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References & Abstracts

This list of references from the psychINFO database was posted to a psychotherapy newsgroup. The list includes a brief summary by the authors of the relevant research of Drs. Rind and Bauserman, and Dr. Candidate Philip Tromovitch. Related work of Dr. Brongersma and Sandfort also appear in this list.


1. (PsycINFO result) BOOK CHAPTER Weaver, Terri L.; Kilpatrick, Dean G.; Resnick, Heidi S.; Best, Connie L.; and others. An examination of physical assault and childhood victimization histories within a national probability sample of women. IN: Out of darkness: Contemporary perspectives on family violence.; Glenda Kaufman Kantor, Jana L. Jasinski, Eds. Sage Publications, Inc, Thousand Oaks, CA, US. (American Sociological Assn, Aug, 1994, Los Angeles, CA, US) 1997. p. 35-46. Pub type: Experimental.

Abstract: (from the chapter) To examine the relationship between childhood history and adult assault, childhood physical and sexual abuse was assessed within the national sample. It was expected that (a) both physical assault groups would have significantly higher rates of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) compared with nonvictims of assault, and (b) that the national sample of victims of romantic partner assault would report significantly more experiences of series assaults compared with victims of stranger assault. Following univariate analyses, logistic regressions were conducted to examine multivariate relationships between variables predicting series assaults and between variables predicting stranger/romantic partner assault. Information on the demographics, victimization screening, and PTSD symptoms were collected for 4,008 women aged 18-34 yrs.... Results indicate that factors distinctive for physical assault by romantic partners include younger victims, increased likelihood of employment, more series assaults, increased injury, and perpetrator under the influence of alcohol. Increased rates of childhood victimization, PTSD, and life threat appear to be more generally related to physical assault rather than to relationship with the perpetrator.

2. (PsycINFO result) Briggs, Kathleen; Hubbs-Tait, Laura; Culp, Rex E.; Blankemeyer, Maureen. Perceiver bias in expectancies for sexually abused children. Family Relations: Journal of Applied Family & Child Studies, 1995 Jul, v44 (n3):291-298.

Abstract: (journal abstract) College students (N = 134) judged children in vignettes. Vignettes varied on child gender and family history label (sexually abused, mother dying of cancer, normal). Perceiver bias was confirmed. Sexually abused children were expected to have more behavior problems than children whose mothers had terminal cancer. When acquaintance with victims of sexual abuse was controlled, male and female respondents' perceptions did not differ. However, perceptions of female sexual abuse victims were more biased than perceptions of male victims. ((c) 1998 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved).

3. (PsycINFO result) Rind, Bruce; Tromovitch, Philip; Bauserman, Robert. A meta-analytic examination of assumed properties of child sexual abuse using college samples. Psychological Bulletin, 1998 Jul, v124 (n1):22-53.

Abstract: (journal abstract) Many lay persons and professionals believe that child sexual abuse (CSA) causes intense harm, regardless of gender, pervasively in the general population. The authors examined this belief by reviewing 59 studies based on college samples. Meta-analyses revealed that students with CSA were, on average, slightly less well adjusted than controls. However, this poorer adjustment could not be attributed to CSA because family environment (FE) was consistently confounded with CSA, FE explained considerably more adjustment variance than CSA, and CSA-adjustment relations generally became nonsignificant when studies controlled for FE. Self-reported reactions to and effects from CSA indicated that negative effects were neither pervasive nor typically intense, and than men reacted much less negatively than women. The college data were completely consistent with data from national samples. Basic beliefs about CSA in the general population were not supported. ((c) 1998 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved).

4. (PsycINFO result) McCarthy, Barry W. Commentary: Effects of sexual trauma on adult sexuality. Journal of Sex & Marital Therapy, 1998 Apr-Jun, v24 (n2):91-92.

Abstract: Comments on M. G. Bartoi and B. N. Kinder's (see record 1998-02245-002) study of the effects of child and adult sexual abuse on the current sexual functioning of female college students. McCarthy adds further suggestions for future research, including a fine grain analysis of the cognitions and emotional processes at the time of the traumatic incident and how the incident was handled. ((c) 1998 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved).

5. (PsycINFO result) Rind, Bruce; Tromovitch, Philip. A meta-analytic review of findings from national samples on psychological correlates of child sexual abuse. Journal of Sex Research, 1997, v34 (n3):237-255.

