Library 4

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Brown, Patricia Leigh; Supporting Boys or Girls When the Line Isn’t Clear; New York Times, Dec 02 2006
Until recently, many children who did not conform to gender norms in their clothing or behavior and identified intensely with the opposite sex were steered to psychoanalysis or behavior modification.

But as advocates gain ground for what they call gender-identity rights, evidenced most recently by New York City’s decision to let people alter the sex listed on their birth certificates, a major change is taking place among schools and families. Children as young as 5 who display predispositions to dress like the opposite sex are being supported by a growing number of young parents, educators and mental health professionals.
Angelides, Steven; Subjectivity under Erasure: Adolescent Sexuality, Gender, and Teacher-Student Sex; The Journal of Men’s Studies, Vol. 15, No. 3, Fall 2007, 347-360.; 15(3, Fall 2007), The Journal of Men’s Studies, Vol. 15, No. 3, Fall 2007, 347-360.
This article offers a reading of a recent Australian teacher-student sex scandal
in order to interrogate the relationship between gendered subjectivity and cultural codes of gender.
The questions of whether gender ought to make a difference to how we understand instances of so-called “intergenerational sex” and whether cultural codes accurately reflect sexual subjectivity are posed.
It is argued that while cultural codes are not external or equivalent to subjectivity, this does not mean that they are not expressive of elements of subjectivity.
The article concludes with the suggestion that the failure to attend to the nexus
of the social and the psychical not only serves to strengthen a very recent and
particular set of historical, political, and ideological forces but also risks creating foundations for misreadings of the history of male adolescent subjectivities.
Chelala, Cesar; Stopping sexual abuse of Russian kids; The Japan Times, Sep 11 2007
One of the regrettable consequences of the uneven economic expansion that Russia has experienced in recent times has been the increase in child abuse, particularly child prostitution.

This has been fueled by the significant influx of foreigners coming to Russia for business transactions. Besides the moral and ethical implications, the impact that sexual exploitation has on children's health and future development demands urgent attention. It is a problem that shows no signs of abating.

Sexual abuse of children can take several forms ... ...
Jahnke, Sara, Imhoff Roland, & Hoyer Juergen; Stigmatization of People with Pedophilia: Two Comparative Surveys; Arch Sex Behav
Despite productive research on stigma and its impact on people's lives in the past 20 years, stigmatization of people with pedophilia has received little attention. We conducted two surveys estimating public stigma and determining predictors of social distance from this group.
Both studies revealed that nearly all reactions to people with pedophilia were more negative than those to the other groups, including social distance.
Results strongly indicate that people with pedophilia are a stigmatized group who risk being the target of fierce discrimination. We discuss this particular form of stigmatization with respect to social isolation of persons with pedophilia and indirect negative consequences for child abuse prevention.
Jahnke, Sara, & Hoyer Juergen; Stigmatization of People with Pedophilia: A Blind Spot in Stigma Research; International Journal of Sexual Health
Stigmatization restricts people’s opportunities in life and has severe consequences on mental health and psychological wellbeing. This article focuses on stigmatization research on pedophilia. Based on an extensive literature search, it reviews studies that have empirically determined lay theories, stereotypes, prejudices, and discrimination against people with pedophilia, as well as the effect of stigma on this group. The review reveals a scarcity of empirical studies on the subject.

While the majority of studies give at least an indication that stigma against people with pedophilia is highly prevalent, we also identified severe methodological limitations and a lack of a unifying and systematic research agenda.

