Repeated exposure to violent and nonviolent pornography: Likelihood of raping
ratings and laboratory aggression against women. Malamuth,N.M. and Ceniti,J.
Aggressive Be-hav. 1986 12: 129- 137.
Abstract: Examined the long-term effects of repeated exposure to
violent and nonviolent pornography on males' laboratory aggression against
women and their self-reported likelihood of raping. 42 university students
were randomly assigned to the sexually violent, sexually non-violent or
control exposure conditions. Those assigned to the sexually violent or
sexually nonviolent conditions were exposed over a 4-wk period to 10 stimuli
including feature-length films and written and pictorial depictions, whereas
controls were not exposed to any stimuli. Following the end of the exposure
phase, subjects participated in what they believed to be a totally unrelated
experiment in which aggression was assessed within a Buss paradigm. Expo-sure
to the violent or nonviolent pornographic stimuli did not affect laboratory
aggression, but likelihood of raping ratings predicted laboratory aggression.
Treating women as sexual objects: Look to the (gender schematic) male who has
viewed pornography. McKenzie, M. et al Personality Soc. Psych. Bul. 1990
Abstract: Tested the hypothesis that exposure to nonviolent pornography
would prime a heterosexuality subschema in gender schematic males and thus
lead these males to view and treat a woman as a sexual object. 60 male
undergraduates, half gender schematic and half gender aschematic, watched
either a pornographic or a control video prior to being interviewed by a
female research assistant. Although she was blind to condition, the female
experimenter found the gender schematic males who had viewed the pornographic
video to be significantly more sexually motivated than the subjects in the
other 3 conditions. Further, in the 1st minute of a free recall task given
after the interview, 72% of the information recalled by this group of males
concerned the physical features of the female experimenter, as compared with
49% for the males in the other conditions.
Violent pornography, antiwoman thoughts, and antiwoman acts: In search of
reliable effects. Fischer, W. A. and Greneir,G. J. Sex Res. 1994, 31:
Abstract: Described experiments that examined the impact of violent
pornography on 79 male undergraduates' fantasies, attitudes, and behaviors
toward women. Exp 1, Subjects (Ss) were exposed to violent pornographic
stimuli, nonviolent erotic stimuli, or to neutral stimuli. Ss' sexual arousal,
perceptions of the stimulus, post-exposure sexual fantasies, and post
expo-sure attitudes toward women were measured. In Exp 2 Ss were provoked by a
female re-searcher and were then required to view a violent pornographic
stimulus portraying a woman who had been sexually assaulted, but was aroused
by the assault. Ss could then respond to the woman who had provoked them by
speaking to her over an intercom or by sending her an electric shock. Exposure
to violent pornography, even after provocation , produced es-sentially no
antiwoman aggression, fantasies, or attitudes.
Field and Correlational Studies
Pornography, erotica, and attitudes toward women: the effects of repeated
exposure. Padgett,V.R. et. al. J. Sex Res. 1989 26: 479-491.
Assessed the relationship between pornography and attitudes toward women in
2 correlational studies, and tested the effect of nonviolent erotica on
attitudes toward women with 184 psychology students and 20 patrons at an
"adult" theater. Hours of viewing pornography was not a reliable
predictor of attitudes toward women in either sample. Patrons of the adult
theater, who viewed more pornography, had more favorable attitudes toward
women than male or female subjects. In Study 3, 75 students were randomly
assigned to watch 4 hrs of erotica or 4 hrs of psychology films over 5
consecutive days. Manipulation checks showed a difference in subjects
perception of the erotic nature of the videos, but attitude towards women were
not influenced by type of video.
Women's attitudes and fantasies about rape as a function of early exposure to
pornography. Corne,S. et. al. J. Interpersonal Violence, 1992 7: 454-461
Abstract: Investigated the extent to which women's attitudes and fantasies
about rape are partially a function of their socialization to accept sexual
aggression as normative. 187 under-graduate women responded to a questionnaire
regarding rape-supportive attitudes. Early ex-posure to pornography was
related to subsequent "rape fantasies" and attitudes supportive of
sexual violence against women. Findings were interpreted in the context of
women's sociali-zation to accept sexual aggression as a sexual/romantic event.
