Notes         [These Notes in a separate screen] 

1) Demetrius Zambaco, "Onanism and Nervous Disorders in Two Little Girls," in François Peraldi (ed.), Poly sexuality, Semiotext(e), vol. IV, no. 1, 1981, pp. 31, 36.


Linda Gordon and Ellen Dubois, "Seeking Ecstasy on the Battlefield: Danger and Pleasure in Nineteenth Century Feminist Sexual Thought," Feminist Studies, vol. 9, no. 1, Spring 1983; 
Steven Marcus, The Other Victorians, New York, New American Library, 1974; Mary Ryan, "The Power of Women's Networks: A Case Study of Female Moral Reform in America," Feminist Studies, vol. 5, no. 1, 1979;
Judith R. Walkowitz, Prostitution and Victorian Society, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 1980; 
Judith R. Walkowitz, "Male Vice and Feminist Virtue: Feminism and the Politics of Prostitution in Nineteenth-Century Britain," History Workshop Journal, no. 13, Spring 1982; 
Jeffrey Weeks, Sex, Politics and Society: The Regulation of Sexuality Since 1800, New York, Longman, 1981.

3) G.J. Barker-Benfield, The Horrors of the Half-Known Life, New York, Harper Colophon, 1976; Marcus, op. cit.; Weeks, op. cit., especially pages 48-52; Zambaco, op. cit.

4) Sarah Senefield Beserra, Sterling G. Franklin, and Norma Clevenger (eds.), Sex Code of California, Sacramento, Planned Parenthood Affiliates of California, 1977, p. 113.

5) Ibid., pp. 113-17.

6) Walkowitz, "Male Vice and Feminist Virtue," op. cit., p. 83. Walkowitz's entire discussion of the Maiden Tribute of Modem Babylon and its aftermath (pp. 83-5) is illuminating.

7) Walkowitz, "Male Vice and Feminist Virtue," op. cit., p. 85.

8) Beserra et al., op. cit., pp. 106-7.


Commonwealth of Massachusetts, Preliminary Report of the Special Commission Investigating the Prevalence of Sex Crimes, 1947; 
State of New Hampshire, Report of the Interim Commission of the State of New Hampshire to Study the Cause and Prevention of Serious Sex Crimes, 1949; 
City of New York, Report of the Mayor's Committee for the Study of Sex Offences, 1939; 
State of New York, Report to the Governor on a Study of 102 Sex Offenders at Sing Sing Prison, 1950; 
Samuel Hartwell, A Citizen's Handbook of Sexual Abnormalities and the Mental Hygiene Approach to Their Prevention, State of Michigan, 1950;
State of Michigan, Report of the Governor's Study Commission on the Deviated Criminal Sex Offender, 1951. This is merely a sampler.

10) Estelle B. Freedman, " 'Uncontrolled Desire': The Threat of the Sexual Psychopath in America, 1935-1960," paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Historical Association, San Francisco, December 1983.


Allan Bérubé, "Behind the Spectre of San Francisco," Body Politic, April 1981; 
Allan Bérubé, "Marching to a Different Drummer," Advocate, October 15, 1981; 
John D'Emilio, Sexual Politics, Sexual Communities: The Making of the Homosexual Minority in the United States, 1940-1970, Chicago, University of Chicago Press, 1983; 
Jonathan Katz, Gay American History, New York, Thomas Y. Crowell, 1976.

12) D'Emilio, op. cit., pp. 46-7; Allan Bérubé, personal communication.

13) John Gerassi, The Boys of Boise, New York, Collier, 1968, p. 14. I am indebted to Allan Bérubé for calling my attention to this incident.

14) Allan Bérubé, personal communication; D'Emilio, op. cit.; John D'Emilio, "Gay Politics, Gay Community: San Francisco's Experience," Socialist Review, no. 55, January-February 1981.

