Library 4

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Book
Schultz, Pamela D.; Naming, Blaming, and Framing: Moral Panic over Child Molesters and Its Implications for Public Policy; Ch 5: 16 pp
Excerpt from the book: Moral Panics over Contemporary Children and Youth -
Charles Krinsky (Editor).
This book examines for the first time an important and controversial social issue, employing a rigorous intellectual framework to explore the cultural construction of youth through the dissemination of moral panics.
Given here is Chapter 5:
The moral panic over CSA and sexual abusers is the compelling and inexorable result of publicly challenging deeply ingrained taboos about sexual attitudes and practices. The controversy has been heightened by the cacophony of competing statistics and claims regarding the presence of CSA in American society.
Since the dawn of the child welfare movement in this country, the sexual abuse of children and youth has been a pressing concern, but the proliferation of mass media has pushed this preoccupation to an obsessive level. [...]
Undoubtedly, sexual molestation can be a deeply traumatic, life-altering, and painful assault on youth. Nevertheless, the compulsive sense of panic that escalated fear of CSA in the final decades of the twentieth century and first years of the twenty-first century have ultimately overshadowed the less dramatic, but no less disturbing reality.
Seto, Michael C.; Pedophilia and Sexual Offending against Children - Theory, Asessment, and Intervention - Second Edition - Quotes and Summaries; 329 pp
This new edition represents a critical review and integration of many active lines of research on pedophilia, hebephilia, sexual offending against children, incest, risk assessment, and treatment. My aim is to provide an accessible and scholarly book that summarizes the evidence to drive better research, policies, and practices, to prevent sexual offenses against children and to improve the lives of persons with pedophilia or hebephilia.

Some readers may be surprised that helping persons with pedophilia or hebephilia is part of my aim in this book. I ask you to imagine, whatever your sexual preferences are, that social norms and laws prohibited you from expressing your sexuality in the way you would like. Very serious consequences could result if you did express your sexual interest, including loss of employment; social ostracism; estrangement from family and friends; long prison sentences; and then a range of legal restrictions regarding residence, movement, and public notifications about you post sentence. Even if you never expressed your sexual interest, you would live in anxiety and fear because of the severe stigma associated with your sexual interest, so that it would be very difficult if not impossible to disclose to family members, friends, and others around you. That is the situation that persons with pedophilia or hebephilia currently face.

The field seems to have moved from a vigorous debate about whether sex offender treatment works at all to more fine-rained questions about what forms of treatment, for who, and under what conditions. This does not negate the many questions regarding assessment and treatment
for different populations, including non-offending persons with pedophilia, females, and juveniles.

I hope this book is a useful starting point for researchers, practitioners, and policymakers in setting an agenda for further work on these important topics. I am looking forward to the next decade of progress.

Seto, Michael C.; Pedophilia and sexual offending against children : theory, assessment, and intervention - 2008; xvi, 303 p. : ill. ; 26 cm.
"Seto notes, accurately, that many people inaccurately conflate pedophilia with sex offending against children. In this book, Seto discusses the distinctions between the two, delineating the potential causes of sex offending against children. These causes may well include pedophilia — that is, an actual sexual attraction to prepubertal children of some persistence and strength — but may in some cases be limited to other factors, especially those associated with antisociality. ... ... ...
Seto’s book is an excellent, nuanced review of the current state of the literature. The book shows excellent breadth and depth in its coverage and analysis. Thoseworking in this specialty, even those with considerable experience, would gain much from a careful reading of Pedophilia."
Quoted from the Review of Philp H. Witt, 2009.
Smit, Mark; The Secret of Bryn Estyn: The Making of a Modern Witch Hunt by R. Webster - Review; Extent unknown
Richard Webster sets out to tell the ‘story of the story’ of Bryn Estyn, the approved school at the centre of the North Wales child abuse scandal. It’s a story that has everything: personal animus, fantasy, intrigue, alleged Masonic conspiracy, bizarre sex acts and courtroom drama.
Webster leads us from the early investigations, which found no evidence of systematic abuse in children’s homes in North Wales, through the persistent rumours that led to the reopening of criminal and civil inquiries.
Journal Article
Houtepen, Jenny A. B. M., Sijtsema Jelle J., & Bogaerts Stefan; Being Sexually Attracted to Minors; Journal of Sex & Marital Therapy; ; 1-21(22 June 2015), , Jun 22 2015
This article aims to provide more insight into pedophilic attraction and risk and protective factors for offending in non-clinical pedophiles.