Feminist perspectives on sexuality. Baron,L. J. Sex Res. 1990
Abstract: Examined the relationship between the circulation rates of
soft-core pornographic magazines and gender equality in the 50 American
states. Gender equality was measure with the Gender Equality Index (GEX),
which combines 24 indicators of the status of women rela-tive to men in the 3
institutional domains of politics, economics, and legal rights. Multiple
regression analysis was used to test the hypothesis that the higher the
circulation rate of soft-core pornographic magazines, the lower the level of
gender equality. Contrary to the hy-pothesis, the results show that gender
equality was higher in states characterized by higher circulation rates of
pornography, suggesting that pornography and gender equal-ity both flourish in
politically tolerant societies.
Exposure to pornography and attitudes about women and rape: A correlational
study. Garcia,L.T. J. Sex Res. 1986 22: 378-385
Abstract: Investigated the relationship between exposure to sexually
explicit material and attitudes toward rape in 115 male undergraduates. Data
provide mixed support for the hy-pothesis that exposure to pornographic
material would be correlated with less liberal attitudes toward women: Only
exposure to coercive or violent sexual themes was related to more tradi-tional
attitudes about women. Contrary to predictions, subjects having greater
exposure to sexual materials were found to express more liberal attitudes
toward women in the area of sexual behavior.
Pornography and rape: An empirical analysis. Gentry, C.S. Deviant
Behavior 1991 12: 277-288.
Abstract: Tests a model that hypothesizes a causal relation between
pornography and rape through an analysis of data taken from the Uniform Crime
Reports and circulation data from 3 sexually oriented magazines. Standard
Metropolitan Statistical Areas were used as units of analysis. The pornography
model was not supported. Population size, the proportion of young adults, the
percentage divorced, and population change were all significant pre-dictors of
Pornography and rape: Theory and practice? Evidence from crime data in four
coun-tries where pornography is easily available. Kutchinsky, B. Int. J.
Law Psych. 26: 47-64.
Abstract: Reviews the evidence regarding the postulated causal link between
pornography and rape, using data on the incidence of rape in 4 societies
(Denmark, Sweden, Germany, and the US) where pornography is widely available.
While earlier research found no evi-dence of a causal link between pornography
and rape, a new generation of behavioral scien-tists has attempted to prove
such a connection, especially for aggressive pornography. Aggre-gate data on
rape and other violent or sexual offenses in these 4 countries seem to ex-clude
the possibility that the availability of pornography has any detrimental
effects in the form of increased sexual violence.
Pornography and sexual offenses. Langevin,R. et. al.
Annal. Sex Res..
1988 1: 335- 362.
Abstract: Examined whether erotica is harmful and incites sexual crimes by
interviewing 227 male sex offenders and 50 control subjects from the community
in Canada about purchase of erotic magazines and videos and attendance at
erotic movies. Erotica use was not a pertinent factor in offenders' sex
offenses nor to their legal situation. Results do not support the con-clusion
of the Meese Commission (1986) that there is a causal association of sexual
vio-lence and use of violent pornography.
Use of pornography in the criminal and developmental histories of sexual
offenders. Carter,D.L. et.al. J. Interpersonal Viol. 1987 2: 196-211.
Abstract: Investigated exposure to and use of pornography in the familial,
developmental and criminal histories of 64 incarcerated male volunteers (38
rapists and 26 child molesters). Data were gathered using a paper-and-pencil
self-report questionnaire. Results show that while both groups reported
similar exposure to pornography in the home and during devel-opment, child
molesters indicated significantly more exposure than rapists in adulthood and
were significantly more likely both to use such materials prior to and during
the offenses and to employ pornography to relieve an impulse to act out.
Findings are dis-cussed with regard to the catharsis hypothesis and to the
role of pornography in the commis-sion of sexual offenses for certain types of
rapists and child molesters.
Pornography and rape: a causal model. Russell,D.E. Political Psych.
1988 9: 41- 73.
