Notes Chapter 3    [Chapter]


Harold Schnechter, Deranged (London: Warner, 1992);

Mel Heimer, The Cannibal (London: Xanadu, 1988);

Michael Angella, Trail of Blood (Indianapolis: Bobbis-Merrill, 1979);

Fredric Wertham, The Show of Violence (Garden City, N.J.: Doubleday, 1949), pp. 65-94;

Nicholas N. Kittrie, The Right to Be Different (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1971), p. 176.



Steven Nickel, Torso (Winston-Salem, N.C.: John F. Blair, 1989);

Philip Jenkins, Using Murder (Hawthorne, N.Y.: Aldine de Gruyter, 1994);

Michael Newton, Hunting Humans (Port Townsend, Wash.: Loompanics, 1990), p. 280.



Charles J. Dutton, "Can We End Sex Crimes?" Christian Century, December 22, 1937, pp. 1594-95;

Bertram Pollens, The Sex Criminal (New York: Macaulay, 1938),p.170;


August 14,1937, and

May 18,1938.


The New York sheriff is described in Fredric Wertham, "Psychiatry and the Prevention of Sex Crimes," JAICLC 28 (1938): 847.
The murders of the three Inglewood girls dominated the Los Angeles media throughout the summerof1937: see, for example,

"Three Girls Found Slain in Hills: Felon Hunted in Fiendish Crime," LAT;June29, 1937;

J. Paul De River, The Sexual Criminal (Springfield, Ill.: Charles Thomas, 1950), pp. 75-86.


4. Linda Cordon, Heroes of Their Own Lives (New York: Viking, 1988), pp. 223-25.

5. The police purge of "degenerates" is described in Jonathan Ned Katz, Cay/Lesbian Almanac (New York: Halper Colophon, 1983), pp. 531-32;
see also

Literary Digest,

January 2, 1937, p.34, and

ApriI 10, 1937;

"Pedophilia," Time, August 23, 1937, pp. 42-44;

Sheldon Clueck, "Sex Crimes and the Law," Nation, September 25, 1937, pp. 318-20;

C. Palmer, "Crimes Against Children," Literary Digest, October 22, 1937, pp. 14-16;

"Sex Criminal," Christian Century, November 10, 1937, pp. 1391-93;

Dutton, "Can We End Sex Crimes?"


The quotation is in Wertham "Psychiatry and the Prevention of Sex Crimes," p. 847.

6. The script of a radio program on sex offenses is found in "Washington, D.C., Considers Sex Offenses," JSH 36 (1950): 241-49.
See also

Charles Harris, "A New Report on Sex Crimes," Coronet, October 1947;

Clarence A. Bonner, "Who and What are Sexual Psychopaths?" Focus, July 1948, pp. 103-5;

"Horror Week," Newsweek, November 28, 1949, p. 19;

"Sex Rampage," Newsweek, February 13, 1950;

"Unknown Sex Fiend," Time, February 13. 1950;

J. Crowther, "Answer to Sex Fiends." American City, April 1950;

I. W. Hewlett, "What Shall We Do About  Sex Offenders?" Parents, August 1950, pp. 36-38;

Albert Deutsch, "Sober Facts About Sex Crimes," Collier's, November 25,1950, pp. 15-16;

"Sex Psychopaths," Newsweek, March 9,1953, pp. 50-.51.


The Collier's quotations are in Howard Jay Whitman, Terror in the Street (New York: Dial Press, 19.51), pp. x-xi, 7, 26-27, 48.
The "shadow" quotation appears in Charles Harris, "Sex Crimes: Their Cause and Cure," Coronet, August 1946, p. 4.

7. Quotations are in Whitman, Terror, pp. 7-8, 52, 64, 70-73, 392.
For abusers in churches and schools, see Bernard Williams, Jailbait (New York: Garden City  Books, 1951), pp. 35-45.53-.59.
See also Earl R. Biggs, How to Protect Your Child from the Sex Criminal (Portland, Oreg.: New Science, 1950).

8. Whitman, Terror. pp. 45-47. 

9. For earlier sensational murders, see Harris, "Sex Crimes," pp. 3-9.
For the 1949 cases, see

Whitman, Terror. pp. 101-38;

Edwin Sutherland, "The Diffusion of Sex Psychopath Laws," American Journal of Sociology 56 ( 1950): 142-48;

De River, The Sexual Criminal.


10. Whitman, Terror, pp. 39-41.

11. Whitman, Terror, pp. 50-74;
George Chauncey, "The Postwar Sex Crime Panic," in William Graebner, ed., True Stories from the American Past (New York: Mc-Graw-Hill, 1993), p. 165.