Abstract: To evaluate the implications and conclusions of literature reviews (e.g., J. H. Beitchman et al, 1991) on psychological correlates of child sexual abuse (CSA) that have relied on studies using clinical and legal samples, the authors conducted a literature review/meta-analysis of 7 studies using national probability samples. Contrary to previous conclusions, it was found that, in the general population, CSA is not associated with pervasive harm, and that harm, when it occurs, is not typically intense. CSA experiences for males and females are not equivalent; a substantially lower proportion of males reported negative effects. The authors also found that conclusions about a causal link between CSA and later psychological maladjustment in the general population cannot be made safely because of the reliable presence of confounding variables. (PsycINFO Database Copyright 1998 American Psychological Assn, all rights reserved).

6. (PsycINFO result) Bauserman, Robert; Rind, Bruce. Psychological correlates of male child and adolescent sexual experiences with adults: A review of the nonclinical literature. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 1997 Apr, v26 (n2):105-141. Pub type: Literature Review; Review.

Abstract: Researchers have generally neglected sexual experiences of boys with adults, assumed them to be the same as those of girls, or tried to understand them by referring to clinical research while ignoring nonclinical research. A review of nonclinical research allows a more complete understanding of boys' sexual experiences with adults and the outcomes and correlates of those experiences. Research with nonclinical samples reveals a broad range of reactions, with most of them being either neutral or positive. Clinical samples reveal a narrower, primarily negative set of reactions. Comparison of the reactions of boys and girls shows that reactions and outcomes for boys are more likely to be neutral or positive. Moderator variables, including presence of force, perceptions of consent, and relationship to the adult, also relate to outcomes. Incestuous contacts and those involving force or threats are most likely to be negative. Problems in this field of research include broad and vague definitions of "abuse" and conflation of value judgments with harm. Effects of boys' early sexual experiences with older persons in general cannot be accurately inferred from clinical research alone or from girls' experiences. (PsycINFO Database Copyright 1997 American Psychological Assn, all rights reserved).

7. (PsycINFO result) Rind, Bruce. "An analysis of human sexuality textbook coverage of the psychological correlates of adult-nonadult sex.": Response. Journal of Sex Research, 1996, v33 (n2):173-174.

Abstract: Responds to N. McConaghy's comments (see record ##199605298-009) on Rind's original article (see record 83-24358) on the analysis of human sexual textbook coverage of the psychological correlates of adult-nonadult sex. Rind believes that McConaghy offered a number of constructive criticisms. Rind's responses are made in an effort to add clarity to the points that McConaghy raised. (PsycINFO Database Copyright 1997 American Psychological Assn, all rights reserved).

8. (PsycINFO result) Rind, Bruce; Jaeger, Marianne; Strohmetz, David B. Effect of crime seriousness on simulated jurors' use of inadmissible evidence. Journal of Social Psychology, 1995 Aug, v135 (n4):417-424.

Abstract: Examined the effect of crime seriousness on 120 undergraduate student jurors' use of inadmissible evidence. Subjects were 17-55 yr olds. Subjects read a brief trial summary of a crime that was low, intermediate, or high in seriousness (vandalism, arson, or murder). Half of the sample was exposed to ambiguous evidence, and the other half was exposed to damaging inadmissible evidence. Across crimes, all factors were held constant except for descriptions of the crimes themselves. Only when the crime was not serious were Subjects biased by the inadmissible evidence. Crime seriousness was positively correlated with guilt judgments when the evidence was ambiguous, but not when damaging inadmissible evidence was added. (PsycINFO Database Copyright 1996 American Psychological Assn, all rights reserved).

9. (PsycINFO result) Rind, Bruce. An analysis of human sexuality textbook coverage of the psychological correlates of adult-nonadult sex. Journal of Sex Research, 1995, v32 (n3):219-233.

Abstract: Examined the ways in which human sexuality textbooks (HSTs) covered the psychological correlates of adult-nonadult sex. 14 HSTs, containing correlates, consequences, or effects of adult-nonadult sex were coded by 5 coders. 13 items were developed for the coders, such as, use of clinical/legal samples, range of reactions, sex differences, generalizability, and causal attributions. Results show that 9 HSTs presented highly biased information, 3 were moderately biased, and 2 were unbiased. Bias in reporting correlates was indicated by an over reliance on findings from clinical and legal samples, exaggerated reports of the extent and typical intensity of harm, failure to separate incestuous from nonincestuous experiences, failure to separate male and female experiences and reactions, and inappropriate generalizations and causal attributions. Over reliance on using reports from clinical and legal samples resulted in many of the other biases. (PsycINFO Database Copyright 1996 American Psychological Assn, all rights reserved).

