Library 4

Found 404 results

Journal Article
Crocker, Lizzy, & French Bryana H.; Can Boys Be ‘Coerced’ Into Sex?; US News, Mar 28 2014
The notion of teenage boys as sexual aggressors is so engrained, the results of a new study, which reveal that they are being coerced into sex by girls and young women, will surprise many.
“43 percent of high school boys and young college men”—yes, boys and young men—“reported they had an unwanted sexual experience and of those, 95 percent said a female acquaintance was the aggressor.”
Rogers, Jon, & Pallenberg Monica; Child Pornography Study; The Express, UK
A study in Germany has looked at who watches child pornography.
[Jens Wagner's] study shows just half of those who watch child porn are paedophiles. [...]
Janis Wolak [...] describes three types of consumers who are interested in child pornography without being paedophilic.
Ulrich, Heather, Randolph Mickey, & Acheson Shawn; Child sexual abuse - A replication of the meta-analytic examination ...; The Scientific review of Mental Health Practice ; 4(2, Fall/winter 2005-2006), pp 37-51,
Research conducted during the 1970s, 1980s, and 1990s consistently reported widely accepted negative outcomes associated with child sexual abuse. 
In 1998, Rind, Tromovitch, and Bauserman conducted a meta-analysis challenging the four most often reported correlates of child sexual abuse. 
The present study attempted to reexamine the four main objectives of the Rind et al. (1998) study, correcting for methodological and statistical problems identified by Dallam et al. (2001) and Ondersma et al. (2001). 
The current meta-analysis supported the findings by Rind et al. (1998) in that child sexual abuse was found to account for 1% of the variance in later psychological outcomes, whereas family environment accounted for 5.9% of the variance. 
In addition, the current meta-analysis supported the finding that there was a gender difference in the experience of the child sexual abuse, such that females reported more negative immediate effects, current feelings, and self-reported effects. 
The implications of these findings, problems with replicating the Rind et al. (1998) meta-analysis, and future directions are discussed.
Pratt, John; Child sexual abuse : Purity and danger in an age of anxiety; Crime, Law & Social Change; 43, 263-287
This paper examines the emergence and development of child sexual abuse (CSA) as a social problem in the main English-speaking societies in the post-1970s period. In contrast to prevailing explanations in moral panic and feminist literature, it illustrates how this problem has become knowable and understandable to us as a new kind of risk. This is the result of the positioning of child sexual abuse between the tensions, uncertainties, and anxieties characteristic of ‘the age of anxiety’ on the one hand, and the cultural understandings that have come to be associated with purity and danger in this period on the other. [A]
Maniglio, Roberto; Child Sexual Abuse in the Etiology of Depression; Depression and Anxiety; 27(2010), 631 - 642
This article addresses the best available scienti?c evidence on the topic, by providing a systematic review of the several reviews that have investigated the literature on the issue.
Seven databases were searched, supplemented with hand search of reference lists from retrieved papers.
Four reviews, including about 60,000 subjects from 160 studies and having no limitations that could invalidate their results, were analyzed.
There is evidence that child sexual abuse is a signi?cant, although general and nonspeci?c, risk factor for depression.
Additional variables may either act independently to promote depression in people with a history of sexual abuse or interact with such traumatic experience to increase the likelihood of depression in child abuse survivors.
For all victims of abuse, programs should focus not only on treating symptoms, but also on reducing additional risk factors. Depressed adults who seek psychiatric treatment should be enquired about early abuse within admission procedures.
Arnold Veraa, PhD; Child Sexual Abuse: The Sources of Anxiety Making and the Negative Effects; IPT Journal; 18,
Conclusion

Christian belief about child sexuality and feminist ideations have more in common than is generally thought. Together they have negatively influenced the perception of child sexual abuse.

With the active collaboration of professionals and lay persons, undue alarm was created about the sexual morality of children being in great danger. This led to the exaggeration of child sexual abuse at the expense of other more frequently occurring, and also under-reported, other abuses of children.

