References marked with asterisks indicate studies included in the current meta-analysis


* Alexander, R, & Lupfer, S. (1987). Family characteristics and long-term consequences associated with sexual abuse. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 16, 235–245.


* Bailey, C., & Gibbons, S. (1989). Physical victimization and bulimic-like symptoms: Is there a relationship? Deviant Behavior, 10, 335-352.

Barnett, D., Manly, J. T., & Chicchetti, D. (1991). Continuing toward an operational definition of psychological maltreatment. Development and Psychopathology, 3, 19-29.

Bauserman, R., & Rind, B. (1997). Psychological correlates of male child and adolescent sexual experiences with adults in clinical literature. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 26, 105-141.

* Beckman, K., & Burns, G. (1989). Relation of sexual abuse and bulimia in college women. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 9, 487-492.

Beitchman, J. H., Zucker, K. J., Hood, J. E., DaCosta, G. A., Alcman, D., & Cassavia, E. (1992). A review of the long-term effects of child sexual abuse. Child Abuse &Neglect, 16, 101-118.

* Bendixen, M., Muus, K., & Schei, B. (1994). The impact of child sexual abuse: A study of a random sample of Norwegian students. Child Abuse & Neglect, 18, 837-487.

* Bergdahl, J. (1982). Differences in demographic features and present anxiety among college women who report type,e xtent, and rated severity of childhood and adolescent sexual contact with adults. Dissertation Abstracts International, 44, 296.

* Briere, J., & Runtz, M. (1988a). Multivariate correlates of childhood psychological and physical maltreatment among university women. Child Abuse & Neglect, 12,33 1-341.

* Briere, J., & Runtz, M. (1988b). Symptomatology associated with childhood sexual victimization in a non-clinical sample. Child Abuse & Neglect, 12, 51-59.

* Briere, J., & Runtz, M. (1990). Differential adult symptomatology associated with three types of child abuse histories. Child Abuse & Neglect, 14, 357-364.

Briere, J. N., & Runtz, M. (1993). Childhood sexual abuse: Long-term sequelae and implications for psychological assessment. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 8, 312-330.

Browne, A., & Finkelhor, D. (1986). Impact of child sexual abuse: A review of the research. Psychological Bulletin, 99, 66-77.

* Brubaker, D. (1991). Relationship of dissociation and stress response among survivors of childhood sexual abuse. Unpublished master’s thesis, Texas A&M University.


Cohen, J. (1988). Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences (2nd ed.). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

* Cole, C. (1987). The specificity of long-term effects of sexual abuse and factors mediating outcome: A comparison of sexually and physically abused young adults. Dissertation Abstracts International, 49, 2373.

* Collings, S. (1995). The long-term effects of contact and non-contact forms of child sexual abuse in a sample of university men. Child Abuse & Neglect, 19, 1-6.

* Condy, S., Templer, D., Brown, R., & Veaco, L. (1987). Parameters of sexual contact of boys with women. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 16, 379-394.

Constantine, L. L. (1981). The effects of early sexual experience: A review and synthesis of research. In L. L. Constantine & F. M. Martinson (Eds.). Children and Sex (pp.217-244). Boston: Little, Brown.


Dallam, S. J., Gleaves, D. H., Cepeda-Benito, A., Silberg, J. L., Kraemer, H.V & Spiegel, D (2001). The effects of child sexual abuse: Comment on Rind, Tromovitch, and Bauserman (1998). Psychological Bulletin, 715-733.


* Edwards, J., & Alexander, R (1992). The contribution of family background to the long-term adjustment of women sexually abused as children. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 7, 306-320.

Einbender, A. J., & Friedrich, W N. (1989). Psychological functioning and behavior of sexually abused girls. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 57, 155-157.

* Everill, J., & Waller, G. (1994). Disclosure of sexual abuse and psychological adjustment in female undergraduates. Child Abuse & Neglect, 19, 93-100.


Finkelhor, D. (1979a). What’s wrong with sex between adults and children? Ethics and the problem of sexual abuse. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 49, 692-697.

Finkelhor, D. (1979b). Sexually victimized children. New York: Free Press.

