Library 4

Found 404 results

Journal Article
Fedoroff, Paul J., & Moran Beverley; Myths and misconceptions about sex offenders.; The Canadian Journal of Human Sexuality.; 6(4), , Sep 01 1997
One of the clearest articles addressing the current sad state of affairs regarding valid research on the topic of pedophilia.

Individuals who commit sex crimes present problems for everyone who deals with or is affected by them. Among those who commit such crimes, some are caught, some are convicted, and some are eventually sent to mental health care providers. Although many are never caught and never get help, a growing number seek help through such avenues as: self-help groups like Sex and Love Addicts Anonymous; chat-rooms on the internet; reading books and watching afternoon talk shows; or presenting with vague or unusual complaints (e.g., "Doc, I think I like sex too much"). They are, by definition, criminal and they are always in hiding, despised even by other criminals. They are the subject of increasing media attention which is at once salacious, superficially probing, and almost universally condemning. Victims of sex crimes have become increasingly vocal and have lobbied for the attention of politicians who, in turn, have become convinced that sex crimes are a new epidemic which cries out for corrective legislative countermeasures.
With so many powerful interest groups converging on the issue of sex offenders and what to do with them, it is important that the scientific community be sure of what it is saying. It is important that mental health experts make clear how much of what they are saying is opinion and how much is known scientifically. When a statement is communicated as a fact, it is important that the reasons for believing it and the limitations of evidence supporting the "fact" be stated.
The topic of treatment of sex offenders is a "hot potato" that, if not handled correctly, will damage the reputation of the mental health field. Unfortunately, this is among the most complex, controversial, and political topics faced by mental health care professionals. There seems to be something about sex that makes even scientists stop thinking logically.
[...]
Statements that are poorly supported by the scientific literature are made daily about the nature of sex offenders, even by experts. The purpose of this paper is to alert those who deal with sexual offences and sex offenders to some common assumptions that are poorly supported by scientific evidence.
Tenbergen, Gilian, Wittfoth Matthias, Frieling Helge, Ponseti Jorge, Walter Martin, Walter Henrik, et al.; The Neurobiology and Psychology of Pedophilia: Recent Advances and Challenges; Frontiers in Human Neuroscience; 2015(9), 344, Jun 24 2015
A pedophilic disorder is recognized for its impairment to the individual and for the harm it may cause to others. Pedophilia is often considered a side issue and research into the nature of pedophilia is delayed in comparison to research into other psychiatric disorders.
However, with the increasing use of neuro-imaging techniques, such as functional and structural magnetic resonance imaging (sMRI, fMRI), together with neurop-sychological studies, we are increasing our knowledge of predisposing and accompanying factors contributing to pedophilia development.
At the same time, we are faced with methodological challenges, such as group differences between studies, including age, intelligence, and comorbidities, together with a lack of careful assessment and control of child sexual abuse.
Having this in mind, this review highlights the most important studies investigating pedophilia, with a strong emphasis on (neuro-) biological studies, combined with a brief explanation of research into normal human sexuality.
We focus on some of the recent theories on the etiology of pedophilia such as the concept of a general neuro-developmental disorder and/or alterations of structure and function in frontal, temporal, and limbic brain areas.
With this approach, we aim to not only provide an update and overview but also a framework for future research and to address one of the most significant questions of how pedophilia may be explained by neurobiological and developmental alterations.
The chosen format is here (on Ipce): Quotes and summaries from this article.
McNally, Richard J., & Geraerts Elke; A New Solution to the Recovered Memory Debate; Perspectives on Psychological Science 2009; 4(2), 126-134
The controversy regarding recovered memories of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) has been characterized by two perspectives.
[1] According to one perspective, some people repress their memories of abuse because these experiences have been so emotionally traumatic, and they become capable of recalling the CSA only when it is psychologically safe to do so many years later.
[2] According to the other perspective, many reports of recovered memories of sexual abuse are false memories, often inadvertently fostered by therapists.

