Library 4

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M
Maniglio, Roberto; The role of child sexual abuse in the etiology of suicide and non-suicidal self-injury; Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica; 2011(124), 30 - 41
Objective: To address the best available scienti?c evidence on the role of child sexual abuse in the etiology of suicide and non-suicidal self-injury. Seven databases were searched.

There is evidence that child sexual abuse is a statistically signi?cant, although general and non-speci?c, risk factor for suicide and non-suicidal self-injury.
Child sexual abuse may not have a psrimary role in the etiology of suicide and non-suicidal self-injury.
The role of child sexual abuse in the etiology of suicide and non-suicidal self-injury is complex.
Additional biological and psychological risk factors may, in some cases, be directly responsible for, or, in other cases, contribute to the risk of suicidal en on-suicidal self-injurious behavior by mediating the relationship between child sexual abuse and self-injurious behavior.
The presence of confounding variables and the poor quality of the studies do not allow for causal inferences to be made.
Maniglio, Roberto; The impact of child sexual abuse on health; Clinical Psychology Review; 2009(29), 647 - 657
This paper addresses the best available scientific evidence on the topic, by providing a systernatic review of the several reviews that have investigated the literature on the effects of child sexual abuse.
There is evidence that survivors of childhood sexual abuse are signi?cantly at risk of a wide range of medical, psychological, behavioral, and sexual disorders. Relationships are small to medium in magnitudes and moderated by sample source and size. Child sexual abuse should be considered as a general, nonspecific risk factor for psychopathology.
Maniglio, Roberto; Child Sexual Abuse in the Etiology of Depression; Depression and Anxiety; 27(2010), 631 - 642
This article addresses the best available scienti?c evidence on the topic, by providing a systematic review of the several reviews that have investigated the literature on the issue.
Seven databases were searched, supplemented with hand search of reference lists from retrieved papers.
Four reviews, including about 60,000 subjects from 160 studies and having no limitations that could invalidate their results, were analyzed.
There is evidence that child sexual abuse is a signi?cant, although general and nonspeci?c, risk factor for depression.
Additional variables may either act independently to promote depression in people with a history of sexual abuse or interact with such traumatic experience to increase the likelihood of depression in child abuse survivors.
For all victims of abuse, programs should focus not only on treating symptoms, but also on reducing additional risk factors. Depressed adults who seek psychiatric treatment should be enquired about early abuse within admission procedures.
Malón, Agustín; Quotes from Malón's "Participating Victim"; Archives of Sexual Behavior
During the 20th century, erotic experiences between minors and adults occupied a position of increasing interest, both public as well as scientific. In this area of research, one of the most notable evolutions in how these experiences are treated has been the progressive disappearance and/or the intense redefinition of what earlier researchers called ‘‘participating victims,’’ i.e., minors apparently interested in accepting and/or sustaining these relationships.

The present work, through a comparative analysis of the literature, seeks to substantiate this transformation during the second third of the 20th century.
Malón, Agustín; Adult–Child Sex and the Limits of Liberal Sexual Morality; Archives of Sexual Behavior, 2015 - 44 - Febr.
This article is a critical review of the most common arguments in the specialized literature about the moral status of sexual relationships between adults and prepubescent children.The intent is to reveal how the usual ethical analysis of these experiences, done from a general sexual morality, with a Kantian and utilitarian basis, very clearly shows us the limits and contradictions of contemporary liberal morality regarding sexual matters.
It leaves open the possibility that, under certain circumstances, these relationships may be morally admissible. Some shortcomings and contradictions in these liberal arguments suggest that it would be of interest to refer to other authors and ideas to value adult–child sex, approaches that are based on a specific sexual morality concerning the issue of sexual virtues and a more complex conception of human sexual desire. Some of the scientific implications of these moral issues are also discussed.

