orientation. 

Furthermore, there is no significant association between the characteristics of age-group and recruitment source/method. Participants from self-help groups are primarily found in the 26-50 age-range (average age 38.4), standard deviation 12.0 years). At the time the data was collected, the average age of the participants who were recruited by means of the snowball method was 36.9. These are found primarily in the age-range of between 24 and 50.

5.2.3 Education and Occupation

Two-thirds of research participants (66.7%) had attended an academic course high school [Gymnasium], 
one-quarter (25.0%) had gone to a non-classical secondary school [Real/Mittelschule], and 
one in every twelve (8.3%) had attended primary school [Hauptschule]. 
The bulk of the research participants had attended or currently attend university (39.4%) or 
junior college [Fachhochschule] (21.1%), and 
an additional 33.8%, vocational school. 
Four participants (5.6%) did not have any post-secondary education. One person provided no information.
Fig 9 - Participants' schooling

Fig 10 - Participants' educational level

Consequently, close to two-thirds of participants had gone through more advanced schooling and achieved higher educational levels; with somewhat less than a third, there were moderate levels of schooling and education. And in a small portion of the studied population (ca. 7%), levels of schooling and education were low. 

The characteristics of schooling and educational level are distributed relatively homogeneously among the age-classes. There is no significant association between age-group membership and schooling or age-group membership and educational level. 

At the time of the study, 

35 subjects were working people (48.6%) and 
14 participants were unemployed (19.4%). 
Twelve participants were students (16.7%) and 
two were in civil or military service (2.8%). 
Eight subjects were retirees (11.1%). The retiree category also includes two early retirement participants, ages 37 and 46. 
One person (1.4%) provided no information. 

An overview is provided in Figure 11. [51] 

Fig 11 - Participants' occupational status

The figures given are percentages
Wp = Working people
St = Students
Re = Retirees
Cms = Civil-/military service
Un = Unemployed
Noinf = No information

In a research population of predominantly higher schooling and educational levels, the portion of unemployed is itself strikingly high. In personal conversations as well, those concerned will occasionally point out that a considerable share of members of this sexual scene has little income or is unemployed. 

The characteristic "occupational status" is non-homogeneous relative to the characteristic "criminal proceedings" (exact Fisher test p=0.034). 

Fewer students (6.7%) and 
working people (28.6%) than 
retirees (50%) and 
those who were unemployed (50%) 

had had run-ins with the legal system.

The average age of those 

unemployed was 37.6 (standard deviation 9.0; 
for the working people it was 38.9 (standard deviation 10.7).

Participants who were unemployed or working people were distributed relatively homogeneously across the four age groups. There is no significant association between the characteristics of "age group" and "working" (comparing working people with the unemployed). 

The association frequently encountered in the literature, that pedophiles would mainly go into (pedagogical) professions (e.g., Bundschuh, 2001, pg. 138) where they would have frequent contact with children, could not be confirmed by the statements of the population studied. 

Figure 12 gives an overview of the current fields of occupation as well as the professional training of the research participants to be found there (N=50).

Fig 12 - Participants' fields of occupation 

Noinf = No information
ScMa = Science / Management 
TeTr = Techniques / Traffic 
Educ = Education 
ICT = Information & Communication Technology 
Art/Crea = Arts or creative job 
Craft = Craft

For reasons of anonymity, the individual occupations cited were combined into general categories. Two independent raters had an average concurrence of 92.9% across all categories.

It was a colorful palette of the most diverse occupational fields, in which they were skilled as well as working. With regard to age-structure, participants from all four age-groups were to be found in the most common occupational fields (business/administration, pedagogical sphere, and technology and engineering). Nineteen research participants (38.0%), presumably due to fear of loss of anonymity, did not respond to this question. 

5.2.4 Family Status and Children

Sixty-four of the participants were single (88.9%), 

four participants were married (5.6%), 

two were divorced (2.8%), and 

two participants lived in same-sex partnerships analogous to marriage. 

Six participants (8.3%) had children of their own. Of the fathers, there were two heterosexually pedophilic and four homosexually pedophilic participants, in Age Groups 2, 3, and 4. 

One-quarter of the pedophilic participants (N=71 here) judged the statement, "many pedophiles will co-habit with an adult partner in order to prevent their sexual preference from becoming outwardly obvious," to be applicable to themselves personally (25.4%), and in the case of one participant (1.4%), as very applicable. The men who made these statements were found predominantly in the 31-48 age range (Age Groups 2 and 3).