It seemed to be the sexual moral nature of the abuse that attracted these protagonists, rather than a genuine concern about child protection. This surreptitious moral concern spilled over into other areas of child sexuality (such as "problematic sexual behaviors" and "child sexualization").

As outlined, the moral and ideological thrust of the child sexual abuse exaggeration has come at considerable cost, particularly to families and children. It is only balanced and rational research, and sober and objective professional analysis, that may turn the tide in the decades to come.
Dolezal, Curtis, & Carballo-Dieguez Alex; Childhood sexual experiences and the perception of abuse among Latino men who have sex with men; The Journal of Sex Research; 39(3, 2002), 
This paper is based on interviews with men who have had childhood sexual experiences with an older partner (CSEOP). At the time of the interview, some of these men felt that their experiences were childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and some did not. 
There is a substantial amount of sexual activity at a young age with older partners that is not perceived to be abusive by the men who experienced it. For this sample of men, a perception of abuse is associated with coercion and the age of the child. 
Gough, Jamie; Childhood Sexuality & Paedophilia; Gay Left A Gay Socialist Journal, Number 8, Summer 1979; 2 pp
I have argued that it is vital to see this issue in its class context, to see its place in the contradictory structures of society as a whole and its relation to the power of the ruling class. Seen in this way, it is evident that the questions of child sexuality and paedophilia cannot be solved except by a massive social and political struggle. This is in the first place the struggle of young people themselves, whose rebellion has made child sexuality a political issue.
The oppression of children and young people, and in a secondary way that of paedophiles, is a cruel oppression, and the struggle against it cannot be 'managed' or postponed.
O’Carroll, Thomas; Childhood ‘Innocence’ is Not Ideal: Virtue Ethics and Child–Adult Sex; Sexuality & Culture; April 2018,
Malón (Arch Sexual Behav 44(4):1071–1083, 2015) concluded that the usual arguments against sexual relationships between adults and prepubertal children are inadequate to rule out the moral permissibility of such behaviour in all circumstances.
Malón (Sex Cult 21(1):247–269, 2017) applied virtue ethics in an attempt to remedy the postulated deficiency. The present paper challenges the virtue ethics approach taken in the second of Malón’s articles by:
(1) contesting the view that sex is an exceptional aspect of morality, to which a virtue approach needs to be applied;
(2) contesting the view that virtue ethics succeed, where other arguments fail, against the moral admissibility of child–adult sexual relations;
(3) proposing that such relations can be seen as virtuous in the context of an alternative view of what constitutes virtue.
Note / Anmerkung: Sehen Sie im Datei: Uebersetzung.
French, Bryana; Coerced Sex Not Uncommon for Young Men, Teenage Boys, Study Finds; APA Org. News ; 03,
A large proportion of teenage boys and college men report having been coerced into sex or sexual behavior, according to research published by the American Psychological Association. A total of 43 percent of high school boys and young college men reported they had an unwanted sexual experience and of those, 95 percent said a female acquaintance was the aggressor. [...]
“While not typically addressed in sexual violence research, unwanted seduction was a particularly pervasive form of sexual coercion in this study, as well as peer pressure and a victim’s own sense of an obligation. Seduction was a particularly salient and potentially unique form of coercion for teenage boys and young men when compared to their female counterparts.”
Walter, Peter Fritz; The Commercial Exploitation of Abuse - A Study on Policy; Essays on Law, Policy and Psychiatry; 8,
‘The Commercial Exploitation of Abuse: A Study on Policy (Essays on Law, Policy and Psychiatry, Vol. 8)’ is an essay about what the author calls the ‘abuse-centered culture,’ which is obviously a culture that puts people behind bars for love, when only focusing on certain ways how bodies are touched, fondled or otherwise erotically stimulated, when those bodies belong to a group of people legally defined as ‘children.’
Intro to a book in a pdf edition and a printed edition.