Athan Theoharis, Hoover, Sex, and Crime (Chicago: Ivan R. Dee. 1995), pp. 65-68;

J. Edgar Hoover, "Organized Protection Against Organized Predatory Crimes," JAICLC 24 (1933): 475--82;

John C. McWilliams, The Protectors (Newark: University of Delaware Press, 1990);

David F. Musto, The American Disease (New York: Oxford University Press, 1987);

Jonathan Sirnon, Poor Justice (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1993);

Martin Mooney, The Parole Scandal (Los Angeles: Lymanhouse, 1939);

J. Edgar Hoover, Persons in Hiding (Boston: Little, Brown, 1938), pp. 189-90.

Hoovers claim that sex fiends are the most loathsome of all criminals is from J. Edgar Hoover, "War on the Sex Criminal," New York Herald Tribune, September 26,1937.

13. J. Edgar Hoover, "How Safe Is Your Daughter?" American Magazine, July 1947, pp. 32-33.
FBI advice to children is quoted in Kenneth v. Lanning, Investigator's Guide to Allegations of "Ritual" Child Abuse (Quantico, Va.: NCAVC, FBI Academy, 1992), p. 3;
for later FBI campaigns, see


August 31, 1957;

ibid., December 7, 1960;

ibid., July 3, 1962;

M. Hickey, "FBI Reports Sound the Alarm," Ladies' Home Journal, ApriI1960.


14. John McCarty, Psychos (New York: St. Martin's Press, 1986).

15. Robert Bloch, The Scarf (New York: Dial Press, 1947), pp. 207-8;
Charles R. Jackson, The Outer Edges (New York: Rinehart, 1948), p. 81.

16. David Wittels, "What Can We Do About Sex Crimes?" Saturday Evening Post, December 11,1948.


PoIIens, Sex Criminal, p. 78;

Dolores Kennedy, William Heirens (Chicago: Bonus, 1991);

Lucy Freeman, "Before I Kill More" (New York: Crown), 1955);

Williams, Jailbait, pp. 64-66;

Foster Kennedy, Harry R. Hoffman, and William H. Haines, " A Study of William Heirens," AJP 104 ( 1947): 113.



Morris Ploscowe, "Some Causative Factors in Criminality," in the Wickersham Commission, The National Commission on Law Observance and Enforcement (Washington, D.C.: GPO, 1931), no. 13:1, pp. 1-161;

Benjamin Karpman, The Individual Criminal (Washington, D.C.: Nervous and Mental Disease Publishing, 1935);

"Symposium: The ChaIIenge of Sex Offenders," special issue, Mental Hygiene 22 (1938);

Jack Frosch and Walter Bromberg, "The Sex Offender," AJO 9 (1939): 761-76;

Ira S. Wile, "Sex Offenders Against Young Children," JSH 25 (1939): 33-44;

C. M. Krinsky and J. J. Michaels, "A Survey of One Hundred Sex Offenders," Journal of Criminal Psychopathology 5 (1940): 198-206;

A. J. Arieff and D. B. Rotman, "One Hundred Cases of Indecent Exposure," Journal of Nervous and Mental Diseases 96 (1942): 523-29;

B. Apfelberg, C. Sugar, and A. Z. Pfeffer, "A Psychiatric Study of 250 Sex Offenders," AJP 100 (1944): 762-69;

W. Norwood East, "Sexual Offenders," Journal of Nervous and Mental Diseases 103 (1946): 626-66;

William H. Haines, Harry R. Hoffman, and Robert A. Esser, "Commitments Under the Criminal Sexual Psychopath Law in the Criminal Court of Cook County, Illinois." AJP 103 (1948): 420-28;

George A. Cook, "Problem of the Criminal Sexual Psychopath," Diseases of the Nervous System 13 (1949): 13-42;

Hervey Cleckley, The Mask of Sanity (St. Louis: Mosby, 1950);

Karl M. Bowman, "The Problem of the Sex Offender," AJP 108 (1951): 250-.57;

Manfred S. Guttmacher and Henry Weihofen, Psychiatry and the Law (New York: Norton, 1952).

The special number of Federal Probation 14:3 (1950) included

Philip Q. Roche, "Sexual Deviation," pp. 2-11;

R. W. Bowling, "The Sex Offender and the Law," pp. 11-16;

Jacob M. Braude, "The Sex Offender and the Court," pp. 17-22;

Paw W. Tappan, "Sex Offender Laws and Their Administrntion," pp. 32-37.

19. The Levin case is from Chauncey, "The Postwar Sex Crime Panic," p. 168;
Benjamin Karpman, The Sexual Offender and His Offenses (New York: Julian, 1954), p. 490.
For New Hampshire, see Manfred S. Guttmacher, Sex Offenses (New York: Norton, 1951), pp. 11-12.