Fifteen participants were interviewed about sexuality, coping, and sexual self-regulation. Many participants struggled with acknowledging pedophilic interest in early puberty and experienced psychological difficulties as a result. Furthermore, many committed sex offenses during adolescence when they were still discovering their feelings.

Early recognition of risk factors and early start of interventions seem vital in preventing offending. Moreover, results suggest that risk for offending can be diminished by creating more openness about pedophilia and by providing pedophiles with social support and control.
Smith, Deirdre M.; Dangerous Diagnoses, Risky Assumptions, and the Failed Experiment of 'Sexually Violent Predator' Commitment; Oklahoma Law Review, Jun 11 2014
In the 1997 opinion, Kansas v. Hendricks, the U.S. Supreme Court upheld a law that presented a new model of civil commitment. The targets of these new commitment laws were dubbed “Sexually Violent Predators,” and the Court upheld this form of indefinite detention on the assumption that there is a psychiatrically distinct class of individuals who, unlike typical recidivists, have a mental condition that impairs their ability to refrain from violent sexual behavior. And, more specifically, the Court assumed that the justice system could reliably identify the true “predators,” those for whom this unusual and extraordinary deprivation of liberty is appropriate and legitimate, with the aid of testimony from mental health professionals.
This Article evaluates the extent to which those assumptions were correct and concludes that they were seriously flawed and, therefore, the due process rationale used to uphold the SVP laws is invalid. The category of the “Sexually Violent Predator” is a political and moral construct, not a medical classification. The implementation of the laws has resulted in dangerous distortions of both psychiatric expertise and important legal principles, and such distortions reveal an urgent need to re-examine the Supreme Court’s core rationale in upholding the SVP commitment experiment.
Schmidt, Gunter; The Dilemma of the Male Pedophile; Archives of Sexual Behavior; 31(6), 473–477
The public and scientific debate on pedosexuality is heated one.We find urselves involved in a difficult balancing act that demands utmost care if we are to avoid,
on the one hand, playing down the gravity of adult–child sexual acts and, on the other hand, overdramatizing its catastrophic potential. However, the tendency to polarize and overgeneralize is strong. Both, those inclined to deemphasize
the severity of the problem and those bent upon blowing it out of all proportion, distort the reality of children who are drawn into sexual contact with adults, colonizing their experience, their memories, and their own assessments.
It seems to me that one of the prerequisites for a more reasonable discussion is to disentangle the confusion of moral and clinical discourses. This requires that we argue, from a moral standpoint, where morals are at issue and, from a clinical point of view, when it comes to traumatizing effects. Above all, we hould not clothe moral judgments in the garb of clinical “expertocratic” language.
Kärgel, Christian, Massau Claudia, Weiss Simone, Walter Martin, Borchardt Viola, Krueger Tillman H. C., et al.; Evidence for ... Inhibitory Control Abilities ...; Human Brain Mapping; 38(2), , Oct 21 2016
Neurobehavioral models of pedophilia and child sexual offending suggest a pattern of temporal and in particular prefrontal disturbances leading to inappropriate behavioral control and subsequently an increased propensity to sexually offend against children. However, clear empirical evidence for such mechanisms is still missing. [...]
We compared behavioral performance and neural response patterns among three groups of men [...]: pedophiles with (...) and without (...) a history of hands-on sexual offences against children as well as healthy non-offending controls (...).
As compared to offending pedophiles, non-offending pedophiles exhibited superior inhibitory control [...] while no significant differences were found between pedophiles and healthy controls.
Data therefore suggest that heightened inhibition-related recruitment [...] is related to better inhibitory control in pedophiles who successfully avoid committing hands-on sexual offences against children.
Stanley, Jessica L., Bartholomew Kim, & Oram Doug; Gay and Bisexual Men's Age-Discrepant Childhood Sexual Experiences; The Journal of Sex Research; 41(4), 381-389
This study examined childhood sexual abuse (CSA) in gay and bisexual men. We compared

  • the conventional definition of CSA based on age difference with



  • a modified definition of CSA based on perception [CSE - Child Sexual Experience]


to evaluate which definition best accounted for problems in adjustment.

The sample consisted of 192 gay and bisexual men recruited from a randomly selected community sample. Men's descriptions of their CSA experiences [id est: CSE] were coded from taped interviews.

Fifty men (26%) reported sexual experiences before age 17 with someone at least 5 years older, constituting CSA according to the age-based definition.