Quinn, Diane M., & Earnshaw Valerie A.; Concealable Stigmatized Identities and Psychological Well-Being; Soc Personal Psychol Compass.; Jan 7(1), 40–51
Abstract
Many people have concealable stigmatized identities: Identities that can be hidden from others and that are socially devalued and negatively stereotyped. Understanding how these concealable stigmatized identities affect psychological well-being is critical. We present our model of the components of concealable stigmatized identities including valenced content – internalized stigma, experienced discrimination, anticipated stigma, disclosure reactions, and counter-stereotypic/positive information – and magnitude – centrality and salience. Research has shown that negatively valenced content is related to increased psychological distress. However, smaller identity magnitude may buffer this distress. We review the research available and discuss important areas for future work.
Janssen, Diederik; Crimen sollicitations: Tabooing incest after the orgy ; Thymos; 4(2), 168, Oct 01 2010
Late modernity's binary intrigue of child sexuality/abuse is understood as a backlash phenomenon reactive to a general trans-Atlantic crisis concerning the interlocking of kinship, religion, gender, and sexuality. Tellingly dissociated from 1980s gay liberation and recent encounters between queer theory and kinship studies, the child abuse theme articulates modernity's guarded axiom of tabooed incest and its projected contemporary predicament "after the orgy"-after the proclaimed disarticulation of religion-motivated, kin-pivoted, reproductivist, and gender-rigid socialities. "Child sexual abuse" illustrates a general situation of decompensated nostalgia: an increasingly imminent loss of the child's vital otherness is counter-productively embattled by the late modern overproduction of its banal difference, its status as "minor. " Attempts to humanize, reform, or otherwise moderate incest's current "survivalist" and commemorative regime of subjectivation, whether by means of ethical, empirical, historical, critical, legal, or therapeutic gestures, typically trigger the latter's panicked empiricism. Accordingly, most "critical" interventions, from feminist sociology and anthropology to critical legal studies, have largely been collusive with the backlash: rather than appraising the radical precariousness of incest's ethogram of avoidance in the face of late modernity's dispossessing analytics and semiotics, they tend to feed its state of ontological vertigo and consequently hyperextended, manneristic forensics.
Smith, Deirdre M.; Dangerous Diagnoses, Risky Assumptions, and the Failed Experiment of 'Sexually Violent Predator' Commitment; Oklahoma Law Review, Jun 11 2014
In the 1997 opinion, Kansas v. Hendricks, the U.S. Supreme Court upheld a law that presented a new model of civil commitment. The targets of these new commitment laws were dubbed “Sexually Violent Predators,” and the Court upheld this form of indefinite detention on the assumption that there is a psychiatrically distinct class of individuals who, unlike typical recidivists, have a mental condition that impairs their ability to refrain from violent sexual behavior. And, more specifically, the Court assumed that the justice system could reliably identify the true “predators,” those for whom this unusual and extraordinary deprivation of liberty is appropriate and legitimate, with the aid of testimony from mental health professionals.
This Article evaluates the extent to which those assumptions were correct and concludes that they were seriously flawed and, therefore, the due process rationale used to uphold the SVP laws is invalid. The category of the “Sexually Violent Predator” is a political and moral construct, not a medical classification. The implementation of the laws has resulted in dangerous distortions of both psychiatric expertise and important legal principles, and such distortions reveal an urgent need to re-examine the Supreme Court’s core rationale in upholding the SVP commitment experiment.
Hinderliter, Andrew C.; Defining Paraphilia in DSM-5: Do Not Disregard Grammar; Journal of Sex and Marital Therapy; 37, , Jan 07 2011
Blanchard has proposed a definition of paraphilia for DSM-5, delimiting a range of so-called normative sexuality, and defining paraphilia as any intense and persistent sexual interest other than that. The author examines the wording and intended meaning of this definition, and he argues that there are many problems with it that "correct" interpretation requires ignoring what it says. Because of these problems and the possibility of civil commitment under sexually violent predator/person laws on the basis of a diagnosis of paraphilia NOS, caution and careful consideration of grammar are urged in drafting a definition of paraphilia for DSM-5.
