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Web Article
Brown, Kevin; Circumstantial and preferential, Jun 26 2007
There are two published estimates of what percentage of the total population of sex offenders fall into the "Preferential" and "Situational" categories. [...]
In testing utilizing penile plythysmograph monitoring, a large percentage of men experience some arousal to children when presented with audio stimuli. A study utilizing a college-student population found this number to be 26.25%. [...]
The increased risk of the commission of the crime of child molestation among the population of pedophilic men is exceedingly small. Heterosexual men are as great a danger to children as pedophilic men in terms of the likelihood that they will commit the crime of child molestation.

Seto, Michael C., Hanson Karl R., & Babchishin Kelly M.; Contact Sexual Offending by Men With Online Sexual Offenses; Annals of Sex Research · December 2010
Abstract
There is much concern about the likelihood that online sexual offenders particularly online child pornography offenders) have either committed or will commit offline sexual offenses involving contact with a victim. This study addresses this question in two metaanalyses:
[1] the first examined the contact sexual offense histories of online offenders,
whereas
[2] the second examined the recidivism rates from follow-up studies of online
offenders.
[1] The first meta-analysis found that approximately 1 in 8 online offenders (12%)
have an officially known contact sexual offense history at the time of their index offense (k = 21, N = 4,464). Approximately one in two (55%) online offenders admitted to a contact sexual offense in the six studies that had self-report data (N = 523).
[2] The second meta-analysis revealed that 4.6% of online offenders committed a new sexual offense of some kind during a 1.5- to 6-year follow-up (k = 9, N = 2,630); 2.0% committed a contact sexual offense and 3.4% committed a new child pornography offense.
The results of these two quantitative reviews suggest that there may be a distinct subgroup of online-only offenders who pose relatively low risk of committing
contact sexual offenses in the future.
Graves, Robert, Bangers, & Mash; Goodbye To All That
"The intimacy that frequently took place was very seldom between an older boy and the object of his affection - that would have spoiled the romantic illusion - but almost always between boys of the same age who were not in love, and used each other as convenient sex-instruments. So the atmosphere was always heavy with romance of a conventional early-Victorian type, complicated by cynicism and foulness."
"The school consisted of about six hundred boys, whose chief interests were games [sports] and romantic friendships."
Bristow, Jennie, & Webster Richard; The making of a modern-day witch hunt: Book review - Richard Webster’s The Secret of Bryn Estyn, Jan 30 2009
The making of a modern-day witch hunt
The publication of the paperback version of Richard Webster’s The Secret of Bryn Estyn is a powerful reminder of who is driving today’s hysterical anti-paedophile witch hunts: police, judges, politicians… the elite, not the mob.
Bowden, Mark; Mark Bowden on Sexual Predators | Culture | Vanity Fair
Minority ReportA Crime of ShadowsAfter months of prowling Internet chat rooms, posing as the mother of two young daughters, Detective Michele Deery thought she had a live one: “parafling,” a married, middle-aged man who claimed he wanted to have sex with her kids. But was he just playing a twisted game of seduction? Both the policewoman and her target give the author their versions of the truth, in a case that challenges the conventional wisdom about online sexual predators, and blurs the lines among crime, “intent,” and enticement.
[... ... ...] The conviction does raise doubts but was a fact [...]
The classes he attends as a condition of his probation demand that he admit a sexual desire for children. It is considered an essential step toward recovery. J told his instructor that he has no such desire. He never did. He was told that if he persists in this denial he will jeopardize his probation and could be sent back to jail.
Berman, Douglas A.; New US Sentencing Commission report on the history of federal child porn guidelines, Oct 30 2009
This report provides a history of the child pornography guidelines, which were initially promulgated in 1987 and substantively revised nine times in the following 22 years. [...]
Congress has demonstrated its continued interest in deterring and punishing child pornography offenses, prompting the Commission to respond to multiple public laws that created new child pornography offenses, increased criminal penalties, directly (and uniquely) amended the child pornography guidelines, and required the Commission to consider offender and offense characteristics for the child pornography guidelines.
Sentencing courts have also expressed comment on the perceived severity of the child pornography guidelines through increased below-guidelines variance and downward departure rates. Consistent with the Commission’s duties to review and revise the guidelines, and the Supreme Court’s direction, the Commission has established a review of the child pornography guidelines [...]
Benjamin, Jarod; On Boys and Boy-lovers, Jan 01 1997
This paper recognizes that all non-consensual, forced sexual contacts are inherently criminal, but it also asserts that all consensual contacts should be legal, not limited on a 'moral' basis by government. Furthermore, the 'moral' basis currently embraced by society has been shown to be more complicated than its proponents assume; sometimes their 'morality' is highly questionable.
Bering, Jesse; Pedophiles, Hebephiles and Ephebophiles ..., Jul 01 2009
In this column presented by Scientific American Mind magazine, research psychologist Jesse Bering of Queen's University Belfast ponders some of the more obscure aspects of everyday human behavior. Ever wonder why yawning is contagious, why we point with our index fingers instead of our thumbs or whether being breastfed as an infant influences your sexual preferences as an adult? Get a closer look at the latest data as "bering in Mind" tackles these and other quirky questions about human nature.