Abstract: Contends that in order for rape to occur, a man must not only be
predisposed to rape, but his internal and social inhibitions against acting
out rape desires must be under-mined. It is theorized that pornography (1)
predisposes some men to want to rape women or intensifies the predisposition
in other men already so predisposed; (2) undermines some men's internal
inhibitions against acting out their rape desires; and (3) undermines some
men's social inhibitions against the acting out. Research substantiating this
theory is presented and dis-cussed and suggestions are made for further
An empirical investigation of the role of pornography in the verbal and
physical abuse of women. Sommers,E.K. and Check,J.V. Violence and Victims
1987 2: 189-209.
Abstract: Studied the presence of pornography and both sexual and nonsexual
violence in the lives of 44 battered women drawn from shelters and counseling
groups, and a comparison group of 32 women from a mature university
population. It was found that the partners of the battered subjects (Ss) read
or viewed significantly greater amounts of pornographic materials than did the
partners of the comparison group. In addition, 39% of the battered Ss (in
contrast to 3% of the comparison group) responded in the affirmative to the
question, "Has you partner ever upset you by trying to get you to do what
he'd seen in pornographic pictures, movies or books?" It was also found
that battered Ss experienced significantly more sexual aggression at the hands
of their partners than did the Ss in the comparison group.
The pornography/aggression linkage: Results from a field study. Smith,
M.D. and Hand, C. Deviant Behav. 1987 8: 389-399.
Abstract: Assessed the impact of presenting a pornographic movie on a
college campus in a longitudinal, self- report study of 230 women students to
determine effects of the film's show-ing on the subjects' experiences with
aggression from males. Compared with weeks prior to and following the movie's
showing no significant difference in reported aggression was found. Those
subjects reporting associations with males attending the movie reported no
significantly different levels of experienced aggression from those subjects
whose com-panions did not view the film.
Violent pornography and self-reported likelihood of sexual aggression. Demare,
D. et. al J. Res. Personality 1988 22: 140-153.
Abstract: 222 undergraduate males were administered an attitudes survey
examining pornog-raphy use, attitudes, and self-reported likelihood of rape (LR)
or using sexual force (LF). Nonviolent pornography was used by 81% of subjects
(Ss) within the previous year, whereas 41% and 35% had used violent and
sexually violent pornography, respectively. 27% of Ss indicated some
hypothetical LR or LF. Discriminant function analysis revealed that use of
sexually violent pornography and acceptance of interpersonal violence against
women were uniquely associated with LF and LR. It is hypothesized that the
specific fusion of sex and violence in some pornographic stimuli and in
certain belief systems may pro-duce a propensity to engage in sexually
Sexually violent pornography, anti-women attitudes, and sexual aggression: A
structural equation model Demare, D. et al, J. Res. Person. 1993
Abstract: Using data provided by 383 male university students, several
structural equation models were developed and tested to asses the
interrelationship of pornography use, anti-women attitudes, and propensity (Neigung)
for sexual violence. The model best fitting the data is one in which use of
Sexually Violent Pornography and Anti-Women Attitudes are ex-ogenous latent
variables predicting self-reported Likelihood of Rape and Likelihood of using
Sexual Force, as well as self-reported history of having achieved sexual
intercourse by use of Coercion and Force. A variation of this model that
includes use of Nonviolent Pornography as an exogenous variable was also
tested. Use of nonviolent pornography was not uniquely asso-ciated with
potential or actual sexual aggression. The findings suggest the potential
roles of both attitudes and sexually violent pornography in the occurrence of
Pornography and sex-related crime: A sociological perspective. Bull. Hong
Kong Psych. Soc.. 1986 16-17: 73-81.
Abstract: Suggests that the incidence of reported rape is lower in areas in
which there are more liberal attitudes toward pornography. Women may choose to
not report a rape because of fear, threat of further victimization, or
powerlessness and helplessness. In a soci-ety that has a liberal tolerance for
pornography and in which rape is often presented as a normal part of
male-female relations, a woman may assume that rape would not be viewed as a
serious offense by authorities.
Community Attitudes to Pornography
The politics of pornography: A critique of liberalism and radical feminism. Thornton,N.
Aust. N.Z. J. Sociol. 1986 22: 25-45.