15) The following examples suggest avenues for additional research. A local crackdown at the University of Michigan is documented in Daniel Tsang, "Gay Ann Arbor Purges," Midwest Gay Academic Journal, vol. 1, no. 1, 1977; and Daniel Tsang, "Ann Arbor Gay Purges," part 2, Midwest Gay Academic Journal, vol. 1, no. 2, 1977. 
At the University of Michigan, the number of faculty dismissed for alleged homosexuality appears to rival the number fired for alleged communist tendencies. It would be interesting to have figures comparing the number of professors who lost their positions during this period due to sexual and political offenses. 
On regulatory reform, many states passed laws during this period prohibiting the sale of alcoholic beverages to "known sex perverts" or providing that bars which catered to "sex perverts" be closed. 
Such a law was passed in California in 1955, and declared unconstitutional by the state Supreme Court in 1959 (Allan Bérubé, personal communication). It would be of great interest to know exactly which states passed such statutes, the dates of their enactment, the discussion that preceded them, and how many are still on the books. 
On the persecution of other erotic populations, evidence indicates that John Willie and Irving Klaw, the two premier producers and distributors of bondage erotica in the United States from the late 1940s through the early 1960s, encountered frequent police harassment ind. that Klaw, at least, was affected by a congressional investigation conducted by the Kefauver Committee. 
I am indebted to personal communication from J.B. Rund for information on the careers of Willie and Klaw. 
Published sources are scarce, but see 

John Willie, The Adventures of Sweet Gwendoline, New York, Belier Press, 1974; 
J.B. Rund, "Preface," Bizarre Comix, vol. 8, New York, Belier Press, 1977;
J.B. Rund, "Preface," Bizarre Fotos, vol. 1, New York, Belier Press, 1978;  and 
J.B. Rund, "Preface," Bizarre Katalogs, vol. 1, New York, Belier Press, 1979.

It would be useful to have more systematic information on legal shifts and police activity affecting non-gay erotic dissidence.


"Chicago is Center of National Child Porno Ring: The Child Predators" "Child Sex: Square in New Town Tells it All," "U.S. Orders Hearings On Child Pornography: Rodino Calls Sex Racket an 'Outrage,' " "Hunt Six Men, Twenty Boys in Crackdown," Chicago Tribune, May 16, 1977;
"Dentist Seized in Child Sex Raid: Carey to Open Probe," "How Ruses Lure Victims to Child Pornographers," Chicago Tribune, May 17, 1977;
"Child Pornographers Thrive on Legal Confusion," "U.S. Raids Hit Porn Sellers," Chicago Tribune, May 18, 1977.

17) For more information on the "kiddie porn panic" see 

Pat Califia, "The Great Kiddy Porn Scare of '77 and Its Aftermath," Advocate, October 16, 1980; 
Pat Califia, "A Thorny Issue Splits a Movement," Advocate, October 30, 1980; 
Mitzel, The Boston Sex Scandal, Boston, Glad Day Books, 1980; 
Gayle Rubin, "Sexual Politics, the New Right, and the Sexual Fringe," in Daniel Tsang (ed.), The Age Taboo, Boston, Alyson Publications, 1981. 

On the issue of crossgenerational relationships, see also 

Roger Moody, Indecent Assault, London, Word Is Out Press, 1980; 
Tom O'Carroll, Paedophilia: The Radical Case, London, Peter Owen, 1980;
Tsang, The Age Taboo, op. cit.; and 
Paul Wilson, The Man They Called A Monster, New South Wales, Cassell Australia, 1981.

18) "House Passes Tough Bill on Child Porn," San Francisco Chronicle, November 15, 1983, p, 14. 


George Stambolian, "Creating the New Man: A Conversation with Jacqueline Livingston," Christopher Street, May 1980; 
"Jacqueline Livingston," Clothed With the Sun, vol. 3, no. 1, May 1983.

20) Paul H. Gebhard. "The Institute," in Martin S. Weinberg (ed.), Sex Research: Studies From the Kinsey institute, New York, Oxford University Press, 1976.


Phoebe Courtney, The Sex Education Racket: Pornography in the Schools (An Exposé), New Orleans, Free Men Speak, 1969; 
Dr. Gordon V. Drake, SIECUS: Corrupter of Youth, Tulsa, Oklahoma, Christian Crusade Publications, 1969.

22) Pavlov's Children (They May Be Yours), Impact Publishers, Los Angeles, California, 1969.

23) Norman Podhoretz, "The Culture of Appeasement," Harper's, October 1977.

24) Alan Wolfe and Jerry Sanders, "Resurgent Cold War Ideology: The Case of the Committee on the Present Danger," in Richard Fagen (ed.), Capitalism and the State in U.S.-Latin American Relations, Stanford, Stanford University Press, 1979.