Finkelhor, D. (1984). Child sexual abuse: New theory and research. New York: Free Press.

Finkelhor, D. (1998). Improving research, policy, and practice to understand child sexual abuse. Journal of the American Medical Association, 280, 1864-1865.

Finkelhor, D., Hotaling, G., Lewis, J. A., & Smith, C. H. (1990). Sexual abuse in a national survey of adult men and women: Prevalence, characteristics, and risk factors. Child Abuse & Neglect, 14, 19-28.

* Fischer, G. (1991). Is lesser severity of child sexual abuse a reason more males report having liked it? Annals of Sex Research, 4, 131-139.

* Fishman, J. (1990). Prevalence, impact, and meaning attribution of childhood sexual experiences of undergraduate males. Dissertation Abstracts International, 52, 114.

* Fritz, G., Stoll, K., & Wagner, N. (1981). A comparison of males and females who were sexually molested as children. Journal of Sex & Marital Therapy, 7, 54-59.

* Fromuth, M. (1984). The long term psychological impact of childhood sexual abuse. Dissertation Abstracts International, 44, 2242.

* Fromuth, M. (1986). The relationship of childhood sexual abuse with later psychological and sexual adjustment in a sample of college women. Child Abuse & Neglect, 10, 5-15.

* Fromuth, M. E., & Burkhart, B. R. (1989). Long-term psychological correlates of childhood sexual abuse in two samples of college men. Child Abuse & Neglect, 13, 533-542.


* Gidycz, C., Coble, C., Latham, L., & Layman, M. (1993). Sexual assault experience in adulthood and prior victimization experiences. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 17,15 1-168.

* Gidycz, C., Hanson, K., & Layman, M. (1995). A prospective analysis of the relationship among sexual assault experiences. Psychology of Men Quarterly, 19, 5-29.

Glod, C. A. (1993). Long-term consequences of childhood physical and sexual abuse. Archives of Psychiatric Nursing, 7, 163-173.

* Goldman, R. & Goldman, J. (1988). The prevalence and nature of child sexual abuse in Australia. Australian Journal of Sex, Marriage, & Family, 9, 94-106.

Gordy, R L. (1983). Group work that supports adult victims of childhood incest. Social Casework, 64, 300-307.

* Greenwald, J. (1993). Romantic and sexual self-esteem, a new construct: Its relationship to current and early childhood sexual experiences. Dissertation Abstracts International, 54, 3852.


* Harter, S., Alexander, R C., & Neimeyer, R. A. (1988). Long-term effects of incestuous child abuse in college women: Social adjustment, social cognition, and family characteristics. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 56, 5-8.

* Hatfield, S. (1987). Symptomatology associated with male adult survivors of childhood sexual abuse. Dissertation Abstracts International, 48, 2771-2772.

Haugaard, J., & Emery, R. (1989). Methodological issues in child sexual abuse research. Child Abuse & Neglect, 13,89-100.

Hedges, L. V, & Olkin, I. (1985). Statistical methods for meta-analysis. New York: Academic Press.

Higgins, D., & McCabe, M. (1994). The relationship of child sexual abuse and family violence to adult adjustment: Toward an integrated risk-sequelae model. Journal of Sex Research, 31, 255-266.

Holmes, W C., & Slapp, G. B. (1998). Sexual abuse of boys: Definition, prevalence, correlates, sequelae, and management. Journal of the American Medical Association, 280,1855-1862.

Hrabowy, I. (1987). Self-reported correlates of adult-child sexual relations. Unpublished master’s thesis, Bowling Green State University, Ohio.

Hunter, J. E., & Schmidt, F. L. (1990). Methods of meta-analysis: Correcting error and bias in research findings. London: Sage.


* Jackson, J. L., Calhoun, K. S., Amick, A. E., Maddever, H.M., & Habif, V L. (1990). Young adult women who report childhood intra-familial sexual abuse: Subsequent adjustment. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 19, 211-221.

Judd, C. M., Smith, E. R., & Kidder, L. H. (1991). Research methods in social relations (6th ed.). Chicago: Holt, Rinehart and Winston.