  • Of these men, 24 (49%) perceived their sexual experiences as negative, coercive, and/or abusive and thus were categorized as perception-based CSA. Participants with perception-based CSA experiences reported higher levels of maladjustment than non-CSA participants.



  • Participants with age-based CSA experiences who perceived their sexual experience as non-negative, noncoercive, and nonabusive [51%?] were similar to non-CSA participants in their levels of adjustment.



These findings suggest that a perception-based CSA definition [CSE] more accurately represents harmful CSA experiences in gay and bisexual men than the conventional age-based definition [CSA].

In conclusion,
... the standard convention of defining age-based childhood sexual abuse as uniformly negative, harmful, and coercive may not accurately represent gay and bisexual men's sexual experiences.
Combining perception-based CSA experience [id est: CSE] with noncoercive, nonnegative, nonabusive experiences, as the age-based definition does, presents a misleading picture of childhood sexual abuse.
An age-based CSA definition inflates prevalence rates of childhood sexual abuse and inaccurately suggests that the maladjustment associated with perception-based CSA [id est CSE] experiences applies to all childhood age-discrepant sexual encounters.
In contrast, these results suggest that gay men with histories of nonnegative, noncoercive childhood sexual experiences [CSE] with older people are as well adjusted as those without histories of age-discrepant childhood sexual experiences.
However, both definitions of CSA [age-based CSA vs experience based CSE] account for only a very small proportion of the variance in adult adjustment problems.
Contrary to popular belief, negative outcomes do not inevitably follow from gay and bisexual men's childhood age-discrepant sexual encounters.
Seto, Michael C.; Is Pedophilia a Sexual Orientation?; Arch Sex Behav; 41, 231–236
In this article, I address the question of whether pedophilia in men can be construed as a male sexual orientation, and the implications for thinking of it in this way for scientific research, clinical practice, and public policy.
I begin by defining pedophilia and sexual orientation, and then compare pedophilia (as a potential sexual orientation with regard to age) to sexual orientations with regard to gender (heterosexuality, bisexuality, and homosexuality), on the bases of age of onset, correlations with sexual and romantic behavior, and stability over time. I conclude with comments about the potential social and legal implications of conceptualizing pedophilia as a type of sexual orientation in males.