Jimmy Breslin, "The Moral Majority in Your Motel Room," San Francisco Chronicle, January 22, 1981, p. 41; 
Linda Gordon and Allen Hunter, "Sex, Family, and the New Right," Radical America, Winter 1977-8; 
Sasha Gregory-Lewis, "The Neo-Right Political Apparatus," Advocate, February 8, 1977; 
Sasha Gregory-Lewis, "Right Wing Finds New Organizing Tactic," Advocate, June 23, 1977; 
Sasha Gregory-Lewis, "Unravelling the Anti-Gay Network," Advocate, September 7, 1977; 
Andrew Kopkind, "America's New Right," New Times, September 30, 1977; 
Rosalind Pollack Petchesky, "Anti-abortion, Anti-feminism, and the Rise of the New Right," Feminist Studies, vol. 7, no. 2, Summer 1981.

26) Rhonda Brown, "Blueprint for a Moral America," Nation, May 23, 1981.

27) James Barr, Quatrefoil, New York, Greenberg, 1950, p. 310.

28) This insight was first articulated by Mary McIntosh, "The Homosexual Role," Social Problems, vol. 16, no. 2, Fall 1968; the idea has been developed in

Jeffrey Weeks, Coming Out: Homosexual Politics in Britain from the Nineteenth Century to the Present, New York, Quartet, 1977, and in
Weeks, Sex, Politics and Society, op. cit.; 
see also D'Emilio, Sexual Politics, Sexual Communities, op. cit.; and 
Gayle Rubin, "Introduction" to Renée Vivien, A Woman Appeared to Me, Weatherby Lake, Mo., Naiad Press, 1979.

29) Bert Hansen, "The Historical Construction of Homosexuality," Radical History Review, no. 20, Spring/Summer 1979.

30) Walkowitz, Prostitution and Victorian Society, op. cit.; and Walkowitz, "Male Vice and Female Virtue," op. cit.

31) Michel Foucault, The History of Sexuality, New York, Pantheon, 1978.

32) A very useful discussion of these issues can be found in Robert Padgug, '"Sexual Matter: On Conceptualizing Sexuality in History," Radical History Review, no. 20, Spring/Summer 1979.

33) Claude Lévi-Strauss, "A Confrontation," New Left Review, no. 62, July-August 1970. In this conversation, Lévi-Strauss calls his position "a Kantianism without a transcendental subject."

34) Foucault, op. cit., p. 11.

35) See the discussion in Weeks, Sex, Politics and Society, op. cit., p. 9.

36) See Weeks, Sex, Politics and Society, op. cit., p. 22.

37) See, for example, 

"Pope Praises Couples for Self-Control," San Francisco Chronicle, October 13, 1980, p. 5; 
"Pope Says Sexual Arousal Isn't a Sin If It's Ethical," San Francisco Chronicle, November 6, 1980, p. 33; 
"Pope Condemns 'Carnal Lust' As Abuse of Human Freedom," San Francisco Chronicle, January 15, 1981, p. 2; 
"Pope Again Hits Abortion, Birth Control," San Francisco Chronicle, January 16, 1981, p. 13; and 
"Sexuality, Not Sex in Heaven," San Francisco Chronicle, December 3, 1981, p. 50. See also footnote 62 below.

38) Susan Sontag, Styles of Radical Will, New York, Farrar, Straus, & Giroux, 1969, p. 46.

39) See Foucault, op. cit., pp. 106-7.

40) American Psychiatric Association, Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental and Physical Disorders, 3rd edn, Washington, DC, American Psychiatric Association.


Alfred Kinsey, Wardell Pomeroy, and Clyde Martin, Sexual Behavior in the Human Male, Philadelphia, W.B. Saunders, 1948; 
Alfred Kinsey, Wardell Pomeroy, Clyde Martin, and Paul Gebhard, Sexual Behavior in the Human Female, Philadelphia, W.B. Saunders, 1953.


John Gagnon and William Simon, Sexual Deviance, New York, Harper & Row, 1967; 
John Gagnon and William Simon, The Sexual Scene, Chicago, Transaction Books, Aldine, 1970; 
John Gagnon, Human Sexualities, Glenview, Illinois, Scott, Foresman, 1977.

43) Havelock Ellis, Studies in the Psychology of Sex (two volumes), New York, Random House, 1936.

44) Foucault, op. cit., p. 43.


