Start Omhoog

Studies included in the meta-analyses of national probability samples 
Studies included in the meta-analyses of college student samples 

Studies included in the meta-analyses of national probability samples


Bigler, M. O. (1992). 

Childhood sexual trauma as a predictor of adult sexual self-esteem and sexual dysfunction. Doctoral dissertation, New York University.

Boney-McCoy, S., & Finkelhor, D. (1995). 

Psychosocial sequelae of violent victimization in a national youth sample. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 63, 726-736.

Finkelhor, D., Hotaling, G. T., Lewis, I. A., & Smith, C. (1989).

 Sexual abuse and its relationship to later sexual satisfaction, marital status, religion, and attitudes. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 4, 379-399.

Laumann, E. O., Gagnon, J. H., Michael, R. T., & Michaels, S. (1994).

The social organization of sexuality: Sexual practices in the United States. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.

López, F., Carpintero, E., Hernandez, A., Martin, M., & Fuertes, A. (1995). 

Prevaléncia y consecuéncias del abuso sexual al meñor en España [Prevalence and consequences of sexual abuse of minors in Spain]. Child Abuse & Neglect, 19, 1039-1050.

Start Omhoog

Studies included in the meta-analyses of college student samples



Alexander, P., & Lupfer, S. (1987). 

Family characteristics and long-term consequences associated with sexual abuse. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 16, 235-245.


Bailey, C., & Gibbons, S. (1989). 

Physical victimization and bulimic-like symptoms: Is there a relationship? Deviant Behavior, 10, 335-352.

Beckman, K., & Burns, G. (1990). 

Relation of sexual abuse and bulimia in college women. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 9, 487-492.

Bendixen, M., Muus, K., & Schei, B. (1994). 

The impact of child sexual abuse—A study of a random sample of Norwegian students. Child Abuse & Neglect, 18, 837-847.

Bergdahl, J. (1983). 

Differences in demographic features and present anxiety level among college women who report type, extent and rated severity of childhood and adolescent sexual contacts with adults (Doctoral dissertation, Ohio University, 1982). Dissertation Abstracts International, 44, 296.

Briere, J., & Runtz, M. (1990). 

Differential adult symptomatology associated with three types of child abuse histories. Child Abuse & Neglect, 14, 357-364.

Briere, J., & Runtz, M. (1988a). 

Symptomatology associated with childhood sexual victimization in a nonclinical adult sample. Child Abuse & Neglect, 12, 51-59.

Briere, J., & Runtz, M. (1988b). 

Multivariate correlates of childhood psychological and physical maltreatment among university women. Child Abuse & Neglect, 12, 331-341.

Brubaker, D. (1991). 

Relationship of Dissociation and Stress Response Among Survivors of Childhood Sexual Abuse. Unpublished Master’s thesis, Valparaiso University.


Cole, C. (1988). 

The specificity of long-term effects of sexual abuse and factors mediating outcome: A comparison of sexually and physically abused young adults (Doctoral dissertation, University of Washington, 1987). Dissertation Abstracts International, 49, 2373.

Collings, S. (1995). 

The long-term effects of contact and noncontact forms of child sexual abuse in a sample of university men. Child Abuse & Neglect, 19, 1-6.


Edwards, J., and Alexander, P. (1992). 

The contribution of family background to the long-term adjustment of women sexually abused as children. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 7, 306-320.

Everill, J., & Waller, G. (1995). 

Disclosure of sexual abuse and psychological adjustment in female undergraduates. Child Abuse & Neglect, 19, 93-100.


Finkelhor, D. (1979). 

Sexually Victimized Children. New York: The Free Press.

Fishman, J. (1991). 

Prevalence, impact, and meaning attribution of childhood sexual experiences of undergraduate males. (Doctoral dissertation, University of Massachusetts, 1990). Dissertation Abstracts International, 52, 114.

Fromuth, M. (1984). 