In this article, we provide evidence for a third interpretation that applies to a subset of people reporting recollections of CSA; it does not require the concepts of repression, trauma, or false memory. These people did not experience their CSA as traumatic; they either failed to think about their abuse for years or forgot their previous recollections, and they recalled their CSA spontaneously after encountering reminders outside of psychotherapy. Their recovered memories are corroborated at the same rate as those of people who never forgot their abuse. Hence, recalling CSA after many years is not the same thing as having recalled a previously repressed memory of trauma.
Cantor, James M., & McPhail Ian V.; Non-offending Pedophiles; Current Sexual Health Reports; 8(3, september 2016; on line May 2016), 121-128
Non-offending pedophiles are a unique population of individuals who experience sexual interest in children, but despite common misperceptions, have neither had sexual contact with a child nor have accessed illegal child sexual exploitation material.
An emerging body of research has examined the prevalence of pedophilic interests, characteristics of non-offending pedophiles, correlates of pedophilic interests, and stigma associated with pedophilia.
Treatment programs are beginning to produce findings regarding the effectiveness of treatment in supporting non-offending pedophiles to remain
offense-free.
The current review spans these areas of research and discusses potential treatment options for working with non-offending pedophiles based on that research base.
Wolak, Janis, Finkelhor David, Mitchell Kimberly J., & Ybarra Michele L.; Online "predators" and their victims: Myths, realities, and implications for prevention and treatment.; American Psychologist; Vol 63(2)(Feb-Mar 2008), , 111-128
The publicity about online "predators" who prey on naive children using trickery and violence is largely inaccurate. Internet sex crimes involving adults and juveniles more often fit a model of statutory rape--adult offenders who meet, develop relationships with, and openly seduce underage teenagers--than a model of forcible sexual assault or pedophilic child molesting. This is a serious problem, but one that requires approaches different from those in current prevention messages emphasizing parental control and the dangers of divulging personal information. Developmentally appropriate prevention strategies that target youths directly and acknowledge normal adolescent interests in romance and sex are needed. These should provide younger adolescents with awareness and avoidance skills while educating older youths about the pitfalls of sexual relationships with adults and their criminal nature. Particular attention should be paid to higher risk youths, including those with histories of sexual abuse, sexual orientation concerns, and patterns of off- and online risk taking. Mental health practitioners need information about the dynamics of this problem and the characteristics of victims and offenders because they are likely to encounter related issues in a variety of contexts.
Berlin, Fred S.; Pedophilia and DSM-5; Journal of American Academic Psychiatry Law 42:404 –7, 2014; 42(4), 404 - 407
Psychiatric terminology should convey information in as clear and unambiguous a manner as possible. In light of the associated stigma, that is especially so of the terms Pedophilia and Pedophilic Disorder. Although from a psychiatric perspective the term Pedophilia is intended to define a recognized clinical entity, in the collective consciousness of contemporary society, the term has become a demonizing pejorative.
Many in society are likely to equate Pedophilia with child molestation. They are not the same. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5) may be contributing inadvertently to the misconception that they are the same ...
Berlin defends to view Pedophilia as a Sexual Orientation, thus not by definition as a distortion.
Ng, Emil M. L.; Pedophilia from the Chinese perspective; Archives of Sexual Behavior; 31, 491–492
In traditional Chinese medicine, there has never been a mental disease called pedophilia (or an equivalent term), or homosexuality, or most of the other so-called sexual variations for that matter. Depictions of “child-romance” in ancient or modern Chinese literature are not difficult to find. Children are usually described as natural sexual beings and erotic stimulation and sex-play are seen as beneficial to their healthy development.
[...]
Some writers very vehemently question the capacity of children to give valid consent to sexual activity with adults. Despite their arguments, to the Chinese [...] the focus of discussions on the child consent issue in pedophilic activities is blatantly irrelevant and hypocritical.
[...]
There are certain occasions when the adults do respect the children’s wishes and ask for their consent, but only when the choices are within the adult acceptable range. [...]
Indeed, when it comes to a child’s sexual activity, the debate begins ...
Walter, Peter Fritz; Pedophilia Revisited; Essays on Law, Policy and Psychiatry; 7,
Pedophilia Revisited: The Making of a Crime for Justifying Lacking Social Policy (Essays on Law, Policy and Psychiatry, Vol. 7) — 2019 Apple Books Edition — is an extended study on the controversial subject of pedophilia, the sexual love of adults for children — humans who by legal definition are to be considered a ‘child’ for the purposes of criminal law.
This form of love, also called ‘child-love’ by those who feel sexually attracted to children, can be exclusive or non-exclusive, but the author’s research clearly points to the fact that pedophile attraction is not inborn, just as homosexual attraction is not inborn, but a conditioned response.
The article gives links to the PDF edition and the paperback edition of the book.

