The older Libraries 1 to 3 are somewhat intermingled: all their articles are referenced in the Central catalogue (with its Register by author and Register by subject) - even though Library 2 and Library 3 have their own index page.
This page is the separate register of 'Library 4'. Its contents are not visible on the older catalogue/register pages; only here. It is also ordered in a slightly different manner.
If you want to see only a subset of the articles in this new register, or search for a specific article, please use the 'Search/Restrict results' section just below. Alternatively, if you are looking for specific authors, publication types, subjects, ... you can browse the lists of those, using the appropriate tabs just above this text.
Added: May 2013
In a few weeks, the American Psychiatric Association will release its new edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-V).
The weakness is its lack of validity.
The DSM diagnoses are based on a consensus about clusters of clinical symptoms, not any objective laboratory measure.
Patients with mental disorders deserve better.
NIMH has launched the Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) project to transform diagnosis.
The diagnostic system has to be based on the emerging research data, not on the current symptom-based categories.
It is now heresy to question the idea that child abuse damages a person for life. But such a deeply fatalistic idea must be questioned.
The diagnosis that child sexual abuse causes long-term psychological damage is influenced by today’s ‘cycle of abuse’ theories. This model, which says there is an intergenerational transmission of violence, is one of the most uncontested themes of the modern-day literature on family violence.
The abuse model is based on a belief that human action is determined and conditioned by powerful forces beyond its control. Such a fatalistic world view is conveyed through the idea that the experience of psychological trauma in early childhood directly shapes the actions and behaviour of a person for the rest of hisor her life.
We need to have a more open-minded discussion about this difficult subject.
Added: April 2013
Two young men, aged eighteen and twenty respectively, had a history of a juvenile and early adolescent relationship with an older male pedophilic lover. The eroto-sexual component of the relationship ended when the younger partner became too sexually mature, at which time each had a pair-bonded love affair with a girl. Subjectively and behaviorally they were neither homosexual nor pedophilic in orientation. They evaluated themselves as having not been traumatized by having had a history of a relationship with a pedophile.
Part of a report of a forum in which Sandfort and Finkelhor discuss the former's research and its conclusions and views: Are children always traumatized by pedophiles? Sandfort takes a researcher's stand ('no'), Finkelhor a moral stand ('yes').
Added: March 2013
A Historical, Cross-Cultural, Sociological, Cross-Species, Non-Clinical Empirical, and Evolutionary Review
Blanchard et al. (2009) demonstrated that hebephilia is a genuine sexual preference, but then proposed, without argument or evidence, that it should be designated as a mental disorder in the DSM-5. A series of Letters-to-the-Editor criticized this proposal as a non sequitur. Blanchard (2009), in rebuttal, reaffirmed his position, but without adequately addressing some central criticisms.
In this article, we examine hebephilia-as-disorder in full detail. Unlike Blanchard et al., we discuss definitions of mental disorder, examine extensive evidence from a broad range of sources, and consider alternative (i.e., non-pathological) explanations for hebephilia.
We employed Wakefield's (1992b) harmful dysfunction approach to disorder, which holds that a condition only counts as a disorder when it is a failure of a naturally selected mechanism to function as designed, which is harmful to the individual in the current environment. We also considered a harmful-for-others approach to disorder (Brülde, 2007).
Examination of historical, cross-cultural, sociological, cross-species, non-clinical empirical, and evolutionary evidence and perspectives indicated that hebephilic interest is an evolved capacity and hebephilic preference an expectable distributional variant, both of which were adaptively neutral or functional, not dysfunctional, in earlier human environments. Hebephilia's conflict with modern society makes it an evolutionary mismatch, not a genuine disorder.
Though it should not be classified as a disorder, it could be entered in the DSM's V-code section, used for non-disordered conditions that create significant problems in present-day society.
Introduced by Copenhagen's eminent sexologist, Dr. Preben Hertoft, this readable volume, translated from the Danish, begins with three essays on what is really known (rather than what "experts" in the media tell us) about sexual relations between adults and minors. Then follow sixteen fresh, spontaneous interviews with people concerned - an attorney specialising in the defense of paedophiles, a Copenhagen judge, adults who have sexual relations with minors, minors who have sexual relations with adults - even one mother of such a boy. Most of the youngsters found their sexually expressed friendships with adults a positive force in their lives and helpful in the discovery of self.