5.2.5 Criminal Proceedings

There were no pending criminal proceedings against 67 of the participants (93.1%) at the time of data collection.

Two participants (2.8%) provided no information, and

three participants (4.2%) were under criminal investigation at the time. 

Nearly a third of the participants (30.6%) had previous convictions for violating the right to sexual self-determination (Article 13 StGB - fines and/or prison sentences). 

No statement is able to be made as to whether the criminal acts involved offenses relating to child pornography (§184) or actual pedosexual contacts (§§174, 176, 177, 180, 182).

Participants' relative frequency of having had one or more previous criminal convictions progressively increased across age-groups, from 13.6% up to 61.5%. 

There is a significant association between the characteristics of age-group and past criminal proceedings (exact Fisher test p=0.010). 

Fig 13 - Age group and criminal proceedings 

[53] Of the participants with previous criminal convictions (N=22), 

one participant saw the conviction as appropriate and 

16 participants (72.7%) viewed them as inappropriate.

Three participants (13.6%) evaluated the conviction as appropriate in and of itself, but not the extent of the punishment. 

The participants made a distinction with regard to their first and second convictions: both regarded their first convictions as fully justified, but not their second.

5.2.6 Therapy Experience

Thirty-eight participants had some experience with therapy, and are distributed among all four age-classes. Therapy experiences were somewhat increased among participants in Age Group 4, and a bit less common among those in Age Group 1. 

There is, however, no significant relationship between the characteristics "age-group" and "therapy experience." This means that younger and older participants do not differ with respect to the presence of psychotherapy experiences. 

At the time of data collection, 

19 participants (26.4%) were in psychotherapeutic treatment. 

An additional 19 participants (26.4%) had previous experience with psychotherapy. 

Thirty-four participants (47.2%) had no experience with psychotherapy.

Fig 14 - Participants' therapy experience

5.2.7 Evaluating the homogeneity of demographic characteristics and influence factors

The homogeneities of all demographic characteristics and influence factors were tested against one another by means of the chi-square test (hypothesis: homogeneity present), in order to be able to adequately evaluate the results regarding

self-concept characteristics, 

feelings of being under stress, and 

sense of well-being. 

What emerged overall was a picture of negligible confounding variables. In the following, only those results which are believed to be crucial for purposes of interpretation will be listed. 

The characteristic “age-group" is non-homogeneous relative to the influence factors of 

"criminal proceedings" (see sub-section 5.2.5),

"pedosexual contacts" (see sub-section 6.3.2), and

"use of child pornography" (see sub-section 6.3.2).

The influence factor "recruitment source" is non-homogeneous relative to the characteristic "criminal proceedings" (exact Fisher test p=0.005). 

It turned out that the five ‘light number’ participants were more likely to have previous criminal convictions (80%) than were the 67 'dark number' participants (26.9%). 

On the other hand, within the 'dark number,' participants from self-help groups were more likely to have previous criminal convictions (40.7%) than participants who were reached by means of the snowball method (17.5%).

5.3 Summary of Demographic Characteristics

[54] It was predominantly 'dark number’ homosexually pedophilic men who took part in this study. Only a very small number of heterosexually and bisexually pedophilic men were able to be reached. 

The age-structure of the participants extended from early on up to later adulthood. Men taking part who were between 21 and 40 years of age were slightly over-represented. 

The bulk of the participants had above-average levels of education and worked in quite varied occupational areas. A considerable percentage of participants were unemployed at the time of the data collection. 

The overwhelming majority of participants were single and only a very small number made the statement that they were living together long-term with an adult partner. 

Half of the research participants had psychotherapy experience. 

A third of those who took part had previous convictions for violating the right to sexual self-determination, for which they had received fines or prison sentences. Almost without exception, these convictions were characterized as unjust.

5.4 Procedures Employed

To begin with the official procedures will be discussed, which were by no means developed by me personally, and which, due to pragmatic considerations, were merged with “Data Collection Sheet 1.” In connection with this, the two central procedures of the study that were used to estimate well-being and clinical symptomatology are presented in a brief overview. Constituting the conclusion is a series of procedures that were employed in order to capture the central self-concept characteristics.

5.4.1 Socio-Demographic Data Questionnaire and “Data Collection Sheet 1"

With the socio-demographic data questionnaire, we are talking about a catalog of questions, supplied by the author, which has two goals. 