Hinderliter, Andrew C.; Defining Paraphilia: Excluding Exclusion; Open Access Journal of Forensic Psychology; 2010(2), 241-272
The development of the classification of the paraphilias is considered, with emphasis on justifications for their inclusion in DSM-III in light of the declassification of homosexuality. These justifications are found to be tenuous and do not work for the paraphilias in DSM-III-R because of changes made. Rationale for these changes is discussed based on inquiries made to DSM-III-R paraphilias committee members. Changes in DSM-IV and DSM-IV-TR are also discussed. After considering and critiquing more recent arguments for including the paraphilias in the DSM, recommendations are made for proposals in the DSM-5, whether the paraphilias belong in the DSM, and whether they should be used in SVP commitment.
Schmidt, Gunter; The Dilemma of the Male Pedophile; Archives of Sexual Behavior; 31(6), 473–477
The public and scientific debate on pedosexuality is heated one.We find urselves involved in a difficult balancing act that demands utmost care if we are to avoid,
on the one hand, playing down the gravity of adult–child sexual acts and, on the other hand, overdramatizing its catastrophic potential. However, the tendency to polarize and overgeneralize is strong. Both, those inclined to deemphasize
the severity of the problem and those bent upon blowing it out of all proportion, distort the reality of children who are drawn into sexual contact with adults, colonizing their experience, their memories, and their own assessments.
It seems to me that one of the prerequisites for a more reasonable discussion is to disentangle the confusion of moral and clinical discourses. This requires that we argue, from a moral standpoint, where morals are at issue and, from a clinical point of view, when it comes to traumatizing effects. Above all, we hould not clothe moral judgments in the garb of clinical “expertocratic” language.
Segal, David; Does Porn Hurt Children?; New York Times Sunday Review
[...] After sifting through [276 research] papers, the report [of a Commision] found a link between exposure to pornography and engagement in risky behavior, such as unprotected sex or sex at a young age. But little could be said about that link. Most important, “causal relationships” between pornography and risky behavior “could not be established". [...]
Among the most prolific and revered researchers to examine teenagers and pornography is a duo in the Netherlands, Jochen Peter and Patti M. Valkenburg. The pair has been publishing studies about this issue for nearly a decade, most of it based on surveys of teenagers. “when teens watch more porn they tend to be more dissatisfied with their sexual lives. This effect is not really a strong effect, though." ... The pair also found that adolescents who watch more porn than their typical peers are generally less averse to casual sex. [...]
“I would be very cautious saying that what we found in the Netherlands is applicable in the U.S.,” Mr. Peter said. “Our findings are in a country that is pretty liberal when it comes to adolescent sexuality.” [...]
“One of our recommendations is that children should be taught about relationships and sex at a young age,” Professor Horvath “One of our recommendations is that children should be taught about relationships and sex at a young age,” Professor Horvath said. [...]
At a minimum, researchers believe a parent-teenager conversation about sexuality and pornography is a good idea, as unnerving to both sides as that may sound.
Okami, Paul, Olmstead Richard, Abramson Paul R., & Pendleton Laura; Early childhood exposure to parental nudity and scenes of parental sexuality and scenes of parental sexuality; Archives of Sexual Behavior; 27(4, August 1998), 
As part of the UCLA Family Lifestyles Project (FLS), 200 male and female children participated in an 18-year longitudinal outcome study of early childhood exposure to parental nudity and scenes of parental sexuality ("primal scenes").
At age 17-18, participants were assessed for levels of self-acceptance; relations with peers, parents, and other adults; antisocial and criminal behavior; substance use; suicidal ideation; quality of sexual relationships; and problems associated with sexual relations.
No harmful "main effect" correlates of the predictor variables were found.