10. (PsycINFO result) Rind, Bruce; Bauserman, Robert. Biased terminology effects and biased information processing in research on adult-nonadult sexual interactions: An empirical investigation. Journal of Sex Research, 1993 Aug, v30 (n3):260-269.

Abstract: 80 undergraduates read a shortened journal article that used either neutral or negative terms to describe a number of cases of sexual relationships between male adolescents and male adults. Additionally, students were exposed either to descriptive information or descriptive plus long-term non-negative outcome information. The purpose of this manipulation was to examine whether students would process the neutral and positive data in a biased fashion, because these data contradict strongly held assumptions of harm as a consequence of sexual contacts between adults and children/adolescents. Subjects' judgments were negatively biased by the negative terminology. The Subjects also exhibited evidence for biased processing of the non-negative outcome information. (PsycINFO Database Copyright 1994 American Psychological Assn, all rights reserved).

11. (PsycINFO result) Bauserman, Robert. Egalitarian, sexist, and aggressive sexual materials: Attitude effects and viewer responses. Journal of Sex Research, 1998 Aug, v35 (n3):244-253. Pub type: Empirical Study.

Abstract: Examined attitudinal effects of, and evaluative and cognitive responses to, 3 types of sexually explicit scenes: egalitarian, sexist, and sexually aggressive. Based on the Elaboration Likelihood Model of persuasion (R. Petty and J. Cacioppo, 1986), 2 experiments were conducted. Exp 1 identified portrayals that differed in the extent of sexism and sexual aggression. These stimulus materials were used in Exp 2 to measure attitude change. It was hypothesized that 3 types of scenes should have different effects on attitudes relevant to sexual equality and sexual aggression. In Exp 1, 20 male college students rated characteristics of each scene according to degree of physical force the male used against the female. In Exp 2, 115 undergraduate males were assigned to a control group or viewed scenes representative of 1 of the 3 categories, and completed evaluative ratings, thought-listing tasks, and measures of sexual attitudes and beliefs. Type of scene viewed had no effect on attitudes, but Subjects' evaluative and cognitive reactions were most negative following sexually aggressive scenes and most positive following egalitarian scenes. ((c) 1998 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved).

12. (PsycINFO result) Bauserman, Robert. Sexual aggression and pornography: A review of correlational research. Basic & Applied Social Psychology, 1996 Dec, v18 (n4):405-427. Pub type: Literature Review; Review.

Abstract: Ongoing concern about effects of sexually explicit materials includes the role of such material in sex offenses. Issues include sex offenders' experiences with pornography and the link between pornography and sex crime rates. Review of the literature shows that sex offenders typically do not have earlier or more unusual exposure to pornography in childhood or adolescence, compared to nonoffenders. However, a minority of offenders report current use of pornography in their offenses. Rape rates are not consistently associated with pornography circulation, and the relationships found are ambiguous. Findings are consistent with a social learning view of pornography, but not with the view that sexually explicit materials in general contribute directly to sex crimes. The effort to reduce sex offenses should focus on types of experiences and backgrounds applicable to a larger number of offenders. (PsycINFO Database Copyright 1997 American Psychological Assn, all rights reserved).

13. (PsycINFO result) Bauserman, Robert; Davis, Clive. Perceptions of early sexual experiences and adult sexual adjustment. Journal of Psychology & Human Sexuality, 1996, v8 (n3):37-59.

Abstract: Examined self-evaluations of childhood and adolescent sexual experiences as positive, mixed, or negative, and the relationship of these evaluations to adult sexual attitudes and adjustment. 141 undergraduates completed measures of sexual attitudes, sexual satisfaction, and sexual history (e.g., Sexual History Questionnaire, Sexual Opinion Survey, Sexual Attitudes for Self and Others Questionnaire, and Sexual Satisfaction Inventory). Results show that Subjects who positively evaluated their early sexual experiences were associated with greater erotophilia, more acceptance of various sexual behaviors for self and others, greater sexual satisfaction, and greater acceptance of sexual behaviors at younger ages. Findings emphasize the importance of self-evaluation of one's sexual experiences to understand the relationship to one's later sexuality. (PsycINFO Database Copyright 1997 American Psychological Assn, all rights reserved).

14. (PsycINFO result) Davis, Clive M.; Bauserman, Robert. Exposure to sexually explicit materials: An attitude change perspective. Annual Review of Sex Research, 1993, v4:121-209. Pub type: Literature Review; Review.