Gilbert Herdt, Guardians of the Flutes, New York, McGraw-Hill, 1981;
Raymond Kelly, "Witchcraft and Sexual Relations," in Paula Brown and Georgeda Buchbinder (eds.), Man and Woman in the New Guinea Highlands, Washington, DC, American Anthropological Association, 1976; 
Gayle Rubin, "Coconuts: Aspects of Male/Female Relationships in New Guinea," unpublished ms., 1974; 
Gayle Rubin, review of Guardians of the Flutes, Advocate, December 23, 1982; 
J. Van Baal, Dema, The Hague, Nijhoff, 1966; 
F.E. Williams, Papuans of the Trans-Fly, Oxford, Clarendon, 1936.

46) Caroline Bingham, "Seventeenth-Century Attitudes Toward Deviant Sex," Journal of Interdisciplinary History, Spring 1971, p. 465.

47) Stephen O. Murray, "The Institutional Elaboration of a Quasi-Ethnic Community," International Review of Modern Sociology, July-December 1979.

48) For further elaboration of these processes, see: 

Bérubé, "Behind the Spectre of San Francisco," op- cit.; 
Bérubé, "Marching to a Different Drummer," op. cit.; 
D'Emilio, "Gay Politics, Gay Community," op. cit,; 
D'Emilio, Sexual Politics, Sexual Communities, op. cit.; 
Foucault, op. cit.; 
Hansen, op. cit.; 
Katz, op. cit.; 
Weeks, Coming Out, op. cit.; and 
Weeks, Sex, Politics and Society, op. cit.

49) Walkowitz, Prostitution and Victorian Society, op, cit.

50) Vice cops also harass all sex businesses, be these gay bars, gay baths, adult book stores, the producers and distributors of commercial erotica, or swing clubs.

51) Foucault, op, cit., p. 40.

52) Karl Marx, in David McLellan (ed.), The Grundrisse, New York, Harper & Row, 1971, p. 94.

53) Clark Norton, "Sex in America," Inquiry, October 5, 1981. This article is a superb summary of much current sex law and should be required reading for anyone interested in sex.

54) Bessera et al., op. cit., pp. 165-7.

55) Sarah Senefeld Beserra, Nancy M. Jewel, Melody West Matthews, and Elizabeth R. Gatov (eds,), Sex Code of California, Public Education and Research Committee of California, 1973, pp. 163-8. This earlier edition of the Sex Code of California preceeded the 1976 consenting adults statute and consequently gives a better overview of sodomy laws.

56) Esther Newton, Mother Camp: Female Impersonators in America, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, Prentice-Hall, 1972, p. 21, emphasis in the original.

57) D'Emilio, Sexual Politics, Sexual Communities, op. cit., pp. 40-53, has an excellent discussion of gay oppression in the 1950s which covers many of the areas I have mentioned. The dynamics he describes, however, are operative in modified forms for other erotic populations, and in other periods. The specific model of gay oppression needs to be generalized to apply, with appropriate modifications, to other sexual groups.

58) Weeks, Sex, Politics and Society, op. cit., p. 14.

59) Lysander Spooner, Vices Are Not Crimes: A Vindication of Moral Liberty, Cupertino, Cal., Tanstaafl Press, 1977.

60) I have adopted this terminology from the very useful discussion in Weeks, Sex, Politics and Society, op. cit., pp. 14-15.

61) See Spooner, op. cit., pp. 25-29. Feminist anti-porn discourse fits right into the tradition of justifying attempts at moral control by claiming that such action will protect women and children from violence.

62) "Pope's Talk on Sexual Spontaneity," San Francisco Chronicle, November 13, 1980, p. 8; see also footnote 37 above. Julia Penelope argues that "we do not need anything that labels itself purely sexual" and that "fantasy, as an aspect of sexuality, may be a phallocentric 'need' from which we are not yet free . . ." in "And Now For the Really Hard Questions," Sinister Wisdom, no. 15, Fall 19»0, p. 103,

63) See especially Walkowitz, Prostitution and Victorian Society, op. cit., and Weeks, Sex, Politics and Society, op. cit,

64) Moral Majority Report, July 1983. 1 am Indebted to Allan Bérubé for calling my attention to this image.

65) Cited in Larry Bush, "Capitol Report," Advocate, December 8, 1983, p. 60.