For one, with the aid of sociographic questions, it should be possible to provide a precise description of the sample. 

For another, it should enable associations between selected influence factors/sociographic variables and

self-concept variables, 

feelings of being under stress, and 

sense of well-being 

to be unconvered. 

"Data Collection Sheet 1" is comprised in part of a catalog of questions, from the author, concerning the areas of sexuality, socialization, social support, centrality of environment- and self-concepts, and conflict areas. In "Data Collection Sheet 1" there are also additional items which were taken from the following standardized procedures. Item-Summary from the Munich Alcoholism Test (MALT-S)
by W. Feurlein, H. Kufner, Ch. Ringer & K. Antons-Volnerg (1999)

Four alcoholism items were taken from the Multiphasic (24 items in total), which should provide a rough idea of whether or not alcohol abuse is suspected. Item-Summary from the Multiphasic Sex Inventory (MSl) by G. Deegner (1996)

There were three items taken from the MST's sex-related lying scale, in order to get a rough idea as to the frankness of the participants with regard to statements concerning their sexuality. “Openness" scale from the Freiburg Personality Inventory (FPI-R) by J. Fahrenberg, R. Hampel & H. Selg (1989)

[55] Items were taken from the FPI-R "Openness" Scale in order to assess participants’ general social extroversion. Average and higher scores on the "Openness" Scale can point to a rather self-critical appraisal. Participants evinced the same minor weaknesses and flaws shared by most of humanity. Low or extremely low scale-scores were common among the study participants, which are believed to indicate a strong conventional social norms orientation and/or make a good impression. The internal consistency of the "Openness" Scale stands at r=.74. It is based on norms representative of the overall population. Short Stress-Test (SKT) by K. Reschke & H. Schröder (2000)

Consisting of seven items, the Short Stress-Test makes a stress screening possible and encompasses the following areas: loss of control, loss of meaning, anger, sleep disturbances, inability to relax, current source of stress, and absence of social support. The test was evaluated on 247 persons from various samples. It has satisfactory values for the criteria-related validity and reliability of the procedure.

5.4.2 The Triere Personality Questionnaire (TPF) by P. Becker (1989)

The TPF represents various personality characteristics which have psychological health relevance to the goal of successful stress-mastery. 

The procedure was developed through the use of factor analysis and measures two independent meta-aspects of personality: 

mental health and 

behavioral control. 

In factor-analytic studies involving various constellations of variables, these meta-aspects have proven themselves able to be frequently replicated, account for a great deal of variance, and show relationships between other personality variables. 

Moreover, the TPF's nine sub-scales encompass the component parts of “mental health." These are arranged factor-analytically into three spheres: 

"mental-physical well-being," 

"self-actualization," and 

"self- and other-referencing assessments of worth.” 

In theory, these component parts contribute to higher values for the construct of "mental health." The nine subscales, which are comprised of some 120 items from the TPF, are described in Table 4.

Table 4 - Overview of the nine sub-scales of the TFP
Scales for measuring ...  
... highly-variant meta-aspects (BC) Behavioral control: prudence, caution, tendency towards order vs impulsiveness, thrill-seeking and risk-taking

(MH) Mental health: pronounced ability to master internal and external demands, high self-esteem, a sense of meaning, high life-stisfaction, ability to carry things through

... mental-physical well-being (SF) Sense of fulfillment vs depressiveness

(SL) Selflessness vs self-centeredness 

(CF) Carefree-ness vs nervousness

... self-actualization (EX) Expansiveness: ability to carry things through, self-assurance, decisiveness and dominance

(AU) Autonomy: gladly making decisions on one's own, solving problems personally, taking responsibility for one's life

... self- and other-referencing assessments of worth (SE) Self-esteem: consciousness of self, often carefree, tranquil and balanced

(AL) Ability to love: interested in others, can give love to others, can empathize with others, ready to help

[56] In contrast to the traditional clinical questionnaire testing (e.g., SCL-90-R), the TPF does not, in the first place, encompass a compilation of symptomatic behaviors, but instead attempts to include the entire spectrum of mental health in terms of advantageous variants (research participants' strengths and/or resources). 

Norms exist for age groups of between 18 and 80 (N=961). The internal consistencies of the nine sub-scales lie between r=.77 and r=.91. The TPF is known for its distinguished psychometric foundation.