Abstract: Analyzes contrasting liberal, conservative and radical feminist
views on the rela-tionship between sexuality and pornography. The radical
feminist definition of pornography and the associated attempt to distinguish
pornography both from sexual realism and from erot-ica are examined. Radical
feminist arguments purporting to show pornography causes sexual violence
against women, the argument that pornography is offensive, and the feminist
thesis that pornography is harmful in constituting a serious moral affront to
women are criti-cized. It is concluded that pornography is an easy target;
that the problem is really the general culture's pervasive sexism, and that
legal prohibition of pornography would threaten other freedoms, including that
Conflicts and contradictions among feminists over issues of pornography and
sexual freedom. Russo, A. Women's Studies Int. Forum. 1987 10: 103-112.
Abstract: In general, it is suggested that feminist arguments concerning
pornography have clustered around 2 basic positions: one emphasizing women's
sexual colonization and vic-timization and the other emphasizing women's
sexual repression and passivity.
The ethics of pornography in the era of AIDS. Money,J. J. Sex Marital
Ther. 1988 14: 177-183.
Abstract: Suggests that a large proportion of today's sex therapists,
researchers, and educators are among those who cannot remember the past and
are, therefore, condemned to repeat it. They follow the example of eugenics
reformers by adhering to explanatory principles as if they were apolitically
indisputable, whereas, they are, in fact, dangerously political profes-sional
platitudes for the criminalization of sex. One such platitude is that
pornography is dehumanizing and a socially contagious criminal offense. These
misconceptions render the nation incapable of using pornography constructively
in a program of sex-safety to prevent acquired immune deficiency syndrome
(AIDS) infection, especially among newly pubertal adolescent and young adults.
Conflicting ideologies and the politics of pornography. Cottle,C.E.
Gender and Society 1989 3: 303-333.
Abstract: 85 volunteers sorted 86 opinion statements on definitions of
pornography, personal reactions to it, its causes and effects and social
policy recommendations. Three patterns of responses emerged: Religious-
Conservative, Liberal, and Antipornography Feminist. The logical and ethical
structures of these points of view and their political and legal implications
are examined. The viewpoints are too incompatible to sustain stable and
effective political alignments among the adherents.
Regulating pornography: A public dilemma. Thompson,M.E. et. al. J.
Communication 1990 40: 73-83.
Abstract: Surveyed 64 women and 39 men on their opinions regarding the
regulation of por-nography. Men agreed more strongly with the potentially
positive effects of pornography on others. They felt that pornography release
sexual tension for someone who is otherwise unfulfilled, and that it lowers
inhibitions toward sex. However, most men and women agreed that pornography
may have negative effects. They felt that pornography dehumanizes women and
causes the sexes to lose respect for each other, and that violent pornography
violates women's civil rights. Overall, 65% of the subjects said that
pornography should be pro-tected by freedom of speech and the press.
Reactions to pornography on a college campus: For or against? Lottes, I.
et al Sex Roles 1993, 29:69-89.
Abstract: 663 responses were obtained from mailed questionnaires designed
to examine atti-tudes about and exposure to sexually explicit materials.
Subjects (Ss) were predominantly Caucasian graduate and undergraduate students
at a state university in the Midwest. Results indicate that a majority defined
pornography as media portraying explicit sexual activities, agreed that adults
should have access to sexually explicit materials, and attributed both harm-ful
and positive effects to such materials. Ss tended to endorse either the views
that sexually explicit materials are harmful, do not have positive effects,
and should be restricted, or the opposite views that they are not harmful, do
have positive effects, and should not be re-stricted. Women, more religious
Ss, less sexually active Ss, and those who had never seen such materials
endorsed the more negative evaluations.
Report of the Surgeon General's workshop on Pornography and Public Health. Koop,
C.E. Amer. Psych. 1987 42: 944-945
Abstract: A panel of clinicians and researchers concluded that pornography
does stimu-late attitudes and behavior that lead to gravely negative
consequences for individuals and for society, and that these outcomes impair
the mental emotional and physical health of chil-dren and adults.
Pornography, social science and politics: When research and ideology collide.
Wilcox,B.L. Amer. Psych. 1987 42: 941-943.