66) Cited in H. Montgomery Hyde, A History of Pornography, New York, Dell, 1965, p, 31.

67) See for example 

Laura Lederer (ed.), Take Back the Night, New York, William Morrow, 1980; 
Andrea Dworkin, Pornography, New York, Perigee, 1981. 
The Newspage of San Francisco's Women Against Violence in Pornography and 
Media and the Newsreport of New York Women Against Pornography are excellent sources.


Kathleen Barry, Female Sexual Slavery, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, Prentice-Hall, 1979; 
Janice Raymond, The Transsexual Empire, Boston, Beacon, 1979; 
Kathleen Barry, "Sadomasochism: The New Backlash to Feminism," Trivia, no. 1, Fall 1982; 
Robin Ruth Linden, Darlene R. Pagano, Diana E.H. Russell, and Susan Leigh Starr (eds.), Against Sadomasochism, East Palo Alto, Cab, Frog in the Well, 1982; and 
Florence Rush, The Best Kept Secret, New York, McGraw-Hill, 1980.


Sally Gearhart, "An Open Letter to the Voters in District 5 and San Francisco's Gay Community," 1979; 
Adrienne Rich, On Lies, Secrets, and Silence, New York, W.W. Norton, 1979, p. 225. 
("On the other hand, there is homosexual patriarchal culture, a culture created by homosexual men, reflecting such male stereotypes as dominance and submission as modes of relationship, and the separation of sex from emotional involvement — a culture tainted by profound hatred for women. The male 'gay' culture has offered lesbians the imitation role-stereotypes of 'butch' and 'femme,' 'active' and 'passive,' cruising, sado-masochism, and the violent, self-destructive world of 'gay' bars."); 
Judith Pasternak, "The Strangest Bedfellows: Lesbian Feminism and the Sexual Revolution," WomanNews, October 1983; 
Adrienne Rich, "Compulsory Heterosexuality and Lesbian Existence," in Ann Snitow, Christine Stansell, and Sharon Thompson (eds.), Powers of Desire: The Politics of Sexuality, New York, Monthly Review Press, 1983.

70) Julia Penelope, op. cit.

71) Sheila Jeffreys, "The Spinster and Her Enemies: Sexuality and the Last Wave of Feminism," Scarlet Woman, no. 13, part 2, July 1981, p. 26; a further elaboration of this tendency can be found in Judith Pasternak, op. cit.


Pat Califia, "Feminism vs. Sex: A New Conservative Wave," Advocate, February 21, 1980; 
Pat Califia, "Among Us, Against Us-The New Puritans," Advocate, April 17, 1980; 
Califia, "The Great Kiddy Porn Scare of '77 and Its Aftermath," op. cit.;
Califia, "A Thorny Issue Splits a Movement," op. cit.; 
Pat Califia, Sapphistry, Tallahassee, Florida, Naiad, 1980; 
Pat Califia, "What Is Gay Liberation," Advocate, June 25, 1981; 
Pat Califia, "Feminism and Sadomasochism," Co-Evolution Quarterly, no. 33, Spring 1981; 
Pat Califia, "Response to Dorchen Leidholdt," New Women's Times, October 1982; 
Pat Califia, "Public Sex," Advocate, September 30, 1982; 
Pat Califia, "Doing It Together: Gay Men, Lesbians, and Sex," Advocate, July 7, 1983; 
Pat Califia, "Gender-Bending," Advocate; September 15, 1983; 
Pat Califia, "The Sex Industry," Advocate, October 13, 1983; 
Deirdre English, Amber Hollibaugh, and Gayle Rubin, "Talking Sex," Socialist Review, July-August 1981; 
"Sex Issue," Heresies, no. 12, 1981; 
Amber Hollibaugh, "The Erotophobic Voice of Women: Building a Movement for the Nineteenth Century," New York Native, September 26-October 9, 1983; 
Maxine Holz, "Porn: Turn On or Put Down, Some Thoughts on Sexuality," Processed World, no. 7, Spring 1983; 
Barbara O'Dair, "Sex, Love, and Desire: Feminists Struggle Over the Portrayal of Sex," Alternative Media, Spring 1983; 
Lisa Orlando, "Bad Girls and 'Good' Politics," Village Voice, Literary Supplement, December 1982; 
Joanna Russ, "Being Against Pornography," Thirteenth Moon, vol. VI, nos. 1 and 2, 1982; 
Samois, What Color Is Your Handkerchief Berkeley, Samois, 1979; 
Samois, Coming to Power, Boston, Alyson, 1982; 
Deborah Sundahl, "Stripping For a Living," Advocate, October 13, 1983;
Nancy Wechsler, "Interview with Pat Califia and Gayle Rubin," 
part I, Gay Community News, Book Review, July 18, 1981, and 
part II, Gay Community News, August 15, 1981; 
Ellen Willis, Beginning to See the Light, New York, Knopf, 1981. 

