Notes     [References here]

  1. "Behavior" is defined as “a posture or movement produced by the contraction of voluntary (striated) muscles." From the point of view of ethology, behavior is classified as being intentional or expressive.
    Intentional behavior produces functional outcomes, such as walking, running, or throwing. Expressive behavior, often called "affect," signals mood to a con-specific (member of the same species) and may be self-perceived as feelings (see Zivin, 1985).
    Expressive behaviors can be performed with or without deliberate, cognitive intent or self-reported awareness. Examples of expressive behaviors include smiling, frowning, and flirting.
  2. Stimulus filter" is an ethological construct that refers to the receptive component of the innate releasing mechanism. After passing through the
    stimulus filter, a specific stimulus may release a specific behavioral
    response in the form of a fixed-action pattern (see Lorenz, 1981).
  3. The term "adolescent" is defined in this and other chapters in this volume as "an individual from the time at which secondary sexual characteristics begin to develop to the time at which the development of these characteristics is completed."
  4. "Phylogeny" means "the evolutionary history of the species" (see Medicus and Hopf, this volume).
  5. "Ontogeny" means "the developmental history of the individual" (see Zivin, this volume).
  6. The noun "appetence" derives from the adjective "appetitive" and is
    used in ethology to mean "a natural appetite" (see Eibl-Eibesfeldt, 1975; Lorenz, 1981). It follows, therefore, that “initial-stimulus appetence" is a
    property of the perceiver of the initial stimulus, i.e., of the individual’s
    nervous system. "Appetitive" also is used to describe the specific searching
    behavior that leads to consummatory behavior.
  7. Stimulus discriminative ability," which is precisely defined later in
    this section in the subsection titled "Stimulus Discriminative Ability," is a
    property of the nervous system of the perceiving individual.
    "Discriminable" is a property of a stimulus. "Degree of stimulus discrimination" is a state that results from the interaction between the nervous system’s discriminative ability and the discriminability of the stimulus.
  8. The cumbersome term "sexual-arousal-associated-with stimulus" is necessary because it is not known whether an initial stimulus evokes sexual arousal without prior exposure to it or whether the initial stimulus is conditioned into that status by being present during spontaneous or other-than-initial-stimulus-evoked sexual arousal, as in the sexual arousal
    that occurs during REM sleep or during mechanical self-masturbation.
  9. [L(atin): nubilis, from nubere; to veil oneself, to marry] marriageable: said of women, with reference to their age or physical development. (Webster's Unabridged Dictionary [2nd ed.]. New York: Ottenheimer Publishers, Inc., 1988.)
  10. It is proposed that a trait called "stimulus discriminative ability“ would be closely related to the reciprocal of Clonninger’s personality trait "novelty seeking“ (Clonninger, 1987). In Clonninger’s scheme, individuals who are high in "novelty seeking" would be low in "stimulus discriminative ability," and the reason they seek novelty would be their inability to attend to detail and, therefore, their propensity to experience the resultant early stimulus habituation. It is not known whether the trait "stimulus discriminative ability" is restricted to sexually relevant stimuli or generalizes to all stimuli. Clonninger’s "novelty seeking" trait is not restricted to sexual stimuli.
  11. The difference between the secondary-stimulus appetence for sexually
    conditioned attributes in the love map and the secondary-stimulus appetence for sexually conditioned attributes not in the love map is that the former attributes are not contingent upon some schedule of positive reinforcement for continued appetence and the latter are.
  12. "Paraphilic" is the adjectival form of the noun "paraphilia." Money defines "paraphilia" as "a condition occurring in men and women of being compulsively responsive to and obligatively dependent upon an unusual and personally or socially unacceptable stimulus, perceived or in the imagery of fantasy, for optimal initiation and maintenance of eroto-sexual arousal and the facilitation or attainment of orgasm [from Greek, para- + -philia].
    Paraphilic imagery may be replayed in fantasy during solo masturbation or
    intercourse with a partner.
    In legal terminology, a paraphilia is a perversion or deviancy; and in the vernacular it is kinky or bizarre sex" (Money, 1986, P- 267)
  13. The qualifying term "near" is necessary because, if a stimulus or an attribute were exactly optimally-discriminated-for-fitness, it would lie in the exact center of the normal distribution, and its potency value would be zero. Many zeros added together can never equal more than zero.
  14. Because of biological variability and the propensity to stabilize means through balanced polymorphic extremes, there is no reason to  assume that all individuals in a population will have a potentially procreative love map. Such individuals with non-procreative love maps may reflect the effect of natural, sexual, and kin selection operating on other individuals or on non-love-map-related traits in the population in which they reside, rather than these selective forces acting on their love map directly, as in the spandrels of San Marco (see Gould and Lewontin, 1979).