Abstract: Presents a review of research findings on exposure to sexually explicit materials (SEM), using 2 mainstream social psychological theories of attitude change: the Elaboration Likelihood Model (R. E. Petty and J. T. Cacioppo, 1986), and the Heuristic-Systematic Model (S. Chaiken et al, 1989). The review covers 16 analyses of SEM research (published 1967-1990) in various media. Repeated exposure to SEM tends to make the types of behavior, beliefs, and attitudes that are depicted more accepted. Individuals predisposed to adversarial sexual beliefs and behavior are reinforced by SEM depicting these conditions. Yet, there is no evidence that shows mere exposure to SEM is sufficient to produce sustained attitude change (i.e., inappropriate behavior and attitudes about sexuality and toward women). (PsycINFO Database Copyright 1994 American Psychological Assn, all rights reserved).

15. (PsycINFO result) Bauserman, Robert. Objectivity and ideology: Criticism of Theo Sandfort's research on man-boy sexual relations. Journal of Homosexuality, 1990, v20 (n1-2):297-312.

Abstract: Three critiques of T. Sandfort's (1982) research on man-boy sexual relationships in the Netherlands are examined and evaluated. The critiques were made by D. Finkelhor (1984), D. Mrazek (1985), and W. Masters et al (1985). It is argued that moral condemnation of such relationships, combined with a prevailing ideology of boy "victims" and adult "perpetrators," results in efforts by Sandfort's critics to attack and discredit his research rather than evaluate it objectively. (PsycINFO Database Copyright 1991 American Psychological Assn, all rights reserved).

16. (PsycINFO result) BOOK CHAPTER; CONFERENCE Sandfort, T. G. M. The argument for adult-child sexual contact: A critical appraisal and new data. IN: The sexual abuse of children, Vol. 1: Theory and research; Vol. 2: Clinical issues.; William O'Donohue, James H. Geer, Eds. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc, Hillsdale, NJ, US. (European Congress of Psychology, 1st, Jul, 1989) 1992. p. 38-48.

Abstract: (from the chapter) (criticizes studies that assume) that sexual contacts between adults and children are always a form of sexual abuse; it will be documented how this assumption influences the way in which investigations are carried out; data will be presented from research in which sexual contacts between adults and children have not been a priori considered to be abuse.

17. (PsycINFO result) BOOK CHAPTER Sandfort, Theo G. M.; Everaerd, Walter T. A. M. Male juvenile partners in pedophilia. IN: Childhood and adolescent sexology. Handbook of sexology, Vol. 7.; M. E. Perry, Ed. Elsevier Science Publishing Co, Inc, Amsterdam, Netherlands. 1990. p. 361-380.

Abstract: (summarized) Reviews literature on the definitions and outcomes of male-male pedophilia on juvenile partners. (from the chapter) pedophilia as behavior; pedophilia as a motive; pedophilia as identity; children in pedophile relationships... what is known about children in pedophile relationships; start of the affair and first sexual contact; the boys' involvement in the sexual contact: engagement and experience; motives of boys for maintaining pedophile relationships; power differences; the role of the parents; consequences of pedophile relationships for the child.

18. (PsycINFO result) Sandfort, Theo; Brongersma, Edward; Van Naerssen, Alex. Man-boy relationships: Different concepts for a diversity of phenomena. Journal of Homosexuality, 1990, v20 (n1-2):5-12.

Abstract: Argues that the current social climate makes it difficult to objectively study sexual relationships between men and boys, since society views such relationships solely as forms of sexual abuse. The diversity of man-boy relationships in different societies is discussed, and it is argued that such relationships are not necessarily pathological. Various terms used for such relationships have different meanings, with the term "pedophilia" carrying a connotation of psychiatric pathology. (PsycINFO Database Copyright 1991 American Psychological Assn, all rights reserved).

19. (PsycINFO result) Goddijn, Jolande; Sandfort, Theo. Sociale ondersteuning bij de verwerking van traumatische seksuele ervaringen in de jeugdjaren. / Social support associated with coping after traumatic sexual experiences... Gedrag & Gezondheid: Tijdschrift voor Psychologie & Gezondheid, 1988 Jul, v16 (n2):60-67. Language: Dutch.