5.4.3 The SCL-90-R Symptom Checklist by Derrogatis (German Version by G. H. Franke, 1995)

The SCL-90-R measures a person's subjectively felt impairment by physical and psychical symptoms over a seven-day time-period. It is an ideal complement to procedures for measuring the extremely temporally variable manifestations -- as well as the chronologically durable structure -- of the personality (e.g., the TPF). The procedure offers, and is utilized as, an overview of a person's symptoms of psychical stress in reference to nine sub-scales and three established values.

Table 5 -  SCL-90-R Sub-scale description
1 - Somatization Simple physical stress on up to functional disturbances
2 - Duress Mild disturbances in concentration or work on up to pronounced distress
3 - Insecurity with social contact Slight insecurity on up to s feeling of personal inadequacy
4 - Depressiveness Sadness on up to severe depression
5 - Anxiety Physically perceptible nervousness on up to profound anxiety
6 - Aggressiveness  / hostility Irritability and lack of balance on up to severe aggressiveness with hostile aspects
7 - Phobic anxiety A slight sense of being under threat on up to massive phobic anxiety
8 - Paranoid ideation Mistrust and feelings of inferiority on up to strongly paranoid ideation
9 - Psychoticism A mild sense of isolation and alienetaion on up to dramatic evidence of psychosis
GSI - Global severity index Measures fundamental psychic stress
PSDI: Positive symptom distress index Measures the intensity of responses
PST: Positive symptom total Provides information regarding the number of symptoms reflecting presence of stressor

[57] For clinical samples, the internal consistencies of individual scales lie between r=.79 and r=89. The items may be said to have "face validity." 

For normative samples, the inter-correlations between sub-scales is, on average, r=45. The reliability of the test profile for normative samples may be characterized as satisfactory, and for clinical groups, as good to very good.

Confirmatory tests supported the nine subscales in clinical groups above all. With the aid of a normative sample (N=1,006), sex- and education-specific T-values can be constructed.

5.4.4 SAM - Dispositional Self-Attention Assessment Questionnaire by S.-H. Filipp & E. Freudenberg (1989)

The SAM is a personality diagnostic tool which is designed to capture, in a temporal and situational way, individuals' relatively stable (below-average, average, or above-average) tendencies to make themselves the center of attention and the object of mental preoccupation. 

It has the effect, moreover, of differentiating between whether more privately- vs. more publicly- accessible aspects stand at the center of self-referent attention. 

The questionnaire is composed of a total of 27 statements written in the first-person, in which five-tiered scale rankings are made. 

The operational range of the questionnaire is extremely broad. It has been applied to, among others, the areas of

"health-related behavior and adaptation to illness,"

"social interaction," and the 

"validity of self-related information."

Consistency measures exist for various samples (N=1,251), ranging from r=.71 to r=.87. Reliability measures are satisfactory (r=.72 to r=.84). The face-validity of both sub-scales has been established by studies involving various samples. There are, in addition, a large number of indications as to the construct-validity of the sub-scales as well as their differential validity.

5.4.5 SSF -- Scales for measuring the Self-image of Functional social potency by H. Schröder (1985)

[58] With the Scales for measuring the self-image of functional social potency, we are talking about a procedure that captures the components of self-concept which are important in mastering social demand situations. 

The procedure does not actually measure “objectively" present social skills but instead illustrates the self-appraisal of fundamental social capabilities which, nevertheless, can have a strong act-regulating function. 

Schröder (1985, pg. 28) characterizes "functional potency" as the 

"basic ability to resolve interpersonal demands and the self-understanding of one's own 'effects' on or 'effectiveness in one’s own life-sphere." 

The questionnaire consists of 67 items which are meant to be evaluated, on a bipolar (-4 up to +4), nine-tiered scale, with regard to their applicability to one's own self. The items are divided into four scales, which are described as follows in Table 6.

Table 6 - SSF sub-scale description
Communicability of self-concept
General ability to communicate, i terms of a readiness to establish and shape social contacts
De-centering of self-concept
The ability to cognitively and emotionally put oneself in the shoes of one's inter-actional partner
Consciousness of one's control over the environment
The extent to which one believes one is able to have an influence on and control over the conditions of one's social surroundings
Consciousness of self-control
Reflection upon the extent to which one is able to control and regulate one's own internal demand-structures (successful self-regulation)

Comparison values from a psychically unexceptional heterosexual control group of men and women (N=33) exist for the SSF (from Hempel, 2001).