Richard Webster sets out to tell the ‘story of the story’ of Bryn Estyn, the approved school at the centre of the North Wales child abuse scandal. It’s a story that has everything: personal animus, fantasy, intrigue, alleged Masonic conspiracy, bizarre sex acts and courtroom drama.
Webster leads us from the early investigations, which found no evidence of systematic abuse in children’s homes in North Wales, through the persistent rumours that led to the reopening of criminal and civil inquiries.
This is an unusual book, especially for review in an academic journal. Its subject is pop icon Michael Jackson, one of the most famous, talented, and financially successful entertainers of all time — and also one of the strangest. Specifically, the book focuses on Jackson’s interest in children, and whether that interest was sexual in nature. The author, Tom O’Carroll (under the pseudonym ‘‘Carl Toms’’), is himself an unapologetic pedophile, and his pedophilia has influenced both his insight into Jackson and his aspirations for the book. [... ... ...]
This book is fascinating, challenging, and discomfiting. Anyone wanting to understand Michael Jackson will need to read it. [...] It certainly illuminates the most controversial aspect of Jackson’s life, one that was surely important to Jackson. [..]
Dangerous Liaisons is also worth reading for the challenges it raises regarding pedophilic relationships and their consequences. I suspect O’Carroll believes that this is a suitable tribute to Michael Jackson’s unfinished life.
Added: February 2013
This book is not like any other book you may have read on paedophiles, or adult sexual attraction to children, or child protection. It is not about the medical, forensic, psychological, psychiatric, legal or criminological aspects of these phenomena.
Those issues are adequately dealt with in other texts. Instead, this book is about ordinariness, about culture and society around us and about how people in everyday life think about and make sense of men being sexually attracted to children
(the book says something too about women sexually attracted to children but the focus is predominantly on men).
If we want to keep children safe from sexual harm, then surely knowing what we’re dealing with would be a good first step. [...]
What gets a bit more complicated is distinguishing between paedophilia (the sexual attraction) and child sexual abuse (adult sexual contact with children below the legal age of consent). Paedophilia is, strictly speaking, in a separate conceptual category to child sexual abuse, although in everyday life the word ‘paedophile’ is typically taken to mean a person (usually a man) who has sexually offended against a child. [...]
The first step is to try and work out how many paedophiles there are.
[...] we would be therefore looking at around one in five of all the men we know having some degree of sexual attraction to children. [...]
Some people experience such sexual desires but don’t act upon them. Perhaps, for them, in a sex-saturated society, that’s quite an achievement. We need to be able to acknowledge and understand their self-control.
Independent Voices is the Independent newspaper's online blogging site. The article didn't actually appear in the paper (as fas as I know).
Sociologist Sarah Goode’s latest book is not primarily a work of research within her discipline; rather, it takes us on an ambitious grand tour in a bid to situate paedophilia historically and cross-culturally.
“We have got ourselves into a pickle sexually”, she says, proposing a way out of it that many will regard as both bold and humane. As will be seen, I beg to differ.
The new book can be read independently. It should be noted, though, that only the first volume considers the harm that is intrinsic, or is allegedly so, to every adult-child sexual contact, no matter how loving and non-coercive it might be. This is a crucial issue, to which I shall return.
Goode begins the Preface to Paedophiles in Society with the large claim that this will be unlike “any other book you may have read on paedophiles, or adult sexual attraction to children, or child protection”; instead of focusing on medical, forensic, psychological, psychiatric, legal or criminological aspects, it promises to be “a book about ordinariness, about culture and society around us”.
It is not, in fact, unique in this regard as it follows several such works
This ground-breaking book demystifies the field of adult sexual attraction to children, countering the emotionality surrounding the topic of paedophilia in the popular media by careful presentation of research data and interview material. Addressing how we can work together to reduce sexual offending in this population, this text bridges the gulf in understanding between those who want to protect children and those who feel sexual attraction to children – and recognises that they are sometimes the same people.
