1 Still valid, however, is article 247 of the penal code: "A person who performs an indecent act or gives the opportunity for an indecent act to take place with someone whom he knows to be unconscious or who is powerless, or with someone under 16 years of age, or, without participating himself, allows a third person to do such a thing, will be punished with imprisonment for no more than 6 years."

Also article 244 is relevant: "A man who has sexual intercourse with a girl under the age of 12 will be punished with a prison sentence of not longer than 12 years"; as is article 245: "A man who has sex, without having actual sexual intercourse, with a girl over the age of 12 but under the age of 16, will be punished with a maximum eight years of imprisonment. Prosecution of acts which do not fall within article 248 will not take place unless a complaint is lodged."

It should be noted that someone who seduces and has sexual intercourse with a girl between 12 and 16 years of age can only be punished if a complaint is lodged (article 245), while someone who does not have sexual intercourse with a girl of the same age range but performs indecent acts is punishable.

2 I can clearly recall the following incident. In May 1935, when I was 14, I was standing in the conservatory of our house in Spain after school leafing through the newspaper La Vanguardia Española or El Noticiario Universal (I think it was the latter). My eye fell upon a short article telling of the death of Magnus Hirschfeld (May 15,1935) and the cause to which he had devoted his life. Until that time I had never heard of Hirschfeld, but that report sticks in my memory.

3 During this time, just as nearly everyone writing in Vriendschap used nom-de-plumes, the editors also used pseudonyms. This changed in January 1965 with the appearance of the new publication Dialoog (Dialogue). A new phase begun as the new magazine came out, bringing the discussion to the outside world.

4 See "Victor Servatius", Over pedofilie--Een centrum voor pedofielen--Zin der pedofilie (Rotterdam: Enclave 1962). This also appeared previously in Vriendschap, Vol. 17, Nos. 2 & 4, 1962. Over pedofilie initiated a great deal of discussion. It also appeared in German in Kontiki No. 59 (Zurich), April 1983, under the title Pädophilie 1962-1983, and is presented in English ("On Paedophilia: I. A Center for Paedophiles? II. The Meaning of Paedophilia") in this issue of Paidika.

5 See, among others, "De gevolgen voor het kind," in Sex met kinderen (The Hague: NVSH, 1972); abstracts of this in English may be found in Love and Attraction, edited by Mark Cook and Glenn Wilson (Oxford and New York: Pergamon Press, 1979), pp. 499-501, and Children and Sex, edited by L.L. Constantine and F.M. Martinson (Boston: Little, Brown, 1981), pp. 189-199. And later see Theo Sandfort, The Sexual Aspect of Paedophile Relations: the experience of twenty-five boys, (Amsterdam: Pan/Spartacus, 1982).

6 During those years I used the pen-name "Victor Servatius".

7 The publications issued by Enclave are, in order of their appearance: "Victor Servatius" (Frits Bernard), Vervolgde Minderheid, roman met een wetenschappelijk nawoord, 1960; "Victor Servatius", Costa Brava, 1960; "Victor Servatius", Ephebophilie en Wetenschap: Stand van Zaken, 1960; "Victor Servatius", Phenomenologische Beschouwingen over Bisexualiteit, 1961; "Victor Servatius, Schlegel's analytisch constitutieonderzoek, 1961; "Victor Servatius", Wetgevingen en sexueel gedrag, 1961; "Victor Servatius", Over pedophilie-een centrum voor pedofielen--zin der pedofilie, 1962; Jef Last, De Jeugd van Judas, 1962; Cor Huisman, De Legende van Magelang, 1964; "O. Brunoz" (Edward Brongersma), La Pédophilie--l'Amour des garçons, préface, "Victor Servatius", 1964; Frits Bernard, Vervolgde Minderheid en Costa Brava, one volume edition, illustrated, 1984; Frits Bernard, Paedophilia: A Factual Report, 1985.

8 Jef Last (Josephus Carel Franciscus), Dutch author, 1898-1972. He studied Sinology at Leiden and Hamburg (graduated 1957), and headed the film service of the institute for Labor Development. He travelled to the Soviet Union and fought in 1936 in Spain. From 1950-1953 he was a teacher and governmental advisor for culture and art in Bali. From his youth on he was a committed socialist, for several years a communist. His literary work comprises some 65 volumes, including poetry, fiction and essays. He was one of the most important socialist writers of his generation, and certainly the best essayist. (Source: Oosthoeks Encyclopedia, fifth edition, Utrecht, 1962.) His De Jeugd van Judas was published by Enclave in 1962, with a design he himself provided for the cover. Last himself thought this was his best book.

9 Cor Huisma, writer and journalist. He wrote particularly on North African and Middle Eastern affairs and personalities. His De Legende van Magelang (1964) was published by Enclave with a cover design by Mario de Graaf.

10 Heinz Oelfke, writer and poet. His latest book is Hauptsache wir leben--Kindertage zwischen Kirchturm und Kanonen (1987). Heinz Oelfke translated Costa Brava into German.

11 Jan Hanlo (Johannes Bernardus Maria Rafaël) Dutch poet and author, 1912-1969. His first poems were published in 1951; in 1954 his poem "Ote" created such a sensation that it was even disputed in the Dutch parliament. The original of this letter is in the Bernard Foundation, Inc.

12 The lecture was entitled "Athletic-Athenic and Andromorph-Gynaecomorph Variations".

13 Tom O'Carroll, Paedophilia: The Radical Case (London: Peter Owen, 1980), p. 251, note 16.

14 The members were F. Bernard, E. Brongersma, I. Haagsma, W.J. Sengers and P. van Eeten.

15 Dr. E. Born, "Pedofiele integratie nà 1959" (Utrecht, 1973), p. 3.

16 NVSH "Landelijke Werkgroep Pedofilie Brochure 1973".

17 The ad-hoc workgroup of the NCGV was made up of the following: S. de Batselier, F. Bernard, P. Blok, Mrs. H.M. ter Braak, C. Gutter, G.A.A.T. van der Heuvel, C.J. Huizinga, Mevr. W. van Rijssel, Mrs. L. Rouweler-Wuts, W.J. Sengers (Chairperson), J. van Ussel and Mrs. M.C. Verhulst-van der Lans.

18 Maandblad Geestelijke Volksgezondheid, March, 1974.

19 Pedofilie en samenleving (Utrecht: NCGV and Rotterdam: Instituut voor preventieve en sociale psychiatrie, Erasmus Universiteit, 1976), p. 96, 97 and 100.

20 Ibid., p. 7.

21 Ibid., p. 185.

22 These meetings also provided an opportunity for scientific research about the paedophile participants: an inquiry questionnaire, investigation of neurotic or psycho-somatic symptoms, and an assessment of personality aspects.

23 The additional groups from the NVSH were the Landelijke Werkgroep Travestie/Transsexualiteit, the Landelijke Werkgroep Vorming en Voorlichting, the Landelijke Werkgroep Emancipatie, and the Landelijke Werkgroep Gehandicapte Mens en Gemeenschap.

24 The Stichting Martijn can be contacted via P.O. Box 93.548; 1090 EA Amsterdam.

25 This was a serious matter for a society which had been in existence for over 100 years and at its peak had almost 240,000 members.

26 The work groups can be reached via the central postal address of the NVSH: P.O. Box 64, 2501 CB The Hague.

27 C. Straver, "Homofilie in Nederland", Intermediair, 1972.