Blanchard, Ray, Lykins Amy D., Wherrett Diane, Kuban Michael E., Cantor James M., Blak Thomas, et al.; Pedophilia, hebephilia, and the DSM-V; Archives of Sexual Behavior; 38, 335-350
The present study sought to validate the concept of hebephilia by examining the agreement between self-reported sexual interests and objectively recorded penile responses in the laboratory.
[...]
These results indicated that hebephilia exists as a discriminable erotic age-preference.
The authors recommend various ways in which the DSM might be altered to accommodate the present findings. One possibility would be to replace the diagnosis of Pedophilia with Pedo-hebephilia [...].
O'Hear, Michael M.; Perpetual Panic; Federal Sentencing Reporter; 21(2), pp. 69–77
The account of recent developments that unfolds in these pages may be viewed as yet another chapter in the story of a child sex abuse panic that is now well into its third decade - [Especially in the USA]
Underwager, Ralph, & Wakefield Hollida; Poor Psychology Produces Poor Law; Law & Human Behavior; 16(2), 
Both psychology and law are concerned with human behavior. Law depends upon what everyone knows and believes about human behavior, upon common knowledge. In contrast, psychology distrusts common knowledge and substitutes knowledge based on empirical data systematically gathered and rationally analyzed. This conflict may cause misunderstanding between law and psychology. However, a common ground of both law and psychology is the goal to reduce error.
The authors especially write about children's testimony in court. The APA's and the Supreme Court's demand that a psychologist before a testimony has to predict possible harm for the child, placed the psychologist for an impossible task and a difficult dilemma.
In APA's amicae Curiae letter about this topic, the authors find no evidence, only weak argumentation by means of weak research.
Diamond, Milton, Jozifkova Eva, & Weiss Petr; Pornography and Sex Crimes in the Czech Republic; Archives of Sexual Behavior; 2010 Nov 30,
Pornography continues to be a contentious matter with those on the one side arguing it detrimental to society while others argue it is pleasurable to many and a feature of free speech. The advent of the Internet with the ready availability of sexually explicit materials thereon particularly has seemed to raise questions of its influence.

Following the effects of a new law in the Czech Republic that allowed pornography to a society previously having forbidden it allowed us to monitor the change in sex related crime that followed the change.