From the quotes:
- My intention is to show that, limiting ourselves to these three ethical criteria [*], it can be concluded that under certain circumstances sexual experiences between children and adults could be morally permissible.
[* (1) Consent (2) No instrumentalisation and exploitation (3) No harm]
- The adult’s exploitation of the child does not depend on the inequality in power, but rather on the use the adult makes of that power.
- The problem is precisely the fact that children are taught to be submissive with adults, especially concerning sexual matters, where they are kept in dangerous ignorance that makes them especially vulnerable. Giving the child more information and more power would mean they could reject, refuse and say no, something that then puts us in the dangerous position where they could also say yes.
- It has been argued that under certain circumstances these experiences are not only harmless, but are in fact even positive and beneficial for the child. When there is no violence, coercion, deception, concealment, etc., some state that the negative consequences attributed to these events no longer exist. In these cases the simple will of the child to participate in a relationship they find pleasurable is more than enough to allow it.
- Ultimately, based on the possibility of damage that even though it may be only hypothetical and sometimes caused by society’s reaction, makes it more plausible to opt for a cautious prohibition.
- I judge it to be the case that, even if only for prudential reasons, this general rejection seems to be justified, especially when social condemnation is so intense in the large majority of people.
- I have also taken the principal criticisms to these arguments into consideration, concluding that there are sufficient reasons, even of a prudential nature, to uphold the social rejection of sexual relationships between adults and minors under a certain age.
- My aim, however, was focused on showing how these arguments are incapable of justifying a definitive and universal rejection of these relationships, as they always leave the possibility open that some of them are or could be morally permissible.
Malón, Augustin; References of Malón's Adult-Child Sex and the Demands of Virtuous Sexual Morality; Sexuality & Culture; 21(1), 
References of: Adult-Child Sex and the Demands of Virtuous Sexual Morality
Sexuality & Culture, by Malón, Augustin
Malón, Agustín; The ‘‘Participating Victim’’ in the Study of Erotic Experiences Between Children and Adults: An Historical Analysis; Archives of Sexual Behavior, 2009
During the 20th century, erotic experiences between minors and adults occupied a position of increasing interest, both public as well as scientific. In this area of research, one of the most notable evolutions in how these experiences are treated has been the progressive disappearance and/or the intense redefinition of what earlier researchers called ‘‘participating victims,’’ i.e.,minors apparently interested in accepting and/or sustaining these relationships.
The present work, through a comparative analysis of the literature, seeks to substantiate this transformation during the second third of the 20th century. It will also argue that this evolution can be fundamentally explained in terms of the intense emotional, moral, and ideological importance that is ascribed to these experiences in the rise of the current victimological paradigm.
Finally, this study endeavors to contribute to the understanding of childhood and the scientific study of child sexuality as well as of these experiences
with adults.
Malón, Augustin; Adult-Child Sex and the Demands of Virtuous Sexual Morality; Sexuality & Culture; 21(1), 247-269
This article is the continuation of a previous analysis of the usual arguments —
lack of consent, exploitation and harm — used to evaluate sexual experiences
between adults and children from general moral principles. It has been suggested that those arguments were insufficient to condemn all adult-child sexual experiences, and that it would be of interest to study others that come from a specific sexual morality based on a more complex and transcendent conception of human eroticism and sexual conduct.
This paper develops three different arguments against adult-child sex from this perspective, a view which, while not rejecting the Kantian and utilitarian approaches,complements and transforms them with a virtue ethic that questions not only the permissibility of certain acts but also their moral desirability under this frame of reference.
This helps us to clarify the scientific discourse on adult-child sex and directs us to the importance of attending to the educational dimension of this moral problem.
Malón, Agustín; References of The ‘‘Participating Victim’’ in the Study of Erotic Experiences Between Children and Adults: An Historical Analysis; Archives of Sexual Behavior, 2009
The references of The ‘‘Participating Victim’’ in the Study of Erotic Experiences Between Children and Adults: An Historical Analysis, August Malón, Archives of Sexual Behavior, 2009, in a separate file.
Malón, Agustín; Quotes from: Pedophilia, A Diagnosis in Search of a Disorder; Arch Sex Behav; 41, 1083 - 1097, Feb 25 2012
This article presents a critical review of the recent controversies concerning the diagnosis of pedophilia in the context of the preparation of the fifth edition of theDSM.
The analysis focuses basically on the relationship between pedophilia and the currentDSM-IV-TR’s definition ofmental disorder. Scholars appear not to share numerous basic assumptions ranging from their underlying ideas about what constitutes a mental disorder to the role of psychiatry in modern society, including irreconcilable theories about human sexuality, which interfere with reaching any kind of a consensus as to what the psychiatric status of pedophilia
should be.
It is questioned if the diagnosis of pedophilia containedin the DSM is more forensic than therapeutic, focusing rather on the dangers inherent in the condition of pedophilia (dangerous dysfunction) than on its negative effects for the subject (harmful dysfunction).
The apparent necessity of the diagnosis of pedophilia in the DSM is supported, but the basis for this diagnosis is uncertain.
Magnusson, Ricard; Cognitive Distortion in Music, Oct 01 2020
Having Doubts about the success of your release? It might be due to distortion
And not the kind that helped shape the sound of modern music.
No, you might be suffering from the kind of distortion that kills creativity instead of spark it.
I’m talking about cognitive distortion.
Cognitive distortion does not live in your music production software, but in your mind. [...]
Why do we suffer from cognitive distortion? [...]
8 Cognitive distortions that might be holding you back [...]
3 Steps to overcoming self-doubt [...]
Mader, D. H.; "The individual can ...": Objectifying consent; Thymos; 4(2), 103-112, Oct 01 2010
The issue of age of consent for sexual activities has been bedevilled by the absence of any objective standards or criteria for what is meant by or involved in 'consent'. Despite this absence-or because of it-the social and political response has been to reach for blanket prohibitions on sexual activity by persons under particular ages-ages which have settled in the mid- to late teens.

