The first chapter epigraph is from Andrew Vachss, "Sex Predators Can't Be Saved," NYT, January 5, 1993. 
For statistics from the 1980s and 1990s, see 

"Sex Offender Registration Laws Pit Victims' Rights Against Civil Rights". NYT: February 20, 1993; 

Daniel Goleman, "Therapies Offer Hope for Sex Offenders". NYT: April 14, 1992; 

Lawrence A. Greenfeld, Sex Offenses and Offenders (Washington, D.C.: Bureau ofJustice Statistics, 1997).



Todd S. Purdum, "Clinton Backs Plan to Track Sex Offenders Nationwide: NYT: June 23, 1996; 

Lawrence A. Greenfeld, Child Victimizers (Washington, D.C.: Bureau of Justice Statistics, 1996); 

William Breer, The Adolescent Molester, 2d ed. (Springfield, Ill.: Charles C. Thomas, 1996); 

Douglas W. Pryor, Unspeakable Acts (New York: New York University Press, 1996); 

Dennis Howitt, Paedophiles and Sexual Offenses Against Children (New York: Wiley, 1995); 

Nathaniel J. Pallone, Rehabilitating Criminal Sexual Psychopaths (New Brunswick. N.J.: Transaction, 1990); 

George W. Barnard et al., The Child Molester (New York: Brunner-Mazel, 1989); 

L. Furby, M. R. Weinrott, and L. Blackshaw, "Sex Offender Recidivism, A Review," Psychological Bulletin 105:1 (1989): 3-30; 

Gene Abel et al., "Self-Reported Sex Crimes of Non-Incarcerated Paraphiliacs," Journal of Interpersonal Violence 1 (1987): 3--25; 

Ronald M. Holmes, Sex Crimes (Newbury Park, Calif.: Sage, 1991); 

Howard Hunter, Man/Child: An Insight into Child Sexual Abuse by a Convicted Molester (Jefferson, N.C.: McFarland, 1991).


For "serial" crime, see 

Doug Smith, "LAPD Assailed for Not Telling Schools About Serial Molester," LAT: November 17, 1993; 

Philip Jenkins, Using Murder (Hawthorne, N.Y.: Aldine de Gruyter, 1994). 

Compare Eric Leberg, Understanding Child Molesters (Thousand Oaks, Calif.: Sage. 1997).



Jerry Seper, "Pedophile Was Freed Despite Past: Officials Say He Killed Girl, Molested Others," Washington Times, June 7, 1989; 

Jerry Seper, "Mutilation of Boy Prompts Effort to Reform System," Washington Times, June 23, 1989; 

Deeann Glamser, "Rape Victim, 8, to Face Accused," USA Today, January 30, 1990; 

Timothy Egan, "Sex Crimes Against Children: Many Doubt There's a Cure." NYT: January 1, 1990.



Robb London, "Strategy on Sex Crimes Is Prison, Then Prison," NYT: February 8, 1991; 

F. Berlin and H. M. Malin, "Media Distortion of the Public's Perception of Recidivism and Psychiatric Rehabilitation," AJP, 148:11 (1991): 1572-76; 

"Predators and Politics: A Symposium on Washington's Sexually Violent Predator Statute:. University of Puget Sound Law Review 15:3 (1992); 

"Sex Offenders in Washington State Could Get Life in Prison," Atlanta Journal and Constitution, November 29, 1989; 

"Sex Offender Registration Laws Pit Victims. Rights Against Civil Rights." 

For local Washington precedents, see Robinson A. Williams, The Washington State Sexual Psychopath Law (Fort Steilacoom, Wash.: Department of Social and Health Services, Western State Hospital, 1971).


London, "Strategy on Sex Crimes."



John La Fond,

"Predator Laws ... and Sinister Sex Offenders," Washington Times, January 10, 1993, and

"Protect Everyone's Rights," USA Today, December8, 1993;

Laurie Kellman, "Virginia Studies Tough Washington State Sex Offender Law," Washington Times, December 12, 1992.


