Psychological Correlates of Male Child and Adolescent Sexual
Experiences with Adults:
Location of Studies
Criteria for Inclusion
Summary of Nonclinical Outcome Research of Childhood and Adolescent Sexual Experiences
Coding of Studies
Overview of Studies
Correlates and Reactions for Early Sexual Contacts with Adults - College Samples
College Study Results: Self-Report
College Study Results: Standardized Measures
Noncollege Study Results: Self-Report
Noncollege Study Results: Standardized Measures
Noncollege Study Results: Clinical Impressions
Moderators of Outcomes
Force Versus Willingness
Relationship to the Older Person
Sex of Older Person
Type of Sexual Activity
Duration/Repetition of Sexual Contacts
Age Difference / Age of Older Person
Age of Boy at Time of Experience
Comparison or Males' and Females' Responses
Clinical and Nonclinical Findings Differ
Disturbed Target Population for Clinicians
Problems in Separating Symptoms From Value Judgments of Harm
Constantine's (1981) Model of Outcomes
Researchers have generally neglected sexual experiences of boys with adults, assumed them to be the same as those of girls, or tried to understand them by referring to clinical research while ignoring nonclinical research.
A review of nonclinical research allows a more complete understanding of boys' sexual experiences with adults and the outcomes and correlates of those experiences. Research with nonclinical samples reveals a broad range of reactions, with most reactions being either neutral or positive. Clinical samples reveal a narrower, primarily negative, set of reactions. Comparison of the reactions of boys and girls shows that reactions and outcomes for boys are more likely to be neutral or positive. Moderator variables, including presence of force, perceptions of consent, and relationship to the adult, also relate to outcomes. Incestuous contacts and those involving force or threats are most likely to be negative.
Problems in this field of research include broad and vague definitions of "abuse " and conflation of value judgments with harm. Effects of boys' early sexual experiences with older persons in general cannot be accurately inferred from clinical research alone or from girls' experiences.
KEY WORDS: sexual abuse; males; nonclinical; review.