Sandfort, Theo G. M., Orr Mark, Hirsch Jennifer S., & Santelli John; Long-Term Health Correlates of Timing of Sexual Debut: Results From a National US Study; American Journal of Public Health; 98(1), 155-161
Objectives. We explored long-term health consequences of age at sexual initiation and of abstinence until marriage to evaluate empirical support for the claim that postponing sexual initiation has beneficial health effects.Methods. We analyzed data from the 1996 National Sexual Health Survey, a cross-sectional study of the US adult population. We compared sexual health outcomes among individuals who had initiated sexual activity at an early or late age versus a normative age. We also compared individuals whose first sexual intercourse had occurred before versus after marriage.Results. Early initiation of sexual intercourse was associated with various sexual risk factors, including increased numbers of sexual partners and recent sexual intercourse under the influence of alcohol, whereas late initiation was associated with fewer risk factors. However, both early and late initiation were associated with sexual problems such as problems with arousal and orgasm, primarily among men. Relationship solidity and sexual relationship satisfaction were not associated with early or late initiation.Conclusions. Early sexual debut is associated with certain long-term negative sexual health outcomes, including increased sexual risk behaviors and problems in sexual functioning. Late initiation was also associated with sexual problems, especially among men. Further research is needed to understand how sexual initiation patterns affect later health outcomes.
Tenbergen, Gilian, Wittfoth Matthias, Frieling Helge, Ponseti Jorge, Walter Martin, Walter Henrik, et al.; The Neurobiology and Psychology of Pedophilia: Recent Advances and Challenges; Frontiers in Human Neuroscience; 2015(9), 344, Jun 24 2015
A pedophilic disorder is recognized for its impairment to the individual and for the harm it may cause to others. Pedophilia is often considered a side issue and research into the nature of pedophilia is delayed in comparison to research into other psychiatric disorders.
However, with the increasing use of neuro-imaging techniques, such as functional and structural magnetic resonance imaging (sMRI, fMRI), together with neurop-sychological studies, we are increasing our knowledge of predisposing and accompanying factors contributing to pedophilia development.
At the same time, we are faced with methodological challenges, such as group differences between studies, including age, intelligence, and comorbidities, together with a lack of careful assessment and control of child sexual abuse.
Having this in mind, this review highlights the most important studies investigating pedophilia, with a strong emphasis on (neuro-) biological studies, combined with a brief explanation of research into normal human sexuality.
We focus on some of the recent theories on the etiology of pedophilia such as the concept of a general neuro-developmental disorder and/or alterations of structure and function in frontal, temporal, and limbic brain areas.
With this approach, we aim to not only provide an update and overview but also a framework for future research and to address one of the most significant questions of how pedophilia may be explained by neurobiological and developmental alterations.
The chosen format is here (on Ipce): Quotes and summaries from this article.
Houtepen, Jenny A. B. M., Sijtsema Jelle J., & Bogaerts Stefan; References at Being Sexual Attracted to Minors; Journal of Sex & Marital Therapy; 1-21(22 June 2015), 
References at "Being Sexually Attracted to Minors: Sexual Development, Coping With Forbidden Feelings, and Relieving Sexual Arousal in Self-Identified Pedophiles.
Udell, Wadiya, Sandfort Theo, Reitz Ellen, Bos Henny, & Dekovic Maja; The relationship between early sexual debut and psychosocial outcomes: A longitudinal study of Dutch adolescents; Archives of Sexual Behavior
In a longitudinal dataset of 470 Dutch adolescents, the current study examined the ways in which early sexual initiation was related to subsequent attachment, self-perception, internalizing problems, and externalizing problems. For male adolescents, analyses revealed general attachment to mother and externalizing problems at Wave 1 to predict to early transition at Wave 2. However, there was no differential change in these psychosocial factors over time for early initiators of sexual intercourse and their non-initiating peers. For female adolescents, the model including psychosocial factors at Wave 1 did not predict to sexual initiation at Wave 2. However, univariate repeated measures analyses revealed early initiators to have signi?cantly larger increases in self-concept and externalizing problems than their non-initiating female peers. While the difference between female early initiators and non-initiators were statistically signi?cant, the mean levels of problem behaviors were very low. The ?ndings suggest that, contrary to previous research, early sexual initiation does not seem to be clustered with problem behaviors for this sample of Dutch adolescents. [A]
Sullivan, Randall; The Seduction of Peter Jay Rudge; Rolling Stone MAGAZINE, Jan 01 1993
A quite long but carefully reported true story of the close relationship between a women, Diana Walders, 40 year, and a boy, Peter Jay Rudge, 13 years.

The development and the form of the relationship is carefully told. Reading it, one might think of 'grooming' by the woman. She more or less seduced Peter Jay from the living sphere of his parents to the living sphere of Diana. The lady and the boy planned to 'disappear' together, to run away both from both their homes and families. This actually happened.

Forty days later, the pair was found by police. The boy was taken home, the lady was arrested.

The reporter guides the reader along the notes of two therapists of Peter Jay.
In the first therapy, Peter denied any sexual aspect in the relationship with Diana.

However, during the second therapy, Peter Jay told the therapist and his father and a priest about the quite frequent sexual contacts the pair has had.
During the trial, both therapist testified, as well as Peter Jay did, testifying also about his sexual adventures with Diana. Diana strongly denied such contacts.