"Michael Jackson probably wasn’t a pedophile — at least, not in the strict, biological sense of the word. It’s a morally loaded term, pedophile, that has become synonymous with the very basest of evils. (...) But according to sex researchers, it’s also a grossly misused term."
Bloch, Enid; Socrates & I : Reflections On Childhood And Philosophy, Mar 26 2004
The article explores the childhood of Socrates, born and raised in the ancient Greek culture. It may explain some specific characteristics of Socrates.
The author, born in 1941, reflects her own childhood, and ends with some questions.
Burns, Hayley; What are 'moral panics'?
This document will examine not only the essence and origin of the term 'moral panic' but the very important nature of the media's involvement in the whole process of creating a 'moral panic'.
"More moral panics will be generated and other, as yet nameless, folk devils will be created. This is not because such developments have an inexorable inner logic, but because our society as present structured will continue to generate problems for some of its members ... and then condemn whatever solution these groups find."
Bristow, Jennie; Whatever happened to false memory syndrome?
False memory syndrome, where therapists encourage patients in the mistaken belief that they were abused as children, may have been exposed. But the dangerous assumptions behind the quest for repressed memories have yet to be challenged, says Jennie Bristow. [...]
Recovered memory therapy took off at a time when society was becoming increasingly concerned about the prevalence of child abuse, particularly within the family, and the lasting effect of such abuse on its victims. [...]
From the widely accepted notion that the childhood experience of abuse can explain your problems in later life, it was only a small jump to the recovery of false memories.
Newspaper Article
Boykin, Sharahn D.; Don't 'be alone with other people's children'; Daily Times, Dec 07 2008
Many youth-based organizations have taken preventative measures to avoid situations in which sex abuse could occur, requiring youth workers to attend mandatory training sessions and submit to criminal background checks.
As a protective measure for both adults and youths, the Boy Scouts has turned such precautions into mandatory policies, said Jennifer Wright, marketing director for the Delmar chapter of the organization.
"No adult can be alone with boys."
Workers are cautioned to keep close tabs on their emotions. "Don't get caught up in the feeling that someone needs you or someone loves you."
Brown, Patricia Leigh; Supporting Boys or Girls When the Line Isn’t Clear; New York Times, Dec 02 2006
Until recently, many children who did not conform to gender norms in their clothing or behavior and identified intensely with the opposite sex were steered to psychoanalysis or behavior modification.