We discuss the need for more theory-driven, rigorous, and representative empirical studies and propose perspectives and requirements for the scientific study of stigma against people with pedophilia.
Jahnke, S., Schmidt A. F., Geradt M., & Hoyer J.; Stigma-related stress and its correlates among men with pedophilic sexual interests.; Archives of Sexual Behavior; November 2015,
Despite decades of research on the adverse consequences of stereotyping and discrimination for many stigmatized groups, little is known about how people with pedophilia perceive and react to stigma.
In this article, we present a framework that outlines how stigma-related stress might negatively affect emotional and social areas of functioning, cognitive distortions, and the motivation to pursue therapy, all of which may contribute to an increased risk of sexual offending.
We tested our hypotheses in an online survey among self-identified German speaking people with pedophilia (N = 104) using a wide range of validated indicators of social and emotional functioning (...). Specific risk factors such as self-efficacy, cognitive distortions and the motivation to seek treatment were also assessed.
In line with our hypotheses, fear of discovery generally predicted reduced social and emotional functioning. Contrary to our predictions, perceived social distance and fear of discovery were not linked to self-efficacy, cognitive distortions, or treatment motivation. [...]
Graham, I.; Statistics Laundering: false and fantastic figures, Jan 03 2010
A very critical and well documented description of the myths, claimed to be "statistics", about child pornography and child abuse.
Levine, Judith; Standing Member, Oct 25 2006
Judith Levine critisizes Foley as a hypocrite: 'protecting the children', in the meantime having intimacy with his page. She also critisize the comments on Foley, naming him 'a pedophile', as well as the laws and other measures to 'protect children' against their own sexuality: "The words child and protection lose all meaning.
Underwager, Ralph, & Wakefield Hollida; Special Problems with Sexual Abuse Cases
In this essay, an addition to a book, the authors write about children's witness in courts and about the ways to diagnose possible harm after child sexual abuse. Rules for interviewing children are given; the us eof anatomic dolls is contra-advised.
In addition, they mention research in which is proven that not all victims are harmed by the act itself; bad family environment is more harming the child.
Conclusion:
The continued accumulation of scientific research remains supportive of efforts to increase the accuracy of determinations and opinions expressed in response to accusations of sexual abuse. Legal scholarship and philosophy of science are likely to produce marked changes in jurisprudence and development of different procedures in the justice system.
Bloch, Enid; Socrates & I : Reflections On Childhood And Philosophy, Mar 26 2004
The article explores the childhood of Socrates, born and raised in the ancient Greek culture. It may explain some specific characteristics of Socrates.
The author, born in 1941, reflects her own childhood, and ends with some questions.
Editors, Wikipedia; Social Stigma
Social stigma is the extreme disapproval of (or discontent with) a person or group on socially characteristic grounds that are perceived, and serve to distinguish them, from other members of a society. Stigma may then be affixed to such a person, by the greater society, who differs from their cultural norms.

Social stigma can result from the perception of mental illness, physical disabilities, diseases such as leprosy (see leprosy stigma), illegitimacy, sexual orientation, gender identity, skin tone, education, nationality, ethnicity, ideology, religion (or lack of religion) or criminality. Attributes associated with social stigma often vary depending on the geopolitical and corresponding sociopolitical contexts employed by society, in different parts of the world.

According to Goffman there are three forms of social stigma:

