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BASIS OF ETHICS: TWO ESSENTIAL PRINCIPLES

1) GOOD: What kind of society/world/personal relations do we want? What do we think is "good", or "the good life"?
2) DECIDING WHAT ACTIONS ARE GOOD: Behaviour is good or bad to the extent that it is CONSISTENT with our idea of what is "good".

A BIG DIVIDE IN ETHICAL THINKING

1) CONSEQUENTIALISM (including UTILITARIANISM): Judging actions right or wrong by the CONSEQUENCES of the action.
2) PRINCIPLES/RULES: Judging actions right or wrong by whether the behaviour is in accord with a set of rules or principles.

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NATURAL LAW THEORY

RIGHTS EXIST IN A STATE OF NATURE

Our own nature is a guide to what is right for us:

ARISTOTLE
AQUINAS (Not really natural: unempirical)
EVOLUTIONARY THEORY
JOHN LOCKE
UNITED STATES CONSTITUTION
HUMAN RIGHTS THINKING

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