Wakefield, Hollida; The Effects of Child Sexual Abuse: Truth Versus Political Correctness; IPT Journal, 2006; 16,
ABSTRACT: Research over many years establishes the negative effects of child sexual abuse are not as pervasive, severe, and long-lasting as generally assumed. But rather than being seen by victims' advocates as good news, such research results are met with resistance, anger, and personal attacks. This controversy reached its height in 1999 when the media, conservative organizations, and the United States Congress condemned a 1998 meta-analysis in the Psychological Bulletin by Rind, Tromovitch, and Bauserman. The American Psychological Association's response to the furor was to distance itself from the article and its authors. This episode demonstrates the difficulty of doing and reporting research where conclusions contradict strongly held beliefs.
Hamilton, Melissa; The Efficacy Of Severe Child Pornography Sentencing; Temple Law Review
Empirical Validity Or Political Rhetoric?

[USA's] Congress’s appetite for expanding the scope of child pornography laws and increasing the length of prison sentences for child pornography offenders endures, despite other officials involved in federal sentencing questioning the necessity and proportionality of severe sentences.
Emotions run high concerning issues involving the sexual exploitation of children. Moral panic has led Congress to pursue an ever-expanding federal regime of broadening the scope of child pornography laws and substantially increasing the length of sentences.
Based on an assessment of the empirical evidence, the Congressional stance is best characterized as political rhetoric. Overall, empirical research fails to establish a correlation, much less a causative link, between viewing child pornography and contact offenses against children.
Cochran, Susan D.; Emerging Issues in Research on Lesbians’ and Gay Men’s Mental Health: Does Sexual Orientation Really Matter?; American Psychologist; 932-947
Theoretical writings and research suggest that the onset, course, treatment, and prevention of mental disorders among lesbians and gay men differ in important ways from those of other individuals. Recent improvements in studies of sexual orientation and mental health morbidity have enabled researchers to find some elevated risk for stress-sensitive disorders that is generally attributed to the harmful effects of antihomosexual bias, Lesbians and gay men who seek mental health services must find culturally competent care within systems that may not fully address their concerns. The affirmative therapies offer a model for intervention, but their efficacy and effectiveness need to be empirically documented. Although methodological obstacles are substantial, failure to consider research questions in this domain overlooks the welfare of individuals who may represent a sizable minority of those accessing mental health services annually.
Adshead, Gwen, & Mezey Gillian; Ethical issues in the psychotherapeutic treatment of paedophiles: Whose side are you on?; The Journal of Forensic Psychiatry; 4(2), 361-368
Abstract:
Although there has been some published literature addressing ethical issues in the chemical treatment of sex offenders (Bowden, 1991 ; Greenland, 1988) there has been relatively little discussion about the ethics of offering psychotherapeutic treatments of various kinds. This article addresses several ethical issues that arise in the context of the community treatment of sex offenders against children, based on the authors’ experience of working in time-limited groups with child sex abusers (Mezey et al., 1991a). We would suggest that the ethical issues that arise in the treatment of paedophiles are different from, and additional to, those encountered in the treatment of other types of offender. We address these issues under a number of sub-headings.
Conclusion:

As is common with ethical issues, more questions are raised than can be easily answered. This does not make discussion fruitless; rather it raises the quality of the debate. We argue that important ethical decisions are being made all the time in relation to the treatment of sex offenders. There is a real danger, however, that, like the original offences, such issues will be minimized, distorted and denied. We would suggest that workers need to achieve a balance of interests between the offender and the victim. To support one is not to harm the other.
Moen, Ole Martin; The ethics of pedophilia; Nordic Journal of Applied Ethics ; 9(1), 111-124
Pedophilia is bad. But how bad is it? And in what ways, and for what reasons, is it bad? This is a thorny issue, and sadly, one seldom discussed by ethicists. I argue in this article that pedophilia is bad only because, and only to the extent that, it causes harm to children, and that pedophilia itself, as well as pedophilic expressions and practices that do not cause harm to children, are morally all right. I further argue that the aim of our social and legal treatment of pedophilia should be to minimize harm to children, and that current practices are often counterproductive in this respect.