[*1] "Oprah Winfrey Show," January 6, 1988.

[*2] Steve Chappie and David Talbot, Burning Desires: Sex in America, New York: Doubleday, 1989, p. 53. For the full discussion of Tipper Gore, see pp. 49-74.

[*3] On April 20, 1988 Congress banned pornographic telephone message services. Congress had earlier rejected this ban, originally proposed by Senator Jesse Helms of North Carolina, but analysts say the upcoming November 1988 election pressured the House to impose a complete ban. The vote was 397 to 1. The lopsidedness of the vote is good evidence that politics, not careful reasoning, was in control. See: Minneapolis Star Tribune, April 21, 1988. In July 1989 the Supreme Court declared that ban unconstitutional, for the law did not clearly distinguish obscene materials from those that were simply sexually explicit.

[*4] Sigmund Freud, Three Contributions to the Theory of Sex, New York: Dutton, 1962 (originally published in 1905), p. 1.

[*5] Alfred Kinsey, Wardell Pomeroy, Clyde Martin, and Paul Gebhard, Sexual Behavior in the Human Female, Philadelphia: W. B. Saunders, 1953, pp. 103-109.

[*6] Larry L. Constantine and Floyd M. Martinson (eds.), Children and Sex: New Findings, New Perspectives, Boston: Little, Brown and Company, 1981.

[*7] Alfred Kinsey, Wardell Pomeroy, and Clyde Martin, Sexual Behavior in the Human Male, Philadelphia: W. B. Saunders, 1948, p. 167.

[*8] The Study Group of New York, Children and Sex: The Parents Speak, New York: Facts on File, 1983, p. 113.

[*9] Ibid., p. 114.

[*10] Ibid., p. 120.

[*11] Gary Fine, With the Boys, Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1987, p. 105.

[*12] For a book that shares much of my view of parental resistence to recognizing child sexuality, see: Planned Parenthood, How to Talk with Your Child about Sexuality, Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday & Co., 1986. Another book that is helpful in talking to children about sex is: Lynn Leight, Raising Sexually Healthy Children, New York: Rawson Associates, 1988.

[*13] Minneapolis Star Tribune, February 12, 1988.

[*14] Bronislaw Malinowski, The Sexual Life of Savages in N. W. Melanesia, New York: Harvest Books, 1929.

[*15] Donald Marshall and Robert C. Suggs, Human Sexual Behavior, New York: Basic Books, 1971.

[*16] Gilbert Herdt, Guardians of the Flutes: Idioms of Masculinity, New York: McGraw-Hill, 1981.

[*17] In particular see the accounts given of Trobriand, East Bay, and Sambian cultures in: Ira L. Reiss, Journey Into Sexuality: An Exploratory Voyage, New York: Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1986.

[*18] Ronald Goldman and Juliette Goldman, Children's Sexual Thinking: A Comparative Study of Children Aged 5 to 15 Years in Australia, North America, Britain and Sweden, Boston; Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1982.

[*19] Ibid., p. 262.

[*20] Ibid., p. 323.

[*21] David Finkelhor, A Sourcebook on Child Sexual Abuse, Beverly Hills, Calif.: Sage Publications, 1986, p. 242.

[*22] David Finkelhor, Gerald Hotaling, I. A. Lewis, and Christine Smith, "Sexual Abuse in a National Survey of Adult Men and Women: Prevalence, Characteristics and Risk Factors," April 1989, Unpublished Manuscript, University of New Hampshire, Family Research Laboratory.

[*23] Diana E. H. Russell, The Secret Trauma: Incest in the Lives of Girls and Women, New York: Basic Books, 1986; and Diana E. H. Russell, Sexual Exploitation: Rape, Child Sexual Abuse, and Workplace Harassment, Beverly Hills: Sage Publishing, 1984, chapter 9.

[*24] David Finkelhor, Sexually Victimized Children, New York: The Free Press, 1979, p. 88. Kinsey also had estimated about 1 percent of daughters had incest with their fathers. See the analysis of his data in John H. Gagnon, "Female Child Victims of Sex Offenses," Social Problems, vol. 13 (Fall 1965): pp. 176-192.

[*25] Sigmund Freud, New Introductory Lectures of Psychoanalysis, New York: Norton Library, 1933. For commentary on this, see: Florence Rush, "Freud and the Sexual Abuse of Children," Chrysalis, vol. 1 (1977): pp. 31-45.

[*26] Minneapolis Star Tribune, November 15, 1987.

[*27] Minneapolis Star Tribune, January 31, 1988.

[*28] Minneapolis Star Tribune, November 15, 1987. See also: September 6, 1987 Sunday Magazine section of the Minneapolis Star Tribune, pp. 6-12.

[*29] Two recent events in Minneapolis illustrate the points I am making here. See the stories in Minneapolis Star Tribune, October 21, 1989 by staff writer Donna Halvorsen and February 25, 1990 by staff writer Chuck Haga, and also July 28, 1990.

[*30] Several studies have reported that a sex negative upbringing was common in sex offenders of various types. See: 

Paul H. Gebhard, J. H. Gagnon, W. B. Pomeroy, and C. V. Christenson, Sex Offenders: An Analysis of Types, New York: Harper & Row, 1965; 
M. J. Goldstein, H. S. Kant, and J. J. Hartman, Pornography and Sexual Deviance, Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1973; 
Ron Langevin, Sexual Strands: Understanding and Treating Sexual Anomalies in Men, Hillsdale, N.J.: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 1983;
Judith L. Herman, Father-Daughter Incest, Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1981; 
Gene G. Abel, Judith V. Becker, W. D. Murphy, and B. Flanagan, "Identifying Dangerous Child Molesters," pp. 116-137 in R. B. Stuart (ed.), Violent Behavior: Social Learning Approaches to Prediction, Management and Treatment, New York: Brunner/Mazel, 1981; 
John Money and Margaret Lamacz, Vandalized Lovemaps: Paraphilic Outcome of Seven Cases in Pediatric Sexology, Buffalo, N.Y.: Prometheus Books, 1989; 
Finkelhor, Sourcebook on Child Sexual Abuse, chapter 3.

[*31] For evidence of the role of male dominance as a cause of sexual abuse, see: Letty Cottin Pogrebin, Family Politics: Love and Power on An Intimate Frontier, New York: McGraw-Hill, 1983, chapter 5; and Diana E. H. Russell, Sexual Exploitation.

[*32] Herman, Father-Daughter Incest.

[*33] Ibid., p. 117.

[*34] Ibid., p. 202. See also: Pogrebin, Family Politics, pp. 101-108.

[*35] Finkelhor, Sourcebook on Child Sexual Abuse, chapter 2.