The long term psychological impact of childhood sexual abuse (Doctoral dissertation, Auburn University, 1983). Dissertation Abstracts International, 44, 2242.

Fromuth, M. (1986). 

The relationship of childhood sexual abuse with later psychological and sexual adjustment in a sample of college women. Child Abuse & Neglect, 10, 5-15.

Fromuth, M., & Burkhart, B. (1989). 

Long-term psychological correlates of childhood sexual abuse in two samples of college men. Child Abuse & Neglect, 13, 533-542.


Gidycz, C., Coble, C., Latham, L., & Layman, M. (1993).

Sexual assault experience in adulthood and prior victimization experiences. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 17, 151-168.

Gidycz, C., Hanson, K., & Layman, M. (1995). 

A prospective analysis of the relationships among sexual assault experiences. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 19, 5-29.

Greenwald, J. (1994). 

Romantic and sexual self-esteem, a new construct: Its relationship to current and early childhood sexual experiences (Doctoral dissertation, University of Nebraska, 1993). Dissertation Abstracts International, 54, 3852.


Harter, S., Alexander, P., & Neimeyer, R. (1988). 

Long-term effects of incestuous child abuse in college women: social adjustment, social cognition, and family characteristics. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 56, 5-8.

Hatfield, S. (1988). 

Symptomatology associated with male adult survivors of childhood sexual abuse (Doctoral dissertation, Indiana State University, 1987). Dissertation Abstracts International, 48, 2771-2772.

Haugaard, J., & Emery, R. (1989). 

Methodological issues in child sexual abuse research. Child Abuse & Neglect, 13, 89-100.

Higgins, D. and McCabe, M. (1994). 

The relationship of child sexual abuse and family violence to adult adjustment: Toward an integrated risk-sequelae model. Journal of Sex Research, 31, 255-266.

Hrabowy, I. (1987). 

Self-reported correlates of adult-child sexual relations. Unpublished Master’s Thesis, Bowling Green State University.

Hrabowy, I., & Allgeier, E. (1987). 

Level of sexual invasiveness of child abuse to psychological functioning among adult women. Paper presented at the Midwestern Psychological Association meeting, Chicago.


Jackson, J., Calhoun, K., Angelynne, E., Maddever, H., & Habif, V. (1990). 

Young adult women who report childhood intrafamilial sexual abuse: Subsequent adjustment. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 19, 211-221.


Kinzl, J., Traweger, C., Guenther, V., & Biebl, W. (1994).

Family background and sexual abuse associated with eating disorders. American Journal of Psychiatry, 151, 1127-1131.

Kinzl, J., Traweger, C., & Biebl, W. (1995). 

Sexual dysfunctions: Relationship to childhood sexual abuse and early family experiences in a nonclinical sample. Child Abuse & Neglect, 19, 785-792.

Klein-Trull, M. (1990). 

The relationship between childhood sexual abuse and adult personality variables. (Doctoral dissertation, University of Kentucky, 1989). Dissertation Abstracts International, 50, 5322.


Lam, J. (1994). 

Resiliency and adult adaptation in females with and without histories of childhood sexual abuse (Doctoral dissertation, Boston University, 1994). Dissertation Abstracts International, 55, 1187.

Long, E. (1993). 

Recalled childhood sexual abuse and social support and adult women’s representational models (Doctoral dissertation, University of Kentucky, 1993). Dissertation Abstracts International, 54, 2758.


Maggio, L. (1984). 

Intimacy attitudes and intimacy behavior in undergraduate college students with a history of childhood sexual abuse experiences with an older person (Doctoral dissertation, Temple University, 1983). Dissertation Abstracts International, 45, 420.

Moor, A. (1992).

 The pathogenic impact of child sexual abuse as compared to that of other types of childhood trauma: The role of disclosure, response to disclosure, and narcissistic parenting (Doctoral dissertation, University of Colorado, 1991). Dissertation Abstracts International, 53, 2550.


Pallotta, G. (1992). 