Diana's lawyer found many inconsistencies in Peter Jay's testimony, as well as some impossibilities and improbabilities. "Too many for good evidence", said the jury.
Chen, Laura P., Murad Hassan M., Paras Molly L., Colbenson Kristina M., Sattler Amelia L., & Goranson Erin N.; Sexual abuse and lifetime diagnosis of psychiatric disorders; Mayo Clinic Proceedings ; 2011(July 31, 2011 ), 
There was no statistically significant association between sexual abuse and a diagnosis of schizophrenia or somatoform disorders. 
No longitudinal studies that assessed bipolar disorder or 
obsessive-compulsive disorder were found. 
Associations between sexual abuse and depression, eating disorders, and posttraumatic stress disorder were strengthened by a history of rape.
Conclusion: A history of sexual abuse is associated with an increased risk of a lifetime diagnosis of multiple psychiatric disorders.
Safiye Tozdan, Arne Dekker, Dr Phil, Janina Neutze, and Pekka Santtila, & Briken Peer; Sexual Interest in Children Among Women in Two Nonclinical and Nonrepresentative Online Samples; Sex Med; 2020(1), 1-14
Regarding women, little research is available about the prevalence of sexual interest in children (SIC), especially in nonclinical samples.
The present study aimed to investigate the extent to which adult women from 2 nonclinical and non-representative samples indicate sexual interest in prepubescent and/or pubescent children.
Participants took part in an online survey either via general websites or via websites directed toward individuals with a SIC.
The samples included are non-representative and therefore not generalizable to the female population.
Nevertheless, they strongly suggest that SIC is a phenomenon also found in women. We therefore recommend professionals in the field of sexual medicine to increase their attention and engagement for women with SIC. Based on the present results, the development of preventive treatment services specifically tailored to women with a SIC has to be strongly encouraged in the near future.
Jahnke, S., Schmidt A. F., Geradt M., & Hoyer J.; Stigma-related stress and its correlates among men with pedophilic sexual interests.; Archives of Sexual Behavior; November 2015,
Despite decades of research on the adverse consequences of stereotyping and discrimination for many stigmatized groups, little is known about how people with pedophilia perceive and react to stigma.
In this article, we present a framework that outlines how stigma-related stress might negatively affect emotional and social areas of functioning, cognitive distortions, and the motivation to pursue therapy, all of which may contribute to an increased risk of sexual offending.
We tested our hypotheses in an online survey among self-identified German speaking people with pedophilia (N = 104) using a wide range of validated indicators of social and emotional functioning (...). Specific risk factors such as self-efficacy, cognitive distortions and the motivation to seek treatment were also assessed.
In line with our hypotheses, fear of discovery generally predicted reduced social and emotional functioning. Contrary to our predictions, perceived social distance and fear of discovery were not linked to self-efficacy, cognitive distortions, or treatment motivation. [...]
Sandfort, Theodorus, & Finkelhor David; Youths not always victims in man-boy sex, survey reveals; The International Journal of Human Relations. Volume 14 (1) pp. 8-9 October, 1984 ; 14 (1, October 1984), 8 & 9
Part of a report of a forum in which Sandfort and Finkelhor discuss the former's research and its conclusions and views: Are children always traumatized by pedophiles? Sandfort takes a researcher's stand ('no'), Finkelhor a moral stand ('yes').
Miscellaneous
Schuster, Filip; Open letter to Michael Seto,..., Jul 20 2019
This open letter was sent by letter and e-mail to the five persons / organizations on July 20th 2019 and will be sent in addition to the information by e-mail to sexologists publishing about "pedophilia".

For many years, you have systematically spread false information about the age at the onset of puberty. As evidenced below, the puberty of girls begins several years before the age information that you give. Your false age ratings cause people to receive a "pedophilia" diagnosis, even though these people are not "pedophilic" according to your own "pedophilia" definition of the desire of pre-pubertals.
Seto, Michael C.; The Tanner Stages and more from Seto 2018
Figures 1.2, 1.3, 2.2., a link in chapter 2 and table 8.2
in Seto's book.
Newspaper Article
Schwarz, Joel; Child Abuse Increases Risk, Oct 21 2008
Boys who experienced childhood physical or sexual abuse are more likely to use sexually coercive behavior against an unwilling female partner when they are adolescents and young adults.
The study also found that 55 percent of the men who reported coercive behavior did not experience any childhood sexual or physical abuse.
"There is a lot of evidence indicating sexual coercion and aggression is a complex behavior with an array of risk factors. There is this whole group of men for whom we have yet to fully understand what their risk factors are. They are relatively 'average' men without terrible childhood histories, but who engage in this hurtful behavior,"
Shipton, Martin; EU will share info to help track sex offenders; Wales News - News - WalesOnline, Jun 16 2006
The first steps are being taken towards a European sex offenders register.
"There will soon be nowhere in the EU to hide".
"If someone has a criminal conviction in one EU country, particularly in the case of sex offenders, there must be a mechanism in place to ensure tabs are kept on him in any other EU country he may move to."
Staff; False reports of abuse should be dealt with harshly; Tahlequah Daily Press, Dec 13 2006
the occasional abuse of the law people who file bogus reports. Almost everyone has a friend or family member who has been victimized by a small-minded, petty individual who exacts a personal vendetta by filing a false report. The reasons for such unconscionable behavior are many, but none hold water.
Over the past 20 years, at least three daycare workers in Cherokee County have talked to the Daily Press about the nightmares that unfolded when they were accused of abusing their charges. Later, it turned out none of the allegations were valid.
Staff; MEP demands paedophiles travel ban; iclanarkshire.icnetwork, May 16 2007
The disappearance of Madeleine McCann has led to a demand for an immediate ban on the free movement of convicted child sex offenders across Europe.