Discusses controversy surrounding the 1985 Attorney General's Commission on
Pornography. Critics argue that many of the commissioners lacked necessary
credentials and had been selected for ideological reasons, the commission had
too little time and money to adequately study the topic and conclusions drawn
by the commission were based on overgeneralizations from social psychological
studies that were largely laboratory based. The need for more precise
definitions for pornography and obscenity and for continued frank
participation by psychologists in such policy debates is emphasized.
The findings and recommendations of the Attorney General's Commission on
Pornog-raphy: Do the psychological "facts" fit the political fury? Linz,D.
et. al. Amer. Psych. 1987 42:946-953.
Abstract: The Attorney General's Commission on Pornography has concluded
that there is a causal relationship between exposure to many forms of
pornography and several antisocial effects, including increase levels of
violence against women. As a result of these findings, the commission has
called for more strict legal measures not traditionally handled under
obscen-ity law. The authors question whether the social science data relied on
by the commission justifies either the commission's conclusions about harm or
the call for more stringent law enforcement. Although some of the commission's
findings appear to be sound extrapola-tions from the empirical studies, the
authors find several of the commission's findings and recommendations
incongruent with available research data. Instead of advocating stricter legal
controls the authors reiterate their call for educational programs to miti-gate
the effects of sexual violence in the media.
A reply to page: Fraud, pornography and the Meese Commission. Mould, D.E.
Amer. Psych. 1990 45: 777-778.
Abstract: Criticizes Page's (see PA vol. 76:29305) endorsement of the Meese
pornography commission (Department of Justice, 1986), his attack on
pornography researchers, and his justification of severe legal restrictions on
pornography based on present research evidence. Page's suggested correlation
between increased pornography and crime in North America is also critiqued.
The question of pornography. Donnerstein, E.I. and Linz, D.G. Psych.
Today 1986 20: 56-59.
Abstract: Questions the conclusions of the 1986 US Attorney General's
Commission on Por-nography and argues that the most important problem in the
media is not pornography but violence. Research is summarized that suggests
that the amount of violence depicted in pornography has not increase, that the
aggression- evoking effects of exposure to sexually violent material may be
temporary, that materials depicting women "enjoying" rape have
especially damaging effects on male attitudes and that violence against women
need not occur in a sexual context to have a negative effect on viewer
attitudes and behavior.
A preliminary examination of the pornography experience of sex offenders,
paraphiliacs, sexual dysfunction patients, and controls based on Meese
Commission recommenda-tions. Condron, M.K. and Nutter, D.E. J. Sex
Marital Ther. 1988 14: 285-298.
Abstract: The Meese Commission Report (1986) claims that exposure to
pornography leads to sex offenses and states that it is important to examine
the developmental patters of offend-ers. The present study found that the
frequency of use of pornography, age of exposure to pornography, age of 1st
masturbation experience, and use of pornography during 1st masturbation
experience for 62 male sex offenders, paraphiliacs, sexual dysfunction pa-tients
and controls were not significantly different.
Pornography as a cause or pornographic experience as constituted? Tsang,
A. Bull. Hong Kong Psych. Soc.. 1986 16-17:29-32.
Abstract: Suggests that pornography should not be viewed as the cause of
certain behaviors but as the material constituent of a pornographic
experience. Experiments that attempt to assess the effects of pornography on
behavior ignore the element of choice in the real-life pornographic situation,
since the experimental subjects are presented with pornography while it must
be actively sought out in real life. It is also suggested that determining
what constitutes pornography may depend on an individual's personal
The relationship between pornography and sex crimes. Nemes, I. J.
Psych. Law 1992, 20:450-481
Abstract: Examines the research literature concerning the relationship
between pornography and sex crimes. Theoretical models underpinning such a
relationship are also examined. Apart from laboratory evidence of a reasonably
strong causal connection between violent pornography and antisocial attitudes
in males , the available research data are, at best, equivocal. It may be that
limitations imposed by methodology, ethics, and sample bias preclude
definitive findings. Approaches to investigating this question are discussed.
Research Regarding Child Pornography
Durkin, K. F.; Bryant, C. D. "Log on to sex": Some notes on
the carnal computer and erotic cyberspace as an emerging research frontier.