Not all paedophiles are child molesters, and vice versa: by no means every paedophile acts on his impulses, and many people who sexually abuse children are not exclusively or primarily sexually attracted to them. In fact, "true" paedophiles are estimated by some experts to account for only 20% of sexual abusers. Nor are paedophiles necessarily violent: no firm links have so far been established between paedophilia and aggressive or psychotic symptoms.
there is a growing conviction, notably in Canada, that paedophilia should probably be classified as a distinct sexual orientation, like heterosexuality or homosexuality.
This article examines how civil commitment has been rolled out in the case of the sex offender, and focuses on the implementation of the program in the US and the controversy that has been spawned as a result. [...]
The term ‘mental disorder’ has been expanded therefore to include ‘mental abnormality’, to enable sex offenders to be committed civilly.
Excerpt from the book: Moral Panics over Contemporary Children and Youth -
Charles Krinsky (Editor).
This book examines for the first time an important and controversial social issue, employing a rigorous intellectual framework to explore the cultural construction of youth through the dissemination of moral panics.
Given here is Chapter 5:
The moral panic over CSA and sexual abusers is the compelling and inexorable result of publicly challenging deeply ingrained taboos about sexual attitudes and practices. The controversy has been heightened by the cacophony of competing statistics and claims regarding the presence of CSA in American society.
Since the dawn of the child welfare movement in this country, the sexual abuse of children and youth has been a pressing concern, but the proliferation of mass media has pushed this preoccupation to an obsessive level. [...]
Undoubtedly, sexual molestation can be a deeply traumatic, life-altering, and painful assault on youth. Nevertheless, the compulsive sense of panic that escalated fear of CSA in the final decades of the twentieth century and first years of the twenty-first century have ultimately overshadowed the less dramatic, but no less disturbing reality.
Youth actually is sexually active. In our society, over-filled with sexual images and scenes - if not at least an obsession - this not seen as a sign of natural development, a right or a joy, but as a problem. Just this vision raises problems. There are better visions.
Chapter five, here presented as a .PDF file, is devoted to early sexual growth and activity and first sets out to define erotic arousal and orgasm, noting the variation in pattern of orgastic response in individuals.
One significant finding was that more than 99% of these boys adopted a regular routine of sexual activity after the initial experience of ejaculation.
Added: December 2012
Sex offenders are universally hated and despised and seen as dangerous sexual predators unless locked up and kept under surveillance. Following a number of highly publicized violent crimes, all states passed registration and notification laws and many passed civil commitment laws. Although these laws were passed as a means to decrease recidivism and promote public safety, the resulting stigmatization of sex offenders is likely to result in disruption of their relationships, loss of or difficulties finding jobs, difficulties finding housing, and decreased psychological well-being, all factors that could increase their risk of recidivism.
The civil commitment programs amount to expensive preventive detention and incapacitation rather than treatment; very few have been released. The high costs of the civil commitment programs divert resources from other programs with a better chance of being effective in reducing sexual violence.
Added: November 2012
The public and scientific debate on pedosexuality is heated one.We find urselves involved in a difficult balancing act that demands utmost care if we are to avoid,
on the one hand, playing down the gravity of adult–child sexual acts and, on the other hand, overdramatizing its catastrophic potential. However, the tendency to polarize and overgeneralize is strong. Both, those inclined to deemphasize
the severity of the problem and those bent upon blowing it out of all proportion, distort the reality of children who are drawn into sexual contact with adults, colonizing their experience, their memories, and their own assessments.
It seems to me that one of the prerequisites for a more reasonable discussion is to disentangle the confusion of moral and clinical discourses. This requires that we argue, from a moral standpoint, where morals are at issue and, from a clinical point of view, when it comes to traumatizing effects. Above all, we hould not clothe moral judgments in the garb of clinical “expertocratic” language.
The real victims of sexual abuse of children include all of us, because the system we have set up to eliminate abuse of children may be doing more damage than good.