Egan, "Sex Crimes Against Children"; Gary C. King, Driven to Kill (New York: Pinnacle, 1993).


Lori Steinhorst and John Rose, When the Monster Comes Out of the Closet (Salem, Oreg.: Rose, 1994);

Vachss, "Sex Predators Can't be Saved," NYT; January 5, 1993.


Lexis-Nexis search.



Jenkins, Using Murder.

Andrew Vachss's biological speculations are elaborated in his article "If We Really Want to Protect Children," Parade Magazine, November 3, 1996;

compare Vachss,

"Today's Abused Child Could Be Tomorrow's Predator," WP; June 3, 1990, and

"How We Can Fight Child Abuse," WP; August 20, 1989;

Jack Olsen, Predator: Rape, Madness, and Injustice in Seattle (New York: Delacorte, 1991);

Kathleen S. Lowney and Joel Best, "Stalking Strangers and Lovers," in Joel Best, ed., Images of Issues (Hawthorne, N.Y.: Aldine de Gruyter, 1995), pp. 33-58.

For the press's use of predator concept, see, for example,

Gil Spencer, 'When Protector Becomes Predator, Man the Lifeboats," Denver Post, March 31, 1991;

Ginny McKibben, "'Predator' Gets Seventy-Five Years in Sex Assaults," Denver Post, October 29, 1991;

Rick Kogan, "The Doctor as Predator:" Chicago Tribune, November 12, 1991;

Scott Minerbrook, "The Case of the Sexual Predator," U.S. News and World Report, April 19, 1993, pp. 31-35;

Veronica T. Jennings, "Silver Spring Man Offers a Grim Account of Life as a Sexual Predator," WP; April 10, 1994;

Maurice Possley, "Predator Gets Life Term Without Parole," Chicago Tribune, May 25, 1995;

Art Barnum, "Sexual Predator Is Sentenced to Twenty years for Abusing Boys," Chicago Tribune, November 23, 1995;

Ron French, "Cyberspace Predator Battles Police Chiefs Accusations," Detroit News, March 6, 1996.


Michael DeCourcy Hinds, "More Say They Are Sex-Case Victims," NYT; March 31, 1992;

"Child Molester Tells of a Rampage in Five States," NYT; December26, 1993;

Beverly Lowry, "Should Ellie Nesler Go Free?" Redbook, August 1994, pp. 82-85;

"Ellie Nesler," People Magazine, April 19, 1993, p. 42;

Michelle Quinn, "Sympathy for a Mother Accused of Slaying Molester in Revenge," NYT, April 12, 1993;

James R. Kincaid, "Purity, Pederasty, and a Fallen Heroine," NYT; June 1, 1993.


Claire Safran "Two Moms Who Saved Their Town from a Child Molester," Good Housekeeping, April 1995, p. 82;

Shari Geller, Fatal Convictions (New York: ReganBooks, 1996).


Mike Echols, I Know My First Name Is Steven (New York: Pinnacle, 1991);

Terry Ganey, St. Joseph's Children (New York: Lyle Stuart and Carol, 1989); King, Driven to Kill;

Don W. Weber and Charles Bosworth, Secret Lessons (New York: Onyx, 1994);

Mike Echols, Brother Tony's Boys (Amherst, N.Y.: Prometheus, 1996);

Philip Jenkins, Pedophiles and Priests (New York: Oxford University Press, 1996).



"Child Hunter," program on 48 Hours, August 24, 1994.

48 Hours returned to the "child hunter" theme in later episodes -

in June 1996, for example, and

in a segment entitled "A Killer in Friendswood," broadcast May 1, 1997.

For lessons in evading abductors, see Raymond Hernandez, "Now, Should They Teach the Potato Famine in Schools?" NYT, December 1, 1996.