Deviant Behavior, 1995 16 :179-200.
Abstract: Discusses how innovation in technology provides new opportunities
for the pursuit of sexual deviance. New technology in computers may have
applicability for carnal behavior. Through on-line bulletin boards dedicated
to particular modes of sexual behavior, computer users with special sexual
predilections can communicate with persons who share similar interests around
the world. Erotic computer communication may involve mild flirtations,
exchanging information about sexual services availability, and specific
varieties of deviant behavior. Computers have been used for child pornography
and to arrange meetings for sexual purposes. The appearance of computer
erotica can be interpreted at various functional levels and holds considerable
import for social behavior and may revolution-ize crime and the parameters of
deviant sexual behavior.
Davis, L; McShane, M. D.; Williams, F. P. Controlling computer access
to pornography: Special conditions for sex offenders. Federal Probation, 1995
Abstract: Discusses the role of advanced computer technology in the
promotion of pornogra-phy. A distinction between pedophiles and child
molesters has been made and child mo-lesters are divided in two categories:
(1) fixated child molesters, who exhibits primary interest in children; and
(2) regressive child molesters, whose sexual interest in children is a
departure from a primary sexual orientation towards adults. Preferential child
molesters have a higher probability of molesting a larger number of victims,
and it is likely that these offenders have access to some form of pornography
or erotica. Terms and conditions for probationers and the use and access to
computers are de-termined by proficient classifications and investigations. It
is concluded that components such as polygraph testing may enhance
supervision, allowing officers to question probationers concerning illegal
Howitt, D. Pornography and the paedophile: Is it
Journal of Medi-cal Psychology, 1995 68:15-27.
Abstract: Presents case studies of 11 fixated adult male pedophiles
interviewed in a private clinic for sex offenders about topics including their
offending, their psychosexual histories, pornography, fantasy, and sexual
abuse in childhood. Commercial pornography was rarely a significant aspect of
their use of erotica although some experience of such materials was typical.
Most common was "soft-core" heterosexually oriented pornography.
Explicit child pornography was uncommon. However, Subjects also generated
their own erotic ma-terials from relatively innocuous sources such as
television advertisements, clothing catalogs featuring children modeling
underwear, and similar sources. In no case did ex-posure to pornography
precede offending-related behavior in childhood.
Ford, M. E.; Linney, J. A. Comparative analysis of juvenile sexual
offenders, violent non-sexual offenders, and status offenders. Journal of
Interpersonal Violence, 1995 10:56-70.
Abstract: 82 juvenile sexual offenders, violent nonsexual offenders, and
status offenders (aged 9-18 yrs) were compared using psychometric instruments
to assess intrafamily vio-lence, quality of offender social skills,
interpersonal relationships, and self-concept. Self-report and record data
were gathered on family history, education, behavior problems, crimi-nal
history, history of abuse, exposure to pornography, and early childhood
memories. Juve-nile child molesters experienced more parental use of violence
and were victims of physical and sexual abuse more often than other offender
groups. Child molesters ex-pressed greater need for control and inclusion in
interpersonal relationships and problems related to self-esteem. The content
of early childhood memories and exposure to pornographic material differed
among the groups. The groups did not differ in assertiveness, self-concept, or
family history variables.
Nutter, D. E.; Kearns, M. E. Patterns of exposure to sexually explicit
material among sex offenders, child molesters, and controls. Journal of Sex
& Marital Therapy, 1993 19:77-85.
Abstract: The final report of the Attorney General's Commission on
Pornography (1986) claimed that exposure to sexually explicit material leads
to sex offenses and recommended examining developmental patterns and
pornography experiences of offenders. Questionnaires and frequency data on 51
sex offenders and 51 controls were analyzed. Child molesters were
significantly older than controls when exposed to sexually explicit material.
Frequency of adult use of sexually explicit material did not differ
significantly among groups.
Knudsen, D. D. Child sexual abuse and pornography: Is there a
relationship? Journal of Family Violence, 1988 3: 253-267.