As found in all other countries in which the phenomenon has been studied, rape and other sex crimes did not increase. Of particular note is that this country, like Denmark and Japan, had a prolonged interval during which possession of child pornography was not illegal and, like those other countries, showed a significant decrease in the incidence of child sex abuse.
Kingston, Drew A., Fedoroff Paul, Firestone Philip, & Bradford John M.; Pornography Use and Sexual Aggression; Aggressive Behavior; 35, 1-11
In this study, we examined the unique contribution of pornography consumption to the longitudinal prediction of criminal recidivism in a sample of 341 child molesters. We specifically tested the hypothesis, based on predictions informed by the confluence model of sexual aggression that pornography will be a risk factor for recidivism only for those individuals classified as relatively high risk for re-offending. [...]
Results for both frequency and type of pornography use were generally consistent with our predictions. Most importantly, after controlling for general and specific risk factors for sexual aggression, pornography added significantly to the prediction of recidivism. Statistical interactions indicated
(1) that frequency of pornography use was primarily a risk factor for higher-risk offenders, when compared with lower-risk offenders, and
(2) that content of pornography (i.e., pornography containing deviant content) was a risk factor for all groups. The importance of conceptualizing particular risk factors (e.g., pornography), within the context of other individual characteristics is discussed.
Levenson, Jill S., & Grady Melissa D.; Preventing Sexual Abuse: Perspectives of Minor- Attracted Persons About Seeking Help; Sexual Abuse
The primary aim of this exploratory research was to gain information from minor-attracted persons (MAPs) about their
(a) formal and informal experiences with help-seeking for minor attraction,
(b) perceived barriers to seeking help for concerns about minor attraction, and
(c) treatment priorities as identified by consumers of these services.
A nonrandom, purposive sample of MAPs (n = 293, 154 completed all questions) was recruited via an online survey.
Results show that 75% of participants did seek formal help from a professional; however, just less than half of them found the experience to be helpful. Characteristics of helpful therapeutic encounters included nonjudgmental attitudes, knowledge about minor attraction, and viewing clients in a person-centered and holistic way. Barriers to help seeking included uncertainty about confidentiality, fear of negative reaction or judgment, difficulties finding a therapist knowledgeable about MAPs, and financial constraints. Understanding or reducing attraction to minors were common treatment goals, but participants also prioritized addressing general mental health and well-being related to depression, anxiety, loneliness, and low self-esteem.
Implications for effective and ethical counseling and preventive interventions for MAPs are discussed.
Bullough, Vern L., & Bullough Bonnie; Problems of Research into Adult-Child Sexual Interaction; Institute for Psychological Therapies; 8(2), 
Although adult-child sexual behaviors have occurred in many different cultures throughout history, there has been little serious research on adult-child sexual interactions. Barriers to performing this research include legal restrictions along with the fact that researchers attempting to understand and explain adult-child sexual interaction risk being labeled as pedophiles. Despite this, it is crucial to find ways to do research with persons who resist adopting today's standards and attitudes.
Moser, Charles; Problems with Ascertainment; Archives of Sexual Behavior; 39(6), 1225–1227
Coleman, Eli; Promoting sexual health and responsible sexual behavior: an introduction.; The Journal of Sex Research, Feb 01 2002
We are at a unique juncture in history and have a rare opportunity to develop global, national, and community strategies to promote sexual health for the new century. This opportunity has been created by the fact that the world is experiencing a new sexual revolution and a public health imperative. Much like the sexual revolution of the 1960s and 1970s, it is a revolution fueled by incredible scientific advances, as well as dramatic social and economic change (...).
We also face a myriad of sexual health problems, which is creating an enormous burden on societies. These two factors are putting pressure on health ministries to develop comprehensive approaches to sexual health promotion.
Widom, Cathy Spatz, & Massey Christina; A Prospective Examination of Whether Childhood Sexual Abuse Predicts Subsequent Sexual Offending; JAMA Pediatrics; January 5, 2015, , Jan 05 2015
Conclusions:
This study represents a long-term and comprehensive assessment of the extent to which sexually abused children become sex offenders and compares them to physically abused and neglected and nonmaltreated children. These findings show that physically abused and neglected children are at increased risk for being arrested for sex crimes and should receive effective interventions to avert these negative consequences. These results do not provide support for the common belief that being a survivor of childhood sexual abuse carries with it a unique increase in the risk for becoming a sex offender, contrary to some public policies and administrative practices of some jurisdictions where children may be stigmatized, placed in restrictive settings, or barred from schools. Perhaps it is time for a Government Accountability Office report or Institute of Medicine panel study to reevaluate public policies and treatment efforts that have been implemented based on common assumptions.
Pachankis, John E.; The Psychological Implications of Concealing a Stigma: A Cognitive–Affective–Behavioral Model; Psychological Bulletin; 133(2), 328–345
Many assume that individuals with a hidden stigma escape the difficulties faced by individuals with a visible stigma. However, recent research has shown that individuals with a concealable stigma also face considerable stressors and psychological challenges. The ambiguity of social situations combined with
the threat of potential discovery makes possessing a concealable stigma a difficult predicament for many individuals. The increasing amount of research on concealable stigmas necessitates a cohesive model for integrating relevant findings. This article offers a cognitive–affective–behavioral process model for
understanding the psychological implications of concealing a stigma. It ends with discussion of potential points of intervention in the model as well as potential future routes for investigation of the model.
- - -
Ipce remarks that several stigma's are mentioned here, but just not having pedophilic feelings and desires - clearly even here a taboo that still might be kept in mind. Also, several examples of secrets that must be kept hidden are mentioned, but just not the secret of a child or teenager who has had sexual experience with an adult.
The first taboo might be deminished if the feelings will not be lead to acts, and thus ever might be accepted as human feelings. The second taboo, the secret to be kept hidden, should be avoided by the same: feelings that do not lead to an act.