For the renewed emphasis on stranger abduction, see

Paula S. Fass, Kidnapped: Child Abduction in America (New York: Oxford University Press, 1997), pp. 213-67;

Cynthia MacGregor, Stranger (New York: PowerKids Books, 1997);

Margaret 0. Hyde, Missing and Murdered Children (New York: Franklin Watts, 1998).


Barry Bortnick, Polly Klaas: The Murder of America's Child (New York: Pinnacle, 1995);

Elizabeth Gleick, "Taken in the Night," People Weekly, October 25, 1993, pp. 66-68;

Melinda Beck, 'The Sad Case of Polly Klaas," Newsweek, December 13, 1993, p. 39;

Elizabeth Gleick, "'America's Child," People Weekly, December 20, 1993, pp. 84-88;

Ernest Van Den Haag, "How to Cut Crime," National Review, May 30, 1994, pp. 30--35;

"Richard Allen Davis' Life of Crime," SFC, August 6, 1996;

Elizabeth Gleick, "An Angel named Polly," People Weekly, November 28, 1994, pp. 56-59;

Jeffrey Toobin, "The Man Who Kept Going Free," New Yorker; March 7, 1994, pp. 38-53;

"What If. ..?" ABC's Primetime Live, January 27, 1994.


Jane Gross, "Crying for Protection," Saturday Evening Post, March 1994, pp. 38-39;

Polly Klaas Foundation web site, 1995.

David Shichor and Dale K. Sechrest, Three Strikes and You're Out (Thousand Oaks, Calif.: Sage, 1996);

"Rape: The Crime That Is Truly Insane," editorial in LAT; March 20, 1994;

Tom Junod, "America's Most Haunted," GQ, September 1997, pp. 342-49.


William Glaberson, " 'Megan's Law' Sex Offender Defied Efforts at Rehabilitation:
NYT, May 28,1996;

Jon Nordheimer, "New Look at Jail Unit Housing Sex offenders," NYT; November 2, 1994;

Kimberly McLarin, "Fast Assembly Passes Seven Bills on Sex Abuse," NYT, August 30, 1994.


Peter Davis, "The Sex Offender Next Door:' NYT Magazine, July 28, 1996, pp. 20-27;

Elizabeth Kelley Cierzniak, "There Goes the Neighborhood," Indiana Law Review 28:3 (1995): 715-36;

House Committee on the Judiciary, Megan's Law (Washington: GPO, 1996);

McLarin, "Fast Assembly";

Rebecca Goldsmith, "Victim's Advocates Endorse Bills Toughening Penalties," , May 10, 1996.


Robert Hanley, "Federal Appeals Court Rejects Offenders Challenge to Megan's Law," NYT, April 13, 1996;

Jerry Gray; "House Endorses Bill to Require Notification on Sex Offenders," NYT, May 8, 1996;

Megans Law, Community Notification of Sex Offenders: Report of the Virginia State Crime Commission to the Governor and the General Assembly of Virginia. (Richmond: Commonwealth of Virginia, 1997).


Frank Browning, "From 'poor to 'Predator,' " WP, March 28, 1993.



"What If. ..?" ABC Primetime Live, January 27, 1994;

Purdum, "Clinton Backs Plan"; 

"Sex Offenders Are Subject of a Registry," NYT: August 25, 1996; 

Democratic campaign commercial, broadcast on ABC television, October 20, 1996.


Wallace Turner, "Unusual Sentence Stirs Legal Dispute," NYT: August 27, 1987; 

Jan Hoffman, "Crime and Punishment," NYT: January 16, 1997; 

"Sex Offender Registration Laws Pit Victims' Rights Against Civil Rights"; 

Robert L. Steinback, "Sexual Predators Should Be Tagged," article from Miami Herald, reprinted in State College (Pa.) Centre Daily Times, December 8, 1996; 

CBS's 48 Hours, "Predators," 1991; 

Suzanne Fields, "Molesters Should Be Monitored for Life," Arizona Republic, April 7, 1997.