5.4.5 The Multi-dimensional Sexual Self-Concept Questionnaire (MSSCQ) by W.E. Snell (1998), Ger. translation by D. Blair

The MSSCQ captures, in the original American version, 20 psychological aspects of human sexuality and consists of 101 items. The test subject is asked to decide to what degree each given statement fits him (Likert scale 0-4). The values for the 20 sub-scales are derived from the arithmetic average of the item responses. Though normative values exist for the American original, there are no German norms. 

For the present study, four items from the MSSCQ were slightly modified and adapted to the special problems associated with this topic of research. For example, instead of being adopted from the original, the concept of “sexual disorder" was replaced with "sexual orientation."

Comparison values from a psychically unexceptional heterosexual control group of men and women (N=33) exists (from Hempel, 2001). Table 7 provides an overview of the MSSCQ sub-scales. [59] 

Table 7 - MSSCQ sub-scale descriptions
1 Sexual anxiety Attitude toward and discomfort and anxiety regarding one's own sexuality
2 Sexual self-efficacy Belief in the ability to handle one's own sexual aspects (e.g., feeling oneself to be capable of seeing to it that one's sexual needs are met
3 Sexual consciousness Degree of consciousness of and clarity regarding one's  own sexual desires and needs
4 Motivation to avoid risky sexual practices The motivation to avoid sexual practices which pose a danger to one's health
5 External sexual control (fate) The conviction that one's own sexual life is determined by luck and opportunity
6 Sexual fixation Addictive and compulsive thoughts about sex
7 Sexual carrying-out / clarity The tendency to want to energetically carry out one's sexual desires and needs
8 Sexual optimism The expectation that one's future sexual life will be a promising and rewarding one
9 Blaming oneself for sexual problems The tendency to assign blame to oneself when one's own sexuality is experienced in a negative or undesired manner
10 Sexual self-monitoring The tendency to be conscious of the general impression others have of one's sexuality
11 Sexual motivation Impetus and wish to have sexual relations
12 Sexual responsibility for solving sexual problems The feeling that one is personally responsible for solving one's sexual problems (and here for one's sexual orientation as well)
13 Sexual self-respect The tendency to have faith in one's ability to have sexual encounters and to experience one's sexuality in satisfactory, pleasurable ways
14 Sexual satisfaction Satisfaction with the sexual aspect of one's life
15 External sexual control (powerful others) The conviction that the sexual aspects of one's life are directed by others more powerful and influential than oneself
16 Sexual self-schema Self-appraisal as a sexual partner (e.g., the desire to be an attractive sexual partner; the ability to be in sync with a sexual partner
17 Sexual fears Fear of letting oneself get involved in sexual relationships and sexual contacts with others (here adults and children)
18 Consciousness of sexual problem The conviction that one is able to protect oneself from physical sexual problems and disorders (e.g., organically-conditioned erectile dysfunction)
19 Sexual depression Feelings of sadness, dissatisfaction, and depression in connection with one's sex life
20 Internal sexual control The conviction that the sexual aspect of one's life can be determinated and controlled by oneself

5.5 Data Analysis Methods

[60] For the evaluation of the data, the “SSPS 11.5” software was utilized. The descriptive measures of frequency, mean, and standard deviation constituted the description of the sample. 

To the questionnaire responses, the methods of both

explorative data analysis 
[e.g., cluster analysis, stem-and-leaf plots (Sedlmayer, 1996)] and 

parametric and non-parametric static testing procedures [e.g., chi-square test, T-test, U-Test, and (rank-) variance analysis] were applied. 

To assess the associations between variables, bi-variate correlations and multiple regression analyses were calculated. 

For the assessment of the more open-ended questions, frequencies were tabulated, a content-based formation of categories was undertaken and a percentage homogeneity of opinion coefficient between two independent raters was determined. (Asendorpf & Walcott, 1979). 

Excerpts from the participants' personal letters, e-mails, and conversations were added to the presentation of the results. They are regarded as a necessary complement to the qualitative data and were taken into consideration in the interpretation. (See Wilson & Cox, 1983.) Qualitative data have relevance, and give a better impression of persons with this sexual orientation than does either raw numbers or -- more to the point -- the tragedy with which this phenomenon is typically associated.

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