Overt or external deformations, such as scars, physical manifestations of anorexia nervosa, leprosy (leprosy stigma), or of a physical disability or social disability, such as obesity.
Deviations in personal traits, including mental illness, drug addiction, alcoholism, and criminal background are stigmatized in this way.
"Tribal stigmas" are traits, imagined or real, of ethnic group, nationality, or of religion that is deemed to be a deviation from the prevailing normative ethnicity, nationality or religion.
Rind, Bruce; Social Response to Age-Gap Sex Involving Minors: Empirical, Historical, Cross-Cultural, and Cross-Species Considerations; Thymos; 4(2), 113, Oct 01 2010
Social response to age-gap sex involving minors has become increasingly severe. In the US, non-coercive acts that might have been punished with probation 30 years ago often lead to decades in prison today. Punishment also increasingly includes civil commitment up to life, as well as scarlet-letter-like public registries and onerous residence restrictions for released offenders. Advocates and the general public approve, believing that age-gap sex with minors is uniquely injurious, pathological, and criminal. Critics argue that public opinion and policy have been shaped by moral panic, consisting of unfounded assumptions and invalid science being uncritically promoted by ideology, media sensationalism, and political pandering. This talk critically examines the basic assumptions and does so using a multi-perspective approach (empirical, historical, cross-cultural, cross-species) to overcome the biases inherent in traditional clinical-forensic reports. Non-clinical empirical reviews of age-gap sex involving minors show claims of intense, pervasive injuriousness to be highly exaggerated. Historical and cross-cultural reviews show that adult-adolescent sexual relations have been common and frequently socially integrated in other times and places, indicating that present-day Western conceptualizations are socially constructed to reflect current social and economic arrangements rather than expressions of a priori truths. Analogous relations in primates are commonplace, non-pathological, and not infrequently functional, contradicting implicit assumptions of a biologically-based "trauma response" in humans. It is concluded that, though age-gap sex involving minors is a significant mismatch for contemporary culture—and this talk therefore does not endorse it— attitudes and social policy concerning it have been driven by an upward-spiraling moral panic, which itself is immoral in its excessive adverse consequences for individuals and society.
wanpaku; Shota: Japanese 'boylove' vs. Western subculture, Mar 14 2006
I was poking around on Wiki and thought it was really interesting how different the entries were for Shotacon or Shota in the Japanese Wikipedia and the English Wiki.