Don Van Natta, "U.S. Judge Blocks State's Plan to Release Names and Addresses of Sex Offenders," NYT: March 8, 1996.


Whitman, Terror, pp. 383-84; "Sex Offender Registration Laws Pit Victims' Rights Against Civil Rights"; 

Matthew Stadler, "Stalking the Predator," NYT: November 7, 1995.


Andy Newman, "New Jersey Court Says 12-Year-Old Must Register as a Sexual offender," NYT: April 12, 1996; 

Van Natta, "U.S. Judge Blocks State's Plan"; 

Cathy Young, "Untangling Notification Hysteria," Philadelphia lnquirer, May 30, 1996; 

Monte Williams, "Sex Offenders' Law Prompts Privacy Debate in New York," NYT, February 24, 1996.


"Commitment Law Faces Constitutional Challenge," WWW page, 1996; 

Judy Steed, Our Little Secret (Toronto: Vintage Canada, 1995), p. 215.


Todd S. Purdum, "Registry Laws Tar Sex Crime Convicts with Broad Brush," NYT: July 1, 1997; 

Williams, "Sex Offenders' Law"; 

Robert Hanley, "Federal Appeals Court Rejects Offenders' Challenge to Megan's Law," NYT: April 13, 1996; 

Lynette Holloway, "Megan's Law Notification Is Barred in Old Convictions," NYT, September 26, 1996. 

On the California situation, see Carey Goldberg, "California Judges Modify Three-Strikes Law," NYT: June 21, 1996. 


The case is Kansas v. Hendricks, 95-1649. 


Linda Greenhouse, "Likely Repeaters May Stay Confined," NYT: June 24, 1997; 

Aaron Epstein, "Justices Say States Can Keep Sexual Predators Locked Up," Philadelphia Inquirer: June 24, 1997; 

Matthew Purdy, "Wave of New Laws Seeks to Confine Sexual Offenders," NYT: June 29, 1997.


Andrew T. Scull, Decarceration, Community Treatment, and the Deviant, 2d ed. (New Brunswick, N.J.: Rutgers University Press, 1984); 

Daniel Goleman, "States Move to Ease Law Committing Mentally Ill," NYT: December 9, 1986; 

Robert Pear, "For Mentally Ill, Life on the Streets Is No Boon," NYT: January 3, 1987; 

Linda Greenhouse, "Court Upholds Forced Treatment of Mentally III by Prison officials," NYT: February 28, 1990; 

E. Fuller Torrey, Out of the Shadows (New York: Wiley, I997).


Sylvere Lotringer, Overexposed (New York: Pantheon, 1988); 

Joanne G. Greer and Irving R. Stuart, eds., The Sexual Aggressor (New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1983); 

William J. Winslade, "Voluntary Castration for Nonviolent Pedophiles," Houston Chronicle, May 16, 1995; 

Matthew Stadler, The Sex Offender (New York: HarperCollins, 1994).


The Connecticut case is described in Todd R. Clear and George F. Cole, American Corrections (Monterey, Calif.: Brooks Cole, 1986). 

For McQuay, see 

Larry Don McQuayand F. Berlin, "The Case for Castration," Washington Monthly, May 1994, pp. 26-29; 

Sam Howe Verhovek, "Molester Seeks Castration: Texas Agrees," NYT; April 5, 1996; 

Sam Howe Verhovek, "Texas Frees Child Molester Who Warned of Backsliding," NYT: April 9, 1996.