For an excellent overview of the history of the ideological shifts in feminism which have affected the sex debates, see Alice Echols, "Cultural Feminism: Feminist Capitalism and the Anti-Pornography Movement," Social Text, no. 7, Spring and Summer 1983.

73) Lisa Orlando, "Lust at Last! Spandex Invades the Academy," Gay Community News, May 15, 1982; Ellen Willis, "Who Is a Feminist? An Open Letter to Robin Morgan," Village Voice, Literary Supplement, December 1982.

74) Ellen Willis, Beginning to See the Light, op. cit., p. 146.1 am indebted to Jeanne Bergman for calling my attention to this quote.

75) See, for example, 

Jessica Benjamin, "Master and Slave: The Fantasy of Erotic Domination," in Snitow et al., op. cit., p. 297; and 
B. Ruby Rich, review of Powers of Desire, In These Times, November 16-22, 1983.

76) B. Ruby Rich, op. cit., p. 76.


Samois, What Color Is Your Handkerchief, op. cit.; 
Samois, Coming To Power, op. cit.; 
Pat Califia, "Feminism and Sadomasochism," op. cit.; 
Pat Califia, Sapphistry, op. cit.


Lisa Orlando, "Power Plays: Coming To Terms With Lesbian S/M," Village Voice, July 26, 1983; 
Elizabeth Wilson, "The Context of 'Between Pleasure and Danger : The Barnard Conference on Sexuality," Feminist Review, no. 13, Spring 1983, especially pp. 35-41.

79) Taylor v. State, 214 Md. 156, 165, 133 A. 2d 414, 418. This quote is from a dissenting opinion, but it is a statement of prevailing law.

80) Bessera, Jewel, Matthews, and Gatov, op. cit., pp. 163-5. See note 55 above.

81) "Marine and Mom Guilty of Incest," San Francisco Chronicle, November 16, 1979, p. 16

82) Norton, op. cit., p. 18.

83) People v. Samuels, 250 Cal. App. 2d 501, 513, 58 Cal. Rptr. 439, 447 (1967).

84) People v. Samuels, 250 Cal. App. 2d. at 513-514, 58 Cal. Rptr. at 447.

85) Mariana Valverde, "Feminism Meets Fist-Fucking: Getting Lost in Lesbian S & M," Body Politic, February 1980; Wilson, op. cit., p. 38.

86) Benjamin, op. cit., p. 292, but see also pp. 286, 291-7.

87) Barbara Ehrenreich, "What Is This Thing Called Sex," Nation, September 24, 1983, p. 247.

88) Gayle Rubin, "The Traffic in Women," in Rayna R. Reiter (ed.), Toward an Anthropology of Women, New York, Monthly Review Press, 1975, p. 159.

89) Rubin, "The Traffic in Women," op. cit., p. 166.

90) Foucault, op. cit., p. 106.

91) Catherine MacKinnon, "Feminism, Marxism, Method and the State: An Agenda for Theory," Signs, vol. 7, no, 3, Spring 1982, pp. 515-16.

92) Catherine MacKinnon, "Feminism, Marxism, Method, and the State: Toward Feminist Jurisprudence," Signs, vol. 8, no. 4, Summer 1983, p. 635.

93) Colette, The Ripening Seed, translated and cited in Hannah Alderfer, Beth Jaker, and Marybeth Nelson, Diary of a Conference on Sexuality, New York, Faculty Press, 1982, p. 72.

94) John Lauritsen and David Thorstad, The Early Homosexual Rights Movement in Germany, New York, Times Change Press, 1974.

D'Emilio, Sexual Politics, Sexual Communities, op. cit.; 
Bérubé, "Behind the Spectre of San Francisco," op. cit.; 
Bérubé, "Marching to a Different Drummer," op. Cit.