Most people in Western countries who know the word know it as it applies to explicit manga focusing on boys, which by now is far from uncommon even on the English-speaking Internet. But what most don't know is that Shota is also used in today's Japan to describe sexual attraction to boys in general. Not only that, but it is probably the more embraced term nowadays than shounen-ai (which literally means "boy-love").
Gieles, Frans E. J.; Short Explanation, short comment, questions
About:
Pornography Use and Sexual Aggression: The Impact of Frequency and Type of Pornography Use on Recidivism Among Sexual Offenders
Drew A. Kingston, Paul Fedoroff, Philip Firestone, Susan Curry, and John M. Bradford. AGGRESSIVE BEHAVIOR, Volume 34, pages 1–11 (2008).
It is a quite difficult article, at least for the average student and Ipce reader.
Thus: Explanation of the used statistics, some comments and some questions.
Graupner, Helmut; Sexuality, Youth Protection & Human Rights
The study examines the extent to which common sexual offences concerning minors do protect this proposed comprehensive right to sexual self-determination. The analysis is based upon the findings of natural and social science as well as an extensive and detailed international survey of national legal provisions.
Russell, Wynne; Sexual violence against men and boys (in war-zones)
It is well known that armed conflict and sexual violence against women and girls often go hand in hand. What is less widely recognised is that armed conflict and its aftermath also bring sexual danger for men and boys. The great reluctance of many men and boys to report sexual violence makes it very difficult to accurately assess its scope. The limited statistics that exist almost certainly vastly under-represent the number of male victims. Nevertheless, in the last decade, sexualised violence against men and boys – including rape, sexual torture, mutilation of the genitals, sexual humiliation, sexual enslavement, forced incest and forced rape – has been reported in 25 armed conflicts across the world. If one expands this tally to include cases of sexual exploitation of boys displaced by violent conflict, the list encompasses the majority of the 59 armed conflicts identified in the recent Human Security Report.1
Galaburda, Cyril E.; Sexual Victimology vs. Philosophy of Science
Sexual victimology is a blend of social science, criminology, and victimization-based feminism that advocates social and legal reform. As with other forms of victimology, sexual victimology holds as a basic tenet that victimization, which is defined in increasingly broad terms, typically produces lasting psychological damage; this view invited the medicalization of victimization, which prompted expansion of therapeutic services that embraced victimological assumptions as a basis for treatment.
However, nobody thinks of whether sexual victimology can be considered as an empirical science at all. Noone has ever evaluated sexual victimology with relation to philosophy of science.
Occam Razor Principle [...] Popper's Falsifiability Principle [...]
Is sexual victimology scientific? [...]
The statement: Adult-child sex causes psychological maladjustment, is not falsifiable, so sexual victimology is a pseudoscience.
Rossman, Parker; Sexual Taboos and Moral Restraints, May 26 1976
"What one finds is that religion no longer has much impact on the moral struggle, with one important exception: when religious faith and moral standards are experienced as commitments to valued and supportive persons and are embodied in relationships with those persons. They may be relatives, friends, or members of a church which one experiences as a family. [...]
Restraint comes not through the authority of institutions or the power of ideas, but through the personal influence of people he loves and trusts."
Fleischhauer, Jan, & Hollersen Wiebke; The Sexual Revolution and Children; Der Spiegel, Jul 02 2010
Translated from Der Spiegel: a description of the revolutionary years around 1968, when child sexuality was to be 'liberated' from 'bourgoise's' norms and culture, thus had to become completely free.
Green, Richard; Sexual Preference for 14-Year-Olds as a Mental Disorder: You Can’t Be Serious!!; Archives of Sexual Behavior (published on line); 2010, March 4,
This letter addresses two papers by the DSM-V Sexual and Gender Identity Disorders Workgroup member Ray Blanchard published in this Journal. [...]
A series of biased terms or logically frail arguments are provided for including hebephilia as a mental disorder.
Safiye Tozdan, Arne Dekker, Dr Phil, Janina Neutze, and Pekka Santtila, & Briken Peer; Sexual Interest in Children Among Women in Two Nonclinical and Nonrepresentative Online Samples; Sex Med; 2020(1), 1-14
Regarding women, little research is available about the prevalence of sexual interest in children (SIC), especially in nonclinical samples.
The present study aimed to investigate the extent to which adult women from 2 nonclinical and non-representative samples indicate sexual interest in prepubescent and/or pubescent children.
Participants took part in an online survey either via general websites or via websites directed toward individuals with a SIC.
The samples included are non-representative and therefore not generalizable to the female population.
Nevertheless, they strongly suggest that SIC is a phenomenon also found in women. We therefore recommend professionals in the field of sexual medicine to increase their attention and engagement for women with SIC. Based on the present results, the development of preventive treatment services specifically tailored to women with a SIC has to be strongly encouraged in the near future.
Okami, Paul, Olmstead Richard, & Abramson Paul R.; Sexual experiences in early childhood: 18‐Year longitudinal data from the UCLA family lifestyles project; THE JOURNAL OF SEX RESEARCH ; 34 - 4(JANUARY 1997), 339-347
We present results of the first longitudinal study of long-term outcome correlates of sexual experiences in early childhood ("sex play"). Two hundred children participated in the UCLA Family Lifestyles Project (FLS), beginning at birth to the current wave of data collection at ages 17-18. ...
These results converge on earlier cross-sectional retrospective work, suggesting that the experience of childhood sex play in itself is unrelated to long-term adjustment.
Graupner, Helmut; Sexual consent and human rights; Thymos; 4(2), 99-102, Oct 01 2010
The basic human right to sexual autonomy and self-determination encompasses two sides: it enshrines both the right to engage in wanted sexuality on the one hand, and the right to be free and protected from unwanted sexuality, from sexual abuse and sexual violence on the other.

This concept elaborated by the European Court of Human Rights, in the light of European legal consensus, suggests that the age of consent for sexual relations (outside of relationships of authority and outside of pornography and prostitution) should be set between 12 and 16 years. In any event the age of criminal responsibility should be the same as the age of sexual consent.
Kinsey, Alfred C., B. Pomeroy Wardel, E. Martin Clyde, & Gebhard Paul; The Sexual Behavior of the Human Female; 888 pp
Kinsey c.s.' book "The Sexual Behavior of the Human Female", 1953, is given here as a long pdf file.