Eli Coleman, Margretta Dwyer, and Nathaniel J. Pallone, eds., Sex Offender Treatment (Binghamton, N .Y.: Haworth, 1996); 

William E. Prendergast, Treating Sex offenders in Correctional Institutions and Outpatient Clinics (New York: Haworth, 1991); 

Michael A. O'Connell, Eric Leberg, and Craig R. Donaldson, Working with Sex Offenders (Thousand Oaks, Calif.: Sage, 1990); 

Barry M. Maletzky and Kevin B. McGovern, Treating the Sexual Offender (Thousand Oaks, Calif.: Sage, 1990); 

Sean P. Murphy, "Nation Getting Tougher with Its Sex Offenders," BG, June 16, 1992; 

B. Drummond Ayres, "California Bill Would Require 'Chemical Castration' for Repeat Sex Offenders," NYT; August 27, 1996.


Lynn Walford, "Rooting Out Evil [sic]," LAT; February7, 1996; 

Dwight Silverman, "Pornography in Cyberspace Poses Dilemma," Houston Chronicle, July 21, 1995; 

John Crewdson, By Silence Betrayed (New York: Little, Brown, 1988), pp. 103-5; 

Attorney General's Commission on Pornography, Final Report (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Justice, 1986), pp. 628-29.


How Can Parents Protect Their Children from Pedophiles Roaming the Internet? on-line brochure, WWW, 1995; 

Lawrence J. Magid, Child Safety on the Information Highway, on-line brochure, produced by the NCMEC and the Interactive Services Association, WWW 1994; 

House Committee on the Judiciary, Subcommittee On Crime, Sexual Exploitation of Children: Hearings Before the Subcommittee (In Crime of the Committee on the Judiciary (Washington, D.C.: GPO, 1977), p. 429; 

Pat Pulling, The Devil's Web: Who Is Stalking Your Children for Satan? (Lafayette, La.: Huntington House, 1989).


"FBI Says Pair Used Sex Message Service in Plot to Nab a Boy, Kill Him on Film," Atlanta Journal and Constitution, August 23, 1989; 

Robert L. Jackson, "Computer-Crime Sleuths Go Undercover," LAT; October 1, 1989; 

David Armstrong, "Child Molesters Use Computer Talk as Bait," BG, March 3, 1994; 

Julie Morris, "Pasadena Child Molesting Case Takes High-Tech Turn," Houston Post, March 4, 1994; 

Barbara Kantrowitz, "Child Abuse in Cyberspace," Newsweek, April 18, 1994, p. 40; 

John Larrabee, "Cyberspace a New Beat for Police," USA Today, April 26, 1994; 

Sandy Rovner, "Molesting Children by Computer," WP: August 2, 1994; 

Sebastian Rotella, "Computerized Child Porno Ring Broken," LAT: September 24, 1994; 

Laurie J. Flynn, "Guardian Angels Now Patrol the Net," NYT; March 16, 1996; 

"A Twenty-City Search in Child Pornography Inquiry," NYT: December 12, 1996.


Mark Clayton, "Off-Line Hazards Lie in Web's Links, Lures," in The Child Sex Trade, series reprint from the Christian Science Monitor (1996): 7; 

Steven Levy, "No Place for Kids?" Newsweek, July 3, 1995, pp. 46-50; 

Dennis McCafferty, "Georgian Accused of Going On-Line to Find Molestation Victims," Atlanta Journal and Constitution, August 4, 1995; 

"Florida Man Accused of Using Cyberspace to Lure, Rape Teenager," BG, August 30, 1995; 

Steve Olafson, "Jury Picked in Child-Sex Trial of Alvin Man," Houston Chronicle, December 5, 1995; 

Nina Bernstein, "On Prison Computer, Files to Make Parents Shiver," NYT: November 18, 1996; 

"Missing Girl Is Found with Man from Internet," NYT: Apri118, 1997; 

"Visits and Vigilance: Sex Offenders Shadowed by Parole Officers," NYT: June 8, 1997.


Simon Winchester, "An Electronic Sink of Depravity," Spectator: February4, 1995, pp. 9-11. 

For Grassley's earlier interest in child protection, see 
Senate Committee on the Judiciary, Subcommittee on Juvenile Justice, Effects of Pornography on Women and Children: Hearings Before the Subcommittee on Juvenile Justice of the Committee on the Judiciary (Washington, D.C.: GPO, 1985).