Abstract: A review of official reports and other research indicates that
the circumstances sur-rounding sexual abuse are inadequately specified to
allow specific causal interpretations. The role of pornography in contributing
to such abuse is explored by reviewing laboratory studies and the
circumstances of child sexual abuse. An assessment of the research literature
sug-gests that pornography is a minor and indirect influence on child sexual
Kutchinsky, B. The effect of easy availability of pornography on the
incidence of sex crimes: The Danish experience. Journal of Social Issues, 1973,
Abstract: Cites the Danish liberalization of legal prosecution and of laws
concerning por-nography and the ensuing high availability of such materials as
a unique opportunity to test hypotheses concerning the relationship between
pornography and sex offenses. It is shown that, concurrent with the increasing
availability of pornography, there was a significant decrease in the number of
sex offenses registered by the police in Copenhagen. On the basis of various
investigations, including a survey of public attitudes and studies of the
police, it was established that at least in 1 type of offense (child
molestation) the decrease repre-sents a real reduction in the number of
offenses committed. Various factors suggest that the availability of
pornography was the direct cause of this decrease.
Langevin, R.; Lang, R. A. Psychological treatment of pedophiles.
Behavioral Sciences & the Law, 1985 3: 403-419.
Abstract: Suggests that the main treatment problem of pedophilia is
motivating the of-fender to change. Reasons for the perpetrator's resistance
to therapy and strategies for moti-vating change are discussed. Current
assumptions about the etiology of this sexual anomaly are examined. Results
from the 1st author's (1983) databank of sex offenders are re-viewed to show
that it is uncommon for pedophiles to be victims of sexual abuse, includ-ing
incest, and few need pornography as stimulants. Therapeutic difficulties
include the egocentric, egosyntonic, and erotically gratifying nature of
pedophilia to the perpetrator, an unwillingness to give up the behavior, and a
tendency to rationalize the acts and to see the child as consenting. Group
therapy and a variety of clinical imagery procedures with case examples are
discussed as ways of overcoming the poor motivational state of pedophiles for
Pierce, R. L. Child pornography: A hidden dimension of child abuse.
Child Abuse & Ne-glect, 1984, 8: 483-493.
Abstract: Sexually exploited children involved in the pornography industry
are usually re-cruited among runaways, although some filmmakers may use their
own or neighborhood chil-dren. Little research exists on how exposure to and
participation in pornography affect chil-dren, although it is apparent that
such experiences often produce feelings of betrayal, guilt, worthlessness, and
rage. Efforts to control this exploitation are considered in relation to
prob-lems in defining pornography and in laws designed to protect children
from injury and abuse. The value of an intervention model based on a detached
social worker is discussed.
Schoettle, U. C. Treatment of the child pornography patient. American
Journal of Psychiatry 137: 1109-1110.
[A case history]
Blumberg, M. L. Child sexual abuse: Ultimate in maltreatment syndrome.
New York State Journal of Medicine, 1978, 78: 612-616.
Abstract: Discusses sexual abuse of children in today's permissive society.
A number of psychological reasons motivate the offender and induce the child
victim to submit even when physical force is not employed. Sexual abuse of
children has various manifestations, including digital manipulation,
masturbation, fellatio, sodomy, and intercourse. Using chil-dren for
pornography is a particularly degrading form of abuse. Immediate emotional
trauma is usually evidenced in the misused child. Persistent psychological
effects can produce future sexual maladjustments and marital problems in
adulthood. Except in cases of violent crime, offenders and their victims
should both be handled by a multidiscipli-nary rehabilitative approach.
Tyler, R. P.; Stone, L. E. Child pornography: Perpetuating the sexual
victimization of children. Fifth International Congress on Child Abuse &
Neglect (1984, Montreal, Canada). Child Abuse & Neglect, 1985, 9 : 313-318.
Abstract: Discusses the sexual exploitation of children throughout recorded
history and the expansion of the exploitation industry due to the invention of
visual media that facilitate the distribution of pictorial representations on
a worldwide basis. It is contended that a major use of commercial child
pornography is to convince a potential child victim that the sexual acts
desired by the adult offender are fun and are a socially acceptable means of
ex-pressing affection. It is concluded that, although many jurisdictions have
now prohibited child pornography, the need for a worldwide ban continues.
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