Children may be harmed by the intervention.
Families, including extended family members, may be destroyed.
Grandparents may never see their grandchildren again.
Occupations that involve work with children become suspect: Teachers, preachers, boy scout leaders, big brothers, athletic coaches, day care workers, counselors, mental health professionals, and others are watched suspiciously by a society that asks why they choose to work with children.
Lonely people learn quickly to avoid all friendly actions toward children (Weinbach 1987).
Men learn that in spite of twenty years of rhetoric telling them they can have feelings and be gentle, if they are affectionate with children they can go to prison.
It must be possible for all who are concerned with reducing the abuse of children to agree cognitively that increasing the accuracy of the process is both desirable and attainable. There is more credible and reliable information now than a few years ago. It is possible now to assert [...]that there is a general consensus in the scientific community about some basic facts. Potentially this information can be used to develop a more accurate and reliable way to make decisions about child sexual abuse which will result in greater protection of abused children and less harm to innocent persons.
In this essay, an addition to a book, the authors write about children's witness in courts and about the ways to diagnose possible harm after child sexual abuse. Rules for interviewing children are given; the us eof anatomic dolls is contra-advised.
In addition, they mention research in which is proven that not all victims are harmed by the act itself; bad family environment is more harming the child.
The continued accumulation of scientific research remains supportive of efforts to increase the accuracy of determinations and opinions expressed in response to accusations of sexual abuse. Legal scholarship and philosophy of science are likely to produce marked changes in jurisprudence and development of different procedures in the justice system.
Both psychology and law are concerned with human behavior. Law depends upon what everyone knows and believes about human behavior, upon common knowledge. In contrast, psychology distrusts common knowledge and substitutes knowledge based on empirical data systematically gathered and rationally analyzed. This conflict may cause misunderstanding between law and psychology. However, a common ground of both law and psychology is the goal to reduce error.
The authors especially write about children's testimony in court. The APA's and the Supreme Court's demand that a psychologist before a testimony has to predict possible harm for the child, placed the psychologist for an impossible task and a difficult dilemma.
In APA's amicae Curiae letter about this topic, the authors find no evidence, only weak argumentation by means of weak research.
Dissociative identity disorder (DID, formerly multiple personality disorder, or MPD) remains highly controversial. Some researchers and clinicians believe DID represents a distinct psychiatric disorder with a unique and stable set of symptoms and behaviors; these professionals see a significant connection between DID and severe childhood abuse.
Others maintain DID is an iatrogenic disorder that is heavily dependent upon therapeutic, media, and cultural influences.
Despite this debate, there is general agreement that some patients, with the unwitting encouragement of their therapists, can learn to show symptoms of DID. Two case studies are presented that illustrate how therapists can encourage recovered memories of childhood sexual abuse and the development of alter personalities.
The controversy regarding recovered memories of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) has been characterized by two perspectives.
 According to one perspective, some people repress their memories of abuse because these experiences have been so emotionally traumatic, and they become capable of recalling the CSA only when it is psychologically safe to do so many years later.
 According to the other perspective, many reports of recovered memories of sexual abuse are false memories, often inadvertently fostered by therapists.
In this article, we provide evidence for a third interpretation that applies to a subset of people reporting recollections of CSA; it does not require the concepts of repression, trauma, or false memory. These people did not experience their CSA as traumatic; they either failed to think about their abuse for years or forgot their previous recollections, and they recalled their CSA spontaneously after encountering reminders outside of psychotherapy. Their recovered memories are corroborated at the same rate as those of people who never forgot their abuse. Hence, recalling CSA after many years is not the same thing as having recalled a previously repressed memory of trauma.
Who needs repression? Normal memory processes can explain 'forgetting' of childhood sexual abuse
Conclusions in short:
(1) CSA is not necessarily traumatic at the time it occurs,
(2) CSA can be forgotten via normal forgetting mechanisms, and
(3) it may be the retrospective interpretation of the event, rather than the event itself, that mediates its subsequent impact.
This article is in Ipce's Library 3 (because of the dubble frame needed for text and references) - here is the abstract and a link to the article.