Matt Schwartz, "Computer Child Porn Raid Targets Home in Houston," Houston Post, March 5, 1993; 

Jordana Hart, "Child Pornography via Computer Is Focus of Federal Sweep," BG, March 7, 1993; 

Ronald J. Ostrow, "Fight Against Child Pornography Waged on New Front: Computers," LAT: September 1, 1993; 

Michael Grunwald, "Police Probe America Online-Pornography Link," BG, January 18, 1995; 

Philip Elmer-DeWitt, "On a Screen near You: Cyberporn," Time, July 3, 1995, pp. 38-45.


Jim Exon, "At Issue: Should the Government Crack Down on Pornography on the Internet?" CQ Researcher 5:24 (1995): 577.


Elmer-DeWitt, "On a Screen near You"; 

Edmund L. Andrews, " A Crusader Against Cyberporn Who Was Once Involved in a Sex Scandal," NYT: November 27, 1995.


Marty Rimm, "Marketing Pornography on the Information Superhighway," Georgetown Law Journal 83:5 (June 1995): 1849-73, quoted in Levy, "No Place for Kids?"; 

Philip Elmer-DeWitt, 

"On a Screen near You," and 

"Firestorm on the Computer Nets," 
Time, July 24, 1995, p. 57.


Elmer-DeWitt, "On a Screen near You"; 

Levy, "No Place for Kids?" 

Compare Stephen Schwartz, "S.F. Man Held, Accused of Enticing Teen On-Line," SFC, Au- gust 25, 1995.


Robert Rossney, "Time's Story on Cyberporn of Questionable Validity," SFC, July 13, 1995; 

G. Bruce Knecht, "Time Magazine Notes That Questions Are Raised on Cyberporn Cover Story," WSJ, July 17, 1995.


Peter H. Lewis, "Computer Pornography Hearing Will Not Include Expert Witness," NYT: July 24, 1995; 

Senate Committee on the Judiciary, Cyberporn and children: Hearing Before the Committee on the Judiciary (Washington, D.C.: GPO, 1995); 

House Committee on Science, Cyberporn [and] Protecting Our Children from the Back Alleys of the Internet: Joint Hearing Before the Subcommittee on Basic Research and the Subcommittee on Technology of the Committee on Science (Washington, D.C.: GPO, 1995); 

Barry F. Crimmins, "Child Pornography," BG, July 29, 1995.


Kara Swisher, "On-Line Child Pornography Charged as Twelve Are Arrested," WP, September 14, 1995; 

David Johnston, "Use of Computer Network for Child Sex Sets Off Raids," NYT; September 14, 1995; 

Jared Sandberg, "FBI Crackdown on Child Pornography Opens Hornet's Nest, Stinging America Online," WSJ, September 15, 1995; 

Laura Evenson, "FBI Raid on Cyberporn Heightens Concern About Children On-Line," SFC, September 15, 1995; 

John W. Fountain, "Federal Agents Baited 'Net in Child Pornography Case," WP, November 9, 1995.


"Pedophiles Use Encoding Devices to Make Secret Use of Internet," Times (London), November 21, 1995; 

CBS evening news, December 15, 1996.


Peter H. Lewis, "Judges Turn Back Law Intended to Regulate Internet Decency," NYT: June 13, 1996; 

Linda Greenhouse, "Court, 9-0, Upholds State Laws Prohibiting Assisted Suicide, Protects Speech on Internet," NYT; June 27, 1997. 

The CDA case was Reno v. American Civil Liberties Union, 96-511.


King, Driven to Kill, p. 333; Neil S. Websdale, "Predators: The Social Construction of Stranger-Danger in Washington State a Form of Patriarchal Ideology," Women and Criminal Justice 7:2 (1996): 43--68.


Levy, "No Place for Kids?" 

Compare Clayton, "Off-Line Hazards Lie in Web's Links, Lures."