20. Karpman, Sexual Offender, p. 239;
Rothman, Conscience and Convenience, p. 200;
The Saturday Evening Post remark is from Morris Ploscowe, Sex and the Law (New York: Prentice-Hall, 1951), p. 228.

21. Sutherland, "The Diffusion of Sex Psychopath Laws," p. 142.

22. Pollens, Sex Criminal, pp. 26-27;
the Hoover quotation is from Whitman, Terror, p.394.

23. Pollens, Sex Criminal, 89;
Whitman, Terror; p. 62.

24. Karpman, Sexual Offender; pp. 4, 45, 63, 77;
the final quotation is in ibid., p. 8.

25. Chauncey, "The Postwar Sex Crime Panic," pp. 171-72.

26. Karpman, Sexual Offender; pp. 73, 144-65, 296-330, 349, 418, 456;
Walter Bromberg, Crime and the Mind (Philadelphia: J. B. Lippincott, 194H), p. 9.

27. Johann W. Mohr, Robert E. Turner, and Marian B. Jerry, Pedophilia and Exhibitionism: A Handbook (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1964), p. 13;
Karpman, Sexual Offender, p. 44.
The Psychiatric Quarterly comment is quoted in Hervey Cleckley, The Caricature of Love (New York: Ronald Press, 1957), p. 20.
See' also Bromberg, Crime and the Mind, p. 84.

28. John D.Emilio, Sexual Politics, Sexual Communities (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1983);
John D.Emilio, "The Homosexual Menace," in Kathy Peiss, 'Christina Simmons, and Robert A. Padgug, eds., Passion and Power; Sexuality in History, (Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1989), pp. 226-40.
The White Legion episode is discussed in Katz, Gay/Lesbian Almanac, p. 524.
See also John Gerassi, The Boys of Boise (New York: Macmillan, 1966); p. ix.

29. Whitman, Terror; p. 147.

30. Jonathan Ned Katz, Gay American History (New York: Meridian, 1992), p. 391;
a reference to "cults" is quoted in Katz, Gay/Lesbian Almanac, p. 335.
See also Lewis J. Doshay, The Boy Sex Offender and His Later Career (1943; reprint, Montclair, N.J.; Patterson Smith, 1969), pp. 97-98;
Whitman, Terror; pp. 139--63.
Compare Lauretta Bender and Samuel Paster, "Homosexual Trends in Children," AJO 11 ( 1941): 730-43;
Raymond Waggoner and David A. Boyd, "Juvenile Aberrant Sexual Behavior," in AJO 11 (1941): 275-91.

31. Williams is quoted in De River, Sexual Criminal, pp. xi-xii; 
the psychiatrist is quoted in ibid.,p.87.

32. Ploscowe, Sex and the Law, p. 208. 

33. The quotation about vice squads is from Harris, "Sex Crimes," p. 6; 
other quotations are from Whitman, Terror; pp. 149-52.


Chauncey, "Postwar Sex Crime Panic," p. 177; 

Katz, Gay American History, pp. 91-109; 

Ploscowe, Sex and the Law, pp. 195-96; 

Theoharis, Hoover, Sex, and Crime, pp. 10: 1-15; 

Karpman, Sexual Offender, pp. 466, 473; 

Karl M. Bowman and Bernice Engle, "The Problem of Homosexuality," JSH 31 (1953): 2-16; 

Allan Berube, Coming Out Under Fire (New York: Free Press,1990), pp. 257-60; 

Robert J. Corber, Homosexuality in Cold War America (Durham, N.C.: Duke University Press, 1997).



Williams, Jailbait, p. 110; 

The Problem of Sex Offenses in New York City (Citizens' Committee on the Control of Crime in New York, 1939); 

Report and Analysis of Sex Crimes in the City of New York for the Ten Year Period 1930-1939 (New York: Mayor's Committee for the StudyofSex Offenses, 1940), pp. 10, 38.


36. Sex Crimes in the City of New York for the Ten-Year Period 1930-1939, p. 21; 
Ploscowe, Sex and the Law, p. 181.

37. Ploscowe, Sex and the Law, p. 217; 
Karpman, Sexual Offender, pp. 29, 63, 238. 

38. Sex Crimes in the City of New York for the Ten-Year Period 1930-1939, pp. 40-41; Ploscowe, Sex and the Law, p. 161.

39. Sex Crimes in the City of New York for the Ten-Year Period 1930-1939, pp. 90,11; 
the comment about the "sporadic" or often one-time nature of sex crimes appears in ibid., p. 93.

40. Doshay, Boy Sex Offenders, p. 167. 

41. Ibid., p. 76.

42. Ibid., pp. 9:1-95. 

43. Karpman, Sexual Offender, pp. 22-23; 
Sex Offenders:
A Report to the General Assembly of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania (Harrisburg, Pa.: Joint State Government Commission, 1951).