But as advocates gain ground for what they call gender-identity rights, evidenced most recently by New York City’s decision to let people alter the sex listed on their birth certificates, a major change is taking place among schools and families. Children as young as 5 who display predispositions to dress like the opposite sex are being supported by a growing number of young parents, educators and mental health professionals.
Bennetto, Jason; Truth test' to uncover false rape allegations, Oct 31 2000
A "lie-detector" test to help uncover false allegations of rape is being developed by the police and criminologists.
Between 10 and 41 per cent of allegations of rape are made up by the "victim", according to previous research. In the new test, a claimant's statement is analysed and points are given from a list of set clues - people who have made up a rape allegation get a low score, while genuine complaints get a high score.
Miscellaneous
B4U-ACT; DSM Revision 5 - Comment on Entry for Pedophilia - B4U-ACT
The DSM’s diagnostic criteria and accompanying text for pedophilia have a profound influence on the accuracy of the professional literature and on the extent to which minor-attracted people (MAPs) are stigmatized by it, which in turn affects their willingness to seek mental health services. This comment analyzes the proposed DSM-5 diagnostic criteria and the DSM-IV-TR accompanying text for pedophilia for accuracy and potential sources of stigma. (The DSM-IV-TR accompanying text is examined because the proposed DSM-5 accompanying text has not been made publicly available for comment.) Then, this comment uses survey results to demonstrate the extent to which MAPs actually feel stigmatized by the DSM and related literature, and how this contributes to their reluctance to seek mental health services. Finally, it proposes guidelines for revising the DSM so that it will serve its professed purpose of helping practitioners identify the needs of their clients.
of Bishops, United States Conference Catholic, USCCB, & of Justice John Jay College Criminal; The Nature and Scope of Sexual Abuse of Minors by Catholic Priests and Deacons in the United States, Feb 01 2004
The study of sexual abuse of minors by Catholic priests and deacons resulting in this report was authorized and paid for by the United States Conference of Catholic Bishops (USCCB) pursuant to the Charter for the Protection of Children and Young People (Charter) unanimously adopted by the USCCB at its June 2002 meeting. The Charter called for many responses to this victimization of minors within the Catholic Church.

Article 9 of the Charter provided for the creation of a lay body, the National Review Board, which was mandated (among other things) to commission a descriptive study of the nature and scope of the problem of child sexual abuse in the Catholic Church.

Accordingly, the Board approached John Jay College of Criminal Justice to conduct such a study. The College assembled an experienced team of researchers with expertise in the areas of forensic psychology, criminology, and human behavior, and, working with the Board, formulated a methodology to address the study mandate.
Data collection commenced in March 2003, and ended in February 2004. The information contained in this report is based upon surveys provided by 195 dioceses, representing 98% all diocesan priests in the United States, and 140 religious communities, representing approximately 60% of religious communities and 80% of all religious priests.

The mandate for the study was to:

1. Examine the number and nature of allegations of sexual abuse of minors under the age of 18 by Catholic priests between 1950 and 2002.

2. Collect information about the alleged abusers, including official status in the church, age, number of victims, responses by the church and legal authorities to the allegations of abuse, and other characteristics of the alleged abusers.

3. Collect information about the characteristics of the alleged victims, the nature of their relationship to the alleged abusers, the nature of the abuse, and the time frame within which the allegations are reported.
4. Accumulate information about the financial impact of the abuse on the Church.

Three surveys provide the data for this study.

The full report contains more detailed and additional analyses related to the information provided above.

This report is descriptive in nature. Future reports will examine the relationships among the variables described here in more detail and will be multivariate and analytic in nature.
Brunoz, O.; On Boy-Love - Paedophilia: Historical and Scientific Perspectives
A text, published in 1960 (Dutch) and 1964 (French) now translated.

The purpose of this study was to bring to light various aspects of paedophilia, and to point out how difficult a phenomenon it is to assess. It must again be stressed that before we are able to discuss the moral aspects, it is necessary to agree on both the circumstances of paedophile relationships and the principles of sexual ethics as a whole. That is still a long way off.

Aside from the question of whether or not sexual activities between boys and men will ever win ethical acceptance, I believe, as expressed in the preceding pages, that paedophile relationships do exist which are largely or wholly lacking in favorable aspects and therefore destined to exert a bad influence on the boy. But I also believe that the importance of harm is exaggerated, and the bad effects very often are not the result of the usually mentioned causes.