Kempe, R. S., & Kempe, C. H. (1984). A common secret: Sexual abuse of children and adolescents. R. C. Atkinson, G. Lindzey, & R. F. Thompson (Eds.). New York: W H. Freeman.

Kilpatrick, A. (1987). Childhood sexual experiences: Problems and issues in studying long-range effects. Journal of Sex Research, 23, 173-196.

* Kinzl, J., Traweger, C., & Biebl, W (1995). Sexual dysfunctions: Relationship to childhood sexual abuse and early family experiences in a non-clinical sample. Child Abuse & Neglect, 19, 785-792.

* Kinzl, J., Traweger, C., Guenther, V, & Biebl, W (1994). Family background and sexual abuse associated with eating disorders. American Journal of Psychiatry, 151, 1127-1131.

* Klein-Trull, M. (1990). The relationship between childhood sexual abuse and adult personality variables. Dissertation Abstracts International, 50, 5322.


* Lam, J. (1994). Resiliency and adult adaptation in females with and without histories of childhood sexual abuse. Dissertation Abstracts International, 55, 1187.

* Landis, J. T. (1956). Experiences of 500 children with adult sexual deviation. Psychiatric Quarterly, 30, 91-109.

Lipsey, M. W, & Wilson, D. B. (2001). Practical meta-analysis. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. 

* Long, E. (1993). Recalled childhood sexual abuse and social support and adult women’s representational models. Dissertation Abstracts International, 54, 2758.

* Long, R, & Jackson, J. (1993). Initial emotional response to childhood sexual abuse: Emotion profiles of victims and relationship to later adjustment. Journal of Family Violence, 8, 167-181.


* Maggio, L. (1984). Intimacy attitudes and intimacy behavior in undergraduate college students with a history of childhood sexual abuse experiences with an older person. Dissertation Abstracts International, 45, 420.

* Moor, A. (1992). The pathogenic impact of child sexual abuse as compared to that of other types of childhood trauma: The role of disclosure, response to disclosure, and narcissistic parenting. Dissertation Abstracts International, 53, 2550.

Mullen, R E., Martin, J. L., Anderson, J. C., Romans, S. E., &Herbison, G. R (1994). The effect of child sexual abuse on social, interpersonal, and sexual function in adult life. British Journal of Psychiatry, 165, 35-47.


* Nash, C. L., & West, D. J. (1985). Sexual molestation of young girls: A retrospective survey. In D. J. West (Ed.) Sexual victimization: Two recent researches into sex problems and their social effects (pp. 1-92). Brookfield VT: Gower.


Ondersma, S. J., Chaffin, M., Berliner, L., Cordon, I., Goodman, G. S., & Barnett, D. (2001). Sex with children is abuse: Comment on Rind, Tromovitch, and Bauserman(1998). Psychological Bulletin, 127, 707-714.

* O’Neill, M. (1990). Puerto Rican and New England college students’ reports of childhood sexual abuse and sexual experiences: A comparison study. Dissertation Abstracts International, 51, 3677-3678.


* Pallota, G. (1991). Intra-familial and extra-familial sexual abuse vulnerability factors and long-term psychological adjustment in a college population. Dissertation Abstracts International, 53, 570.

* Peters, D. K., & Range, L. M. (1995). Childhood sexual abuse and current suicidality in college women and men. Child Abuse & Neglect, 19, 335-341.

Peters, J. J. (1976). Children who are victims of sexual assault and the psychology of offenders. American Journal of Psychotherapy, 30, 398-421.

* Pizzolo, C. (1989). The relationship between sexual abuse and symptoms of eating disorders among college women. Dissertation Abstracts International, 51, 3188–3189.

* Predieri, K. (1991). Long-term effects of male child sexual abuse. Dissertation Abstracts International, 53, 571.

* Preuss, N. (1988). A survey of the prevalence of childhood sexual victimization among 18–21-year-old college students and its relationship to alcohol abuse and bulimia. Dissertation Abstracts International, 48, 3693.