Gilbert Geis and Colin Goff, "Edwin H. Sutherland's White Collar Crime in America," Criminal Justice History 7 (1986): 1-31; 

Edwin Sutherland, 

"The Diffusion of Sex Psychopath Laws," American Joumal of Sociology 57 (1950): 142-48, and 

"The Sexual Psychopath Laws," Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology 47 (1950): 534-54; 

compare Marvin E. Wolfgang, Patterns in Criminal Homicide (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1958); 
Gladys Shultz, How Many More Victims? (Philadelphia: J. B. Lippincott, 1965), p. 33.

45. Compare 

Paul W. Tappan, "The Sexual Psychopath: A Civic-Social Responsibility" JSH 35 (1949): 354-73; 

Fred Cohen, ed., The Law of Deprivation of Liberty (St. Paul, Minn.: West, 1980), p. 669; 

Paul W. Tappan, The Habitual Sex Offender (Trenton, N.J.: Commission on the Habitual Sex Offender, 1950), pp. 1:1-16; 


Paul W. Tappan, 

"Sentences for Sex Criminals," Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology 42 (1951): 335-36, and 

"Some Myths About the Sex Offender," Federal Probation 12 (1955); 

Albert Ellis and Ralph Brancale, The Psychology of Sex Offenders (Springfield, Ill.: Charles C. Thomas, 1956).


46. Tappan, Habitual Sex Offender; pp. 18-19; 

Alfred C. Kinsey, Wardell B. Pomeroy, and Clyde E. Martin, Sexual Behavior in the Human Male (Philadelphia: W. B. Saunders, 1948);

James H.Jones, Alfred C. Kinsey (New York: Norton, 1997); 


Sex and the Law, p. 209; 

Sex Offenders, pp. 11-12; 

Karpman, Sexual Offender; pp. 6,63, 512.


47. Report of the Governor's Study Commission on the Deviated Criminal Sex Offender (Lansing, Mich., 1951).


Elaine Tyler May, Homeward Bound (New York: Basic, 1988);

Susan M. Hartmann, The Home Front and Beyond (Boston: Twayne,1982); 

Karen Anderson, Wartime Women (Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1981). 

See also Chapter 10 of this book.



D. Diamond and F. Tenenbaum, "To Protect Your Child from Sex Offenders," Better Homes and Gardens, May 1953, pp. 160-62; 

E. M. Stern, "Facts on Sex Offenders Against Children," Parents, October 1954, pp. 42-43; 

M. Holmes, "How to Protect Your Children from Sex Offenders," Better Homes and Gardens, January 1959, pp. 25-26; 

Fredric Wertham, "Sex Crimes Can Be Prevented," Ladies' Home Journal, August 1961, pp. 46-47. 


For the upsurge of interest in 1957, see 

M. Hickey, 

"Parents and Teachers Can Help," Ladies' Home Journal, April 1957, pp. 31-33; 

"Protecting Children Against Sex Offenders: Omaha, Nebraska," Ladies' Home Joumal, April1957 , p. 31; 

R. Brancale and F. L. Bixby, "How to Treat Sex Offenders," Nation, April 6, 1957, pp. 293-95; 

M. Van De Water, "Sex Criminal Not a Fiend," Science News Letter, July 13, 1957, pp. 26-27; 

F. Anderson, 

"Background for Sex Crimes," America, July 6,1957, pp. 377-78; 

"Picture of the Sex Criminal," Science Digest, September 19,57, pp. 22-23. 

B. Goody-Koontz, T. P. Krush, and N. L. Dorner, "Ten-Point Program Against Molesters," National Parent Teacher, October 1957, pp. 7-10. 


See also 

Leon Radzinowicz, Sex Crimes (London: Macmillan, 1957); 

James Melvin Reinhardt, Sex Perversions and Sex Crimes (Springfield, Ill.: Charles C. Thomas, 1957); 

Cleckley, Caricature of Love .


50. Quoted in Elizabeth H. Pleck, Domestic Tyranny (New York: Oxford University Press, 1987), p. 121.


J. K. Hall, ed., One Hundred Years of American Psychiatry (New York: Columbia University Press, 1944), pp. 178-86; 

Pleck, Domestic Tyranny, p. 147; 

Ellen Herman, The Romance of American Psychology (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1995), pp. 2-3; 

Chauncey, "Postwar Sex Crime Panic," p. 166.


52. Whitman, Terror; p. 375; 
the Michigan commission is quoted in Chauncey, "Postwar Sex Crime Panic," p. 166. 
De River's Sexual Criminal was written as a text for police agencies wishing to apply psychiatric insights into criminal investigation - almost a pioneering guide to criminal profiling.