It has surely been proven by various experts, from ancient Greece onwards, that there are paedophile sexual relationships which either totally, or almost totally, do no harm. If it becomes possible to accept these ethically as positive relationships or at least, making an analogy with pubertal masturbation, as a more or less harmless practice, then it is also possible to argue that they could be a source of happiness and benefit to both man and boy. I do not presume to answer the questions I have raised, or even to suggest the answers. I only hope that I have succeeded in opening the discussion.
Blagov, Laura; Understanding pedophilia: Is the criminalization of pedophilia a human rights’ abuse?
This paper discusses the concept of sexuality through the work of Michel Foucault to show why labeling every pedophile as a rapist or abuser without justification is not only detrimental for the individual psyche, but for society as whole.
Foucault’s ideas are opposed with two more practical views: ... Ron O'Grady ... and Ben Spiecker & Jan Steutel ... ... ... ...
On the one hand, pedophilia can be considered a sexual orientation, which means that it cannot be chosen – repressing it will not stop it from existing, so it would be better to have it discussed in the open. ....
On the other hand, the practical consequences cannot be ignored. ...
Hence, although the Foucauldian theoretical standpoint is not wrong, it is too narrow and does not entail the possible dangers, which means that further research into the causes and reasons for pedophilia must be conducted; further knowledge can only help the individual to cope with the issue instead of fully repressing it.
Journal Article
Endrass, J., Urbaniok F., Hammermeister LC, Benz C., Elbert T., & Laubacher A.; The consumption of Internet child pornography and violent and sex offending; BMC Psychiatry, Jul 14 2009; July 14, 2009,
There is an ongoing debate on whether consumers of child pornography pose a risk for hands-on sex offenses. Up until now, there have been very few studies which have analyzed the association between the consumption of child pornography and the subsequent perpetration of hands-on sex offenses.
The aim of this study was to examine the recidivism rates for hands-on and hands-off sex offenses in a sample of child pornography users using a 6 year follow-up design.
Conclusion:
Consuming child pornography alone is not a risk factor for committing hands-on sex offenses – at least not for those subjects who had never committed a hands-on sex offense. The majority of the investigated consumers had no previous convictions for hands-on sex offenses. For those offenders, the prognosis for hands-on sex offenses, as well as for recidivism with child pornography, is favorable.
Houtepen, Jenny A. B. M., Sijtsema Jelle J., & Bogaerts Stefan; Being Sexually Attracted to Minors; Journal of Sex & Marital Therapy; ; 1-21(22 June 2015), , Jun 22 2015
This article aims to provide more insight into pedophilic attraction and risk and protective factors for offending in non-clinical pedophiles.

Fifteen participants were interviewed about sexuality, coping, and sexual self-regulation. Many participants struggled with acknowledging pedophilic interest in early puberty and experienced psychological difficulties as a result. Furthermore, many committed sex offenses during adolescence when they were still discovering their feelings.

Early recognition of risk factors and early start of interventions seem vital in preventing offending. Moreover, results suggest that risk for offending can be diminished by creating more openness about pedophilia and by providing pedophiles with social support and control.
Kärgel, Christian, Massau Claudia, Weiss Simone, Walter Martin, Borchardt Viola, Krueger Tillman H. C., et al.; Evidence for ... Inhibitory Control Abilities ...; Human Brain Mapping; 38(2), , Oct 21 2016
Neurobehavioral models of pedophilia and child sexual offending suggest a pattern of temporal and in particular prefrontal disturbances leading to inappropriate behavioral control and subsequently an increased propensity to sexually offend against children. However, clear empirical evidence for such mechanisms is still missing. [...]
We compared behavioral performance and neural response patterns among three groups of men [...]: pedophiles with (...) and without (...) a history of hands-on sexual offences against children as well as healthy non-offending controls (...).
As compared to offending pedophiles, non-offending pedophiles exhibited superior inhibitory control [...] while no significant differences were found between pedophiles and healthy controls.
Data therefore suggest that heightened inhibition-related recruitment [...] is related to better inhibitory control in pedophiles who successfully avoid committing hands-on sexual offences against children.
Stanley, Jessica L., Bartholomew Kim, & Oram Doug; Gay and Bisexual Men's Age-Discrepant Childhood Sexual Experiences; The Journal of Sex Research; 41(4), 381-389
This study examined childhood sexual abuse (CSA) in gay and bisexual men. We compared

  • the conventional definition of CSA based on age difference with



  • a modified definition of CSA based on perception [CSE - Child Sexual Experience]


to evaluate which definition best accounted for problems in adjustment.

The sample consisted of 192 gay and bisexual men recruited from a randomly selected community sample. Men's descriptions of their CSA experiences [id est: CSE] were coded from taped interviews.

Fifty men (26%) reported sexual experiences before age 17 with someone at least 5 years older, constituting CSA according to the age-based definition.

  • Of these men, 24 (49%) perceived their sexual experiences as negative, coercive, and/or abusive and thus were categorized as perception-based CSA. Participants with perception-based CSA experiences reported higher levels of maladjustment than non-CSA participants.



  • Participants with age-based CSA experiences who perceived their sexual experience as non-negative, noncoercive, and nonabusive [51%?] were similar to non-CSA participants in their levels of adjustment.