  15. Inclusive fitness" is "the successful transfer of one’s genes to succeeding generations, including genes that have been transferred by a relative’s genitals."
  16. "Kin selection" is "the nepotistic favoritism shown to relatives that facilitates one’s inclusive fitness."
  17. A similar socio-biological explanation has been offered for homosexuality (see Wilson, 1978). Robert Trivers is usually credited with having devised the idea.
  18. An "open genetic program" is one in which the propensity to learn a general type of behavioral modification is coded in genetic material but the particular details of the stimulus are left to chance and individual experience
    (see Lorenz, 1981).
  19. Some anthropologists prefer to define "incest" more broadly as sexual behavior between any culturally disallowed individuals.
  20. "Parker and Parker (1986) found that the crucial variable for the lack of erotic interest was not biological fatherhood per se but rather association during a critical period in childhood.
    Stepfathers who raised children from infancy were no more likely to be sexually involved with them as children or adolescents than were natural fathers. In contrast, natural fathers who were absent during infancy and childhood had as high a risk of sexual involvement with these children and adolescents upon returning to the home as did newly arrived stepfathers.
  21. Functional proximity" is the concept used to describe two behaviors that can easily be executed simultaneously or in rapid alternation (see Lorenz, 1981).
  22. Multimale species are those species in which the social group to which an individual belongs during activity or during sleep contains more than one adult male.
  23. It is suggested that some paraphilias are, in part, the result of the enormously more complex inanimate and contextual socio-ecological niche in which the love map is acquired in modern industrialized societies as
    compared to the environment of hunters and gatherers.
  24. The shape of the nubile female is essentially the juxtaposition of a few curves. The neuro-ethology of the essential elements of the stimuli is revealed in reductionist art, e.g., Picasso. Other, more detailed elements of the stimuli are revealed by less reductionist artists, such as Vargas.
  25. A distinction must be made between "function" and "adaptive function." The former concept encompasses the latter, which has a very specific biological implication (see Dienske, this volume).
  26. It is interesting to speculate that a male child’s mother would have the shape of a nubile female but the role of "more dominant than self." The degree to which the male child’s brain has been masculinized and defeminized in utero is believed to influence the degree to which shape (stored on the basis of perceived structure) or role (stored on the basis of non-structurally perceived and processed properties) predominates.
    The brain of heterosexual male masochists is less masculinized than defeminized in the two-dimensional model to be developed.
    (See the subsection titled "The Two-Dimensional Mechanisms," which is found later in this section in the greater subsection titled "Proximate Mechanisms Underlying Specific Age and Sexual Orientations in Human Males: The Two-Dimensional Model.")
  27. Compared to adult male heterosexual masochists, within the context of the two-dimensional model, the brain of adult male homosexual masochists is believed to be relatively less defeminized but equally unmasculinized.
    (See the subsection titled "The Two-Dimensional Mechanisms," which is found later in this section in the greater subsection titled "Proximate Mechanisms Underlying Specific Age and Sexual Orientations in Human Males: The Two-Dimensional Model.")
    Being less defeminized would make attributes coded and stored on the basis of perceived structure less sexually alluring than attributes coded and stored on the basis of perceived and possessed role, with the exception of the one
    structurally perceived attribute with intrinsic and primary sexual gratification, theirs and others’ penis.
  28. Mount-receiving behavior is mainly attributable to remaining feminized (with accompanying lordosis) rather than to being unmasculinized. This assignment is most compatible with the available data and with the arrangement of individuals with differing sexual orientations in the
    two-dimensional model in Figures 1.9, 1.10, and 1.11. The assignment also
    is compatible with Pillard and Weinrich (1987).
  29. For simplicity and conceptual convenience, the category "bisexual" was not used, and "transsexual," which is usually defined on the basis of G-I/R, is being defined on the basis of age and sexual orientations.
  30. There are social/political lobbies in both the United States and Europe that strive to lower the age of consent. However, the lobbyists appear to be mainly adult male androphilic pedo- and ephebophiles, rather than the children and adolescents or their advocates (see Okami, this volume).
  31. Sexual exploration among same-age and same-sex children and adolescents is often considered a developmental stage in which pedo- and ephebophiles as well as homosexual individuals become "fixated."
    The two-dimensional biosocial model suggests that age and sexual orientations are largely determined by differing degrees of pre- and peri-natal hormonalization with some contribution of life experience during the formation of the love map.
  32. The prevalence rate of paraphilias in the general population is unknown. Estimates of relative prevalence can be obtained from the percent of all individuals seeking treatment who have a particular paraphilia (Abel et al., 1987).