* Rau, D. (1994). The psychological adjustment of adult males sexually abused as children. Dissertation Abstracts International, 54, 4404.

* Rew, L., Esparza, D., & Sands, D. (1991). A comparative study among college students of sexual abuse in childhood. Archives of Psychiatric Nursing, 5, 331-340.

Rind, B., Tromovitch, P, & Bauserman, R. (1998). A meta-analytic examination of assumed properties of child sexual abuse using college samples. Psychological Bulletin,124, 22-53.

Rind, B., Tromovitch, R, & Bauserman, R. (2001). The validity and appropriateness of methods, analyses, and conclusions in Rind et al. (1998): A rebuttal of victimological critique from Ondersma et al. (2001) and Dallam et al.(2001). Psychological Bulletin, 127, 734–758.

* Risin, L., & Koss, M. (1987). The sexual abuse of boys: Prevalence and descriptive characteristics of childhood victimization. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 2, 309-323.

Roland, B., Zelhart, P, & Dubes, R. (1989). MMPI correlates of college women who reported experiencing child-adult sexual contact with father, stepfather, or with other persons. Psychological Reports, 64, 1159–1162.

Rosenthal, R. (1991). Meta-analytic procedures for social research (Rev. ed.). London: Sage.

Rosenthal, R. (1994). Parametric measures of effect size. In H. Cooper & L. V. Hedges (Eds.), The handbook of research synthesis (pp. 231-244). New York: Russell Sage Foundation.

Rush, F. (1980). The best kept secret: Sexual abuse of children. New York: McGraw-Hill.


* Sarbo, A. (1985). Childhood molestations: Adult personality correlates and predictors of trauma. Dissertation Abstracts International, 45, 3960.

* Schultz, L., & Jones, P. (1983). Sexual abuse of children: Issues for social service and health professionals. Child Welfare, 62, 99-108.

* Sedney, M., & Brooks, B. (1984). Factors associated with a history of childhood sexual experience in a non-clinical female population. Journal of the American Academy of Child Psychiatry, 23, 215-218.

Shadish, W R., Robinson, L., & Lu, C. (1999). ES: A computer program for effect size calculation. St. Paul, MN: Assessment Systems Corporation.

* Silliman, M. (1993). Self-esteem and locus of control of women who report sexual abuse during childhood. Psychological Reports, 72, 1294.

* Smolak, L.,Levine, M. & Sullins, E. (1990). Are child sexual experiences related to eating-disordered attitudes and behaviors in a college sample?  International Journal of Eating Disorders, 9, 167-178.


* Urquiza, A. (1989). The effects of childhood sexual abuse in an adult male population. Dissertation Abstracts International, 50, 356.

Urquiza, A. J., & Capra, M. (1990). The impact of sexual abuse: Initial and long-term effects. In M. Hunter (Ed.), The sexually abused male: Prevalence, impact, and treatment (vol. 1, pp. 105-135). Lexington, MA: Lexington Books.


* West, D., & Woodhouse, T. (1993). Sexual encounters between boys and adults. In C. Li, D. West, & T. Woodhouse (Eds.), Children's sexual encounters with adults (pp. 3-137). Amherst, NY: Prometheus Books.

* White, K., & Strange, C. (1993). Effects of unwanted childhood sexual experiences on psychosocial development of college women. Journal of College Student Development, 34, 289–294.

Wilson, D. B., (2001) Effect size determination program. 

* Wisniewski, N. (1990). A path analytic model of the after-effects of childhood sexual victimization. Dissertation Abstracts International, 51, 2079–2080.


* Yama, M., Tovey, S., & Fogas, B. (1993). Childhood family environment and sexual abuse as predictors of anxiety and depression in adult women. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 63, 136–141.

* Yama, M., Tovey, S., Fogas, B., & Teegarden, L. (1992). Joint consequences of parental alcoholism and childhood sexual abuse, and their partial mediation by family environment. Violence and Victims, 7, 313–325.


* Zetzer, H. (1991). The impact of unwanted childhood sexual experiences and the quality of family life on the psycho-sexuality of college women. Dissertation Abstracts International, 51, 6122.