These findings suggest that a perception-based CSA definition [CSE] more accurately represents harmful CSA experiences in gay and bisexual men than the conventional age-based definition [CSA].

In conclusion,
... the standard convention of defining age-based childhood sexual abuse as uniformly negative, harmful, and coercive may not accurately represent gay and bisexual men's sexual experiences.
Combining perception-based CSA experience [id est: CSE] with noncoercive, nonnegative, nonabusive experiences, as the age-based definition does, presents a misleading picture of childhood sexual abuse.
An age-based CSA definition inflates prevalence rates of childhood sexual abuse and inaccurately suggests that the maladjustment associated with perception-based CSA [id est CSE] experiences applies to all childhood age-discrepant sexual encounters.
In contrast, these results suggest that gay men with histories of nonnegative, noncoercive childhood sexual experiences [CSE] with older people are as well adjusted as those without histories of age-discrepant childhood sexual experiences.
However, both definitions of CSA [age-based CSA vs experience based CSE] account for only a very small proportion of the variance in adult adjustment problems.
Contrary to popular belief, negative outcomes do not inevitably follow from gay and bisexual men's childhood age-discrepant sexual encounters.
Bailey, Michael J.; Michael Jackson’s Dangerous Liaisons - Review; Archives of Sexual Behavior
This is an unusual book, especially for review in an academic journal. Its subject is pop icon Michael Jackson, one of the most famous, talented, and financially successful entertainers of all time — and also one of the strangest. Specifically, the book focuses on Jackson’s interest in children, and whether that interest was sexual in nature. The author, Tom O’Carroll (under the pseudonym ‘‘Carl Toms’’), is himself an unapologetic pedophile, and his pedophilia has influenced both his insight into Jackson and his aspirations for the book. [... ... ...]
This book is fascinating, challenging, and discomfiting. Anyone wanting to understand Michael Jackson will need to read it. [...] It certainly illuminates the most controversial aspect of Jackson’s life, one that was surely important to Jackson. [..]
Dangerous Liaisons is also worth reading for the challenges it raises regarding pedophilic relationships and their consequences. I suspect O’Carroll believes that this is a suitable tribute to Michael Jackson’s unfinished life.
Tenbergen, Gilian, Wittfoth Matthias, Frieling Helge, Ponseti Jorge, Walter Martin, Walter Henrik, et al.; The Neurobiology and Psychology of Pedophilia: Recent Advances and Challenges; Frontiers in Human Neuroscience; 2015(9), 344, Jun 24 2015
A pedophilic disorder is recognized for its impairment to the individual and for the harm it may cause to others. Pedophilia is often considered a side issue and research into the nature of pedophilia is delayed in comparison to research into other psychiatric disorders.
However, with the increasing use of neuro-imaging techniques, such as functional and structural magnetic resonance imaging (sMRI, fMRI), together with neurop-sychological studies, we are increasing our knowledge of predisposing and accompanying factors contributing to pedophilia development.
At the same time, we are faced with methodological challenges, such as group differences between studies, including age, intelligence, and comorbidities, together with a lack of careful assessment and control of child sexual abuse.
Having this in mind, this review highlights the most important studies investigating pedophilia, with a strong emphasis on (neuro-) biological studies, combined with a brief explanation of research into normal human sexuality.
We focus on some of the recent theories on the etiology of pedophilia such as the concept of a general neuro-developmental disorder and/or alterations of structure and function in frontal, temporal, and limbic brain areas.
With this approach, we aim to not only provide an update and overview but also a framework for future research and to address one of the most significant questions of how pedophilia may be explained by neurobiological and developmental alterations.
The chosen format is here (on Ipce): Quotes and summaries from this article.
Blanchard, Ray, Lykins Amy D., Wherrett Diane, Kuban Michael E., Cantor James M., Blak Thomas, et al.; Pedophilia, hebephilia, and the DSM-V; Archives of Sexual Behavior; 38, 335-350
The present study sought to validate the concept of hebephilia by examining the agreement between self-reported sexual interests and objectively recorded penile responses in the laboratory.
[...]
These results indicated that hebephilia exists as a discriminable erotic age-preference.
The authors recommend various ways in which the DSM might be altered to accommodate the present findings. One possibility would be to replace the diagnosis of Pedophilia with Pedo-hebephilia [...].