Intra-familial and extra-familial sexual abuse vulnerability factors and long-term psychological adjustment in a college population (Doctoral dissertation, West Virginia University, 1991). Dissertation Abstracts International, 53, 570.

Peters, D.K. & Range, L.M. (1995). 

Childhood sexual abuse and current suicidality in college women and men. Child Abuse & Neglect, 19, 335-341.

Pizzolo, C. (1990). 

The relationship between sexual abuse and symptoms of eating disorders among college women (Doctoral dissertation, State University of New York at Stony Brook, 1989). Dissertation Abstracts International, 51, 3188-3189.

Predieri, K. (1992). 

Long-term effects of male child sexual abuse (Doctoral dissertation, Ohio University, 1991). Dissertation Abstracts International, 53, 571.

Preuss, N. (1988). 

A survey of the prevalence of childhood sexual victimization among 18-21 year old college students and its relationship to alcohol abuse and bulimia (Doctoral dissertation, University of Northern Colorado, 1987). Dissertation Abstracts International, 48, 3693.


Rau, D. (1994). 

The psychosocial adjustment of adult males sexually abused as children (Doctoral dissertation, Southern Illinois University at Carbondale, 1993). Dissertation Abstracts International, 54, 4404.

Rew, L., Esparza, D., & Sands, D. (1991). 

A comparative study among college students of sexual abuse in childhood. Archives of Psychiatric Nursing, 5, 331-340.

Roland, B., Zelhart, P., & Dubes, R. (1989). 

MMPI correlates of college women who reported experiencing child/adult sexual contact with father, stepfather, or with other persons. Psychological Reports, 64, 1159-1162.


Sarbo, A. (1985). 

Childhood molestations: Adult personality correlates and predictors of trauma (Doctoral dissertation, Georgia State University, 1984). Dissertation Abstracts International, 45, 3960.

Sedney, M., & Brooks, B. (1984). 

Factors associated with a history of childhood sexual experience in a nonclinical female population. Journal of the American Academy of Child Psychiatry, 23, 215-218.

Silliman, M. (1993). 

Self-esteem and locus of control of women who report sexual abuse during childhood. Psychological Reports, 72, 1294.

Smolak, L., Levine, M., & Sullins, E. (1990). 

Are child sexual experiences related to eating-disordered attitudes and behaviors in a college sample? International Journal of Eating Disorders, 9, 167-178.


Urquiza, A. (1989). 

The effects of childhood sexual abuse in an adult male population (Doctoral dissertation, University of Washington, 1988). Dissertation Abstracts International, 50, 356.


White, K., & Strange, C. (1993). 

Effects of unwanted childhood sexual experiences on psychosocial development of college women. Journal of College Student Development, 34, 289-294.

Wisniewski, N. (1990). 

A path analytic model of the aftereffects of childhood sexual victimization. (Doctoral dissertation, Kent State University , 1989). Dissertation Abstracts International, 51, 2079-2080.


Yama, M., Tovey, S., & Fogas, B. (1993). 

Childhood family environment and sexual abuse as predictors of anxiety and depression in adult women. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 63, 136-141.

Yama, M., Tovey, S., Fogas, B., & Teegarden, L. (1992).

Joint consequences of parental alcoholism and childhood sexual abuse, and their partial mediation by family environment. Violence and Victims, 7, 313-325.


Zetzer, H. (1991). 

The impact of unwanted childhood sexual experiences and the quality of family life on the psychosexuality of college women (Doctoral dissertation, University of California Santa Barbara, 1990). Dissertation Abstracts International, 51, 6122.

Start Omhoog




Beitchman, J. H., Zucker, K. J., Hood, J. E., DaCosta, G. A., & Akman, D. (1991). 

A review of the short-term effects of child sexual abuse. Child Abuse & Neglect, 15, 537-556.

Beitchman, J. H., Zucker, K. J., Hood, J. E., DaCosta, G. A., Akman, D., & Cassavia, E. (1992). 