Abstract: Studied the extent to which social factors affect adaptation after traumatic sexual experiences (TSEs). Human subjects: 66 male and female Dutch adolescents and adults (18-23 yrs) (at least 1 TSE before age 16 yrs). Subjects were interviewed about their TSEs with a structured questionnaire. Subjects' mental health and sexual desires, excitation, and satisfaction since their TSEs were rated. Tests used: A shortened version of the Symptom Distress Checklist. (English abstract) (PsycINFO Database Copyright 1990 American Psychological Assn, all rights reserved).

20. (PsycINFO result) Sandfort, Theodorus G. Sex in pedophiliac relationships: An empirical investigation among a nonrepresentative group of boys. Journal of Sex Research, 1984 May, v20 (n2):123-142.

Abstract: Investigated whether sexual relations with an adult can be a positive experience for a child. Subjects were 25 10-16 yr old boys who were then involved in pedophiliac relationships with adult males. Subjects were located through their adult partners, who in turn were approached through pedophile workgroups. Although Subjects were able to point to some negative aspects of their sexual contacts, most of them reported experiencing these contacts as predominantly positive. The sexual contacts had no negative influence on Subjects' sense of general well-being, nor did the Subjects perceive in these contacts a misuse of authority by the adult. (PsycINFO Database Copyright 1985 American Psychological Assn, all rights reserved).

21. (PsycINFO result) Sandfort, Theo. Pedophile relationships in the Netherlands: Alternative lifestyle for children? Alternative Lifestyles, 1983 Spring, v5 (n3):164-183.

Abstract: Studied the experiences and perceptions of 25 10-16 yr old boys in ongoing relationships with 26-66 yr old pedophiles in The Netherlands using a semistructured interview technique. Areas of personal significance or value to the boys, the pedophile himself, and the sexual contact, were investigated for their emotional meaning and salience. The older partner and pedophile relationship were significant but not overtly important aspects of the boys' experiences. The partner and relationship, including sexual aspects, were experienced in predominantly positive terms; evidence of exploitation or misuse was absent. Implications for research and social policy are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Copyright 1984 American Psychological Assn, all rights reserved).

22. (PsycINFO result) Brongersma, Edward. The Thera inscriptions: Ritual or slander? Journal of Homosexuality, 1990, v20 (n1-2):31-40.

Abstract: Discusses inscriptions carved in a rock on the Greek island of Thera and dating from the 6th or 7th century BC that have homosexual contents. Originally considered a testimony to ritual sacred acts, they were described by H. I. Marrou (1956) and K. J. Dover (1978) as vulgar pornographic graffiti. Arguments against this view and in favor of the formal ritual interpretation are proposed. (PsycINFO Database Copyright 1991 American Psychological Assn, all rights reserved).

23. (PsycINFO result) Brongersma, Edward. Boy-lovers and their influence on boys: Distorted research and anecdotal observations. Journal of Homosexuality, 1990, v20 (n1-2):145-173.

Abstract: Argues that more can be learned about boy-lovers from reading some excellent novels than from so-called scientific studies. Research is often unreliable because (1) it assumes that pedosexual activity is a positive indicator of pedophilia, (2) no distinction is drawn between pseudo-pedophiles and real pedophiles, (3) no difference is recognized between boys and girls as partners, and (4) it is highly distorted by bias. The influence on the boy in boy-man relationships can be strong in lasting relationships; it can be wholesome or unwholesome. Within a relationship, sex is usually a secondary element, although it can be important in sexual instruction. The impact of the law, the hostility of parents, and the problem of partners' inequality are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Copyright 1991 American Psychological Assn, all rights reserved).

24. (PsycINFO result) Brongersma, Edward. Aggression against pedophiles. Special Issue: Empirical approaches to law and psychiatry. International Journal of Law & Psychiatry, 1984, v7 (n1):79-87.

Abstract: Argues that pedophilia has been considered a crime only since the Christians termed it sinful and that the difficulties caused by the repression of pedophilia make people violent in their rejection of pedophiles and strongly committed to their prejudices. (PsycINFO Database Copyright 1985 American Psychological Assn, all rights reserved).

25. (PsycINFO result) Brongersma, E. Sexuality and the law. Journal of the American Institute of Hypnosis, 1973 Sep, v14 (n5):210-221.

Abstract: Considers that the law cannot legislate sexual morality and that society has no right to intervene in violations of the law which do not infringe on the rights of others (e.g., prostitution or pornography). The Speijer report, an analysis of the penal code and its relationship to sexual behavior in the Netherlands, is examined as a modern and enlightened approach. (PsycINFO Database Copyright 1975 American Psychological Assn, all rights reserved).


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