Franklin, Karen; The Public Policy Implications of ‘‘Hebephilia’’: A Response to Blanchard et al. (2008); Archives of Sexual Behavior; 38, 319-320, Oct 16 2008
Blanchard et al. (2008) present their article on "hebephilia" as an objective analysis of research data. In fact, it is a textbook example of subjective values masquerading as science. Avoiding the crucial public policy implications of their argument, Blanchard et al. advance hebephilia as if it exists in a cultural vacuum. Their recommendations are even more troubling in light of their study's methodological flaws.
Hamilton, Melissa; Public Safety, Individual Liberty, and Suspect Science; Temple Law Review
In recent decades, federal, state, and local governments have become increasingly restrictive on the freedom and privacy of those labeled sexually violent predators (“SVP”s) in hopes of preventing further sexual violence. The most commonly used tools to manage SVPs are involuntary commitments for mental treatment, sex offender registration, and residency restrictions (hereinafter “SVP laws”).
This article critically analyzes whether future dangerousness assessments using actuarial tools are responsive to legal standards contained in SVP laws and whether courts, when confronted with such assessments, are adequately engaging in the gatekeeper role to accept only good science considering the evidentiary benchmarks of Daubert and Frye.
Specifically, this article concludes that because of uncritical reliance upon actuarial assessments of future dangerousness, legal professionals have largely failed to grasp the significant empirical limitations of these tests.
Malón, Agustín; Quotes from Malón's "Participating Victim"; Archives of Sexual Behavior
During the 20th century, erotic experiences between minors and adults occupied a position of increasing interest, both public as well as scientific. In this area of research, one of the most notable evolutions in how these experiences are treated has been the progressive disappearance and/or the intense redefinition of what earlier researchers called ‘‘participating victims,’’ i.e., minors apparently interested in accepting and/or sustaining these relationships.

The present work, through a comparative analysis of the literature, seeks to substantiate this transformation during the second third of the 20th century.
Malón, Agustín; Quotes from: Pedophilia, A Diagnosis in Search of a Disorder; Arch Sex Behav; 41, 1083 - 1097, Feb 25 2012
This article presents a critical review of the recent controversies concerning the diagnosis of pedophilia in the context of the preparation of the fifth edition of theDSM.
The analysis focuses basically on the relationship between pedophilia and the currentDSM-IV-TR’s definition ofmental disorder. Scholars appear not to share numerous basic assumptions ranging from their underlying ideas about what constitutes a mental disorder to the role of psychiatry in modern society, including irreconcilable theories about human sexuality, which interfere with reaching any kind of a consensus as to what the psychiatric status of pedophilia
should be.
It is questioned if the diagnosis of pedophilia containedin the DSM is more forensic than therapeutic, focusing rather on the dangers inherent in the condition of pedophilia (dangerous dysfunction) than on its negative effects for the subject (harmful dysfunction).
The apparent necessity of the diagnosis of pedophilia in the DSM is supported, but the basis for this diagnosis is uncertain.
Houtepen, Jenny A. B. M., Sijtsema Jelle J., & Bogaerts Stefan; References at Being Sexual Attracted to Minors; Journal of Sex & Marital Therapy; 1-21(22 June 2015), 
References at "Being Sexually Attracted to Minors: Sexual Development, Coping With Forbidden Feelings, and Relieving Sexual Arousal in Self-Identified Pedophiles.
O'Carroll, Tom; References at Childhood ‘Innocence’ is Not Ideal: Virtue Ethics and Child–Adult Sex, Tom O'Carroll; Sexuality & Culture
References at "Childhood ‘Innocence’ is Not Ideal: Virtue Ethics and Child–Adult Sex" by Tom O'Carroll.