A review of the long-term effects of child sexual abuse. Child Abuse & Neglect, 16, 101-118.

Black, C. A., & DeBlassie, R. R. (1993). 

Sexual abuse in male children and adolescents: Indicators, effects, and treatment. Adolescence, 28, 123-133.

Briere, J. N., & Elliot, D. M. (1994). 

Immediate and long-term impacts of child sexual abuse. The Future of Children, 4, 54-69.

Briere, J.N., & Runtz, M. (1993). 

Childhood sexual abuse: Long-term sequelae and implications for psychological assessment. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 8, 312-330.

Browne, A., & Finkelhor, D. (1986). 

Initial and long-term effects: A review of the research. In D. Finkelhor (Ed.), A sourcebook on child sexual abuse (pp. 143-179). London: Sage Publications.


Cohen, J. (1988). 

Statistical power analyses for the behavioral sciences (2nd ed.). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

Constantine, L. L. (1981). 

The effects of early sexual experience: A review and synthesis of research. In L. L. Constantine & F. M. Martinson (Eds.), Children and sex (pp. 217-244). Boston: Little, Brown and Company.


Glod, C. A. (1993). 

Long-term consequences of childhood physical and sexual abuse. Archives of Psychiatric Nursing, 7, 163-173.


Jumper, S. (1995). 

A meta-analysis of the relationship of child sexual abuse to adult psychological adjustment. Child Abuse & Neglect, 19, 715-728.


Kendall-Tackett, K. A., Williams, L. M., & Finkelhor, D. (1993). 

Impact of sexual abuse on children: A review and synthesis of recent empirical studies. Psychological Bulletin, 113, 164-180.

Kilpatrick, A. (1987). 

Childhood sexual experiences: Problems and issues in studying long-range effects. The Journal of Sex Research, 23, 173-196.


McMillen, C., Zuravin, S., & Rideout, G. (1995). 

Perceived benefit from child sexual abuse. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 63, 1037-1043.

Mendel, M. P. (1995). 

The male survivor. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

Money, J. (1979). 

Sexual dictatorship, dissidence, and democracy. International Journal of Medicine and Law, 1, 11-20.


Okami, P. (1990). 

Sociopolitical biases in the contemporary scientific literature on adult human sexual behavior with children and adolescents. In J.R. Feierman (Ed.), Pedophilia: Biosocial dimensions (pp. 91-121). New York: Springer-Verlag.

Okami, P. (1994). 

"Slippage" in research on child sexual abuse: Science as social advocacy. In J.J. Krivacska & J. Money (Eds.), The handbook of forensic sexology: Biomedical and criminological perspectives (pp. 559-575). Amhurst, NY: Prometheus.


Pope, H.G., & Hudson, J.I. (1995). 

Does childhood sexual abuse cause adult psychiatric disorders? Essentials of methodology. Journal of Psychiatry and Law, Fall, 33-381.


Rind, B., & Tromovitch, P. (in press, 1997). 

A meta-analytic review of findings from national samples on psychological correlates of child sexual abuse. Journal of Sex Research, 34(4).

Rind, B., Tromovitch, P., & Bauserman, R. (manuscript under submission). 

A meta-analytic examination of assumed properties of child sexual abuse using college samples.

Rosenthal, R. (1977). 

Biasing effects of experimenters. ETC: A Review of General Semantics, 34, 253-264.


Seligman, M.E.P. (1994). 

What you can change and what you can’t. New York: Knopf.


Urquiza, A. J., & Capra, M. (1990). 

The impact of sexual abuse: Initial and long-term effects. In M. Hunter (Ed.), The sexually abused male: Prevalence, impact, and treatment (Vol. 1) (pp. 105-135). Lexington, MA:Lexington Books.


Watkins, B., & Bentovim, A. (1992). 

Male children and adolescents as victims: A review of the current knowledge. In G. C. Mezey & M. B. King (Eds.), Male victims of sexual assault (pp. 27-66). New York: Oxford University Press.

Start Omhoog