At the same time, the percentages of persons aged 15 and under who are sexually active in our societies indicate that young people are regularly consenting to sexual activities. Consent to sexual activity has also been a concern in relation to the lives of the cognitively or mentally impaired.

In an attempt to clarify issues surrounding consent there, a significant proposal in regard to objectifying standards for consent was reported by Carrie Hill Kennedy, in her article "Assessing Competency to Consent to Sexual Activity in the Cognitively Impaired Population" (Journal of Forensic Neuropsychology 1:3, 1999), where she developed a two-part scale for ability to consent, including twelve criteria involving knowledge and five criteria involving personal assertiveness and safety. Kennedy herself has maintained that there is no relevance for her research as applied to minors: adults have sexual rights, minors do not.

However, it would seem clear that there is a certain relevance-if not in the use of a similar scale for assessing the competence of a particular minor to consent, then in generally comparing the age at which children attain the developmental level comparable with that implied by Kennedy's five Safety standards, and using that information to critique the present, obviously unrealistic ages of consent. In relation to the Knowledge scale, the importance of sexual education becomes still clearer.
L
Logue, Derek W.; Sex Offender Myths: The Foundation for Sex Offender Laws, Mar 01 2011
Nine myths about 'pedophiles' and 'sex offenders' ... often seen as synonyms ...
"The most misused word is pedophile. The psychiatric definition denotes strong sexual arousal and urges for pre-pubescent children; the legal usage is applied to all offenders with a minor victim, which is misleading since not all “child molesters” are “pedophiles”."
Logue, Derek W.; Of Myths And Monsters; The Cypress Times, Nov 24 2009
Most of what our society believes about sex offenders is not true. Below are just a few of the beliefs we were taught that are either misleading or completely untrue: [... ... ... ...]
We need to seriously consider what truly works, not what simply feeds our anger and fear and makes us “feel good. [...] There are ways to address this issue from a realistic standpoint. [...]
In our narrow focus on the “Registered Sex Offender,” we tend to forget the big picture. Appeals to emotion rather than reason helped create a legal system of perpetual brokenness for victims, offenders, and the community alike.
Littlejohn, Richard; Jackboot Jacqui brings back the ducking stool, Sep 16 2008
Satire about the measures taken by the UK Government to combat 'paedophiles' - with a serious comment about reality today.
"Even grandparents and neighbours can demand an investigation into the background of any person who comes into contact with the children of family or friends.
In practice, that means absolutely everyone, unless you happen to be a hermit living in a cave in the Orkneys."
Littauer, Amanda; Jailbait: The Politics of Statutory Rape Laws in the United States - Review
In the first book-length study of such laws, Cocca reflects on their historical context, and, more important, she documents and analyzes important changes that legislators have enacted in the last thirty years. Drawing from scholarship on law and society, Cocca inquires into the legal system's role in constructing and regulating "cultural narratives about gender and sexuality" through statutory rape law (p. 3).

While preventing the sexual coercion of young people is "unquestionably a laudable goal," she writes, statutory rape laws actually do much more than that. They punish consensual sexual relationships that occur outside of marriage, thereby putting the weight of the law behind one particular form of sexual intimacy: marital heterosexuality.
[...]
The adoption of age-span provisions reflects sympathy for consensual heterosexual teen relationships, but the provisions address consent structurally rather than subjectively. This leaves many youths vulnerable to sexual coercion by their peers at the same time that it denies the relevance of consent outside of the age span.

As long as age operates as a proxy for consent (or the lack thereof), statutory rape law will continue to fail at least as many youth as it protects.
Levine, Judith; Decent Exposure?, Apr 29 2009
I’ve been peeved all month about the latest panic: “sexting.”
More and more states are bringing child-porn charges against teenagers who take racy pictures of themselves and send them electronically to lovers or pals.You might call sexting a dunderheaded act — who knows where your immortalized nipples might end up — but also a victimless “crime.”
Yet here is the amazing part: Child-porn law is based on the minor’s inability to consent to being photographed; the model is ipso facto a victim of the photographer. Sexting, in which the model is also the photographer, is a crime in which a person can be both perpetrator and victim at the same time.
U.S. sex law is like a black hole: Once reason falls in, it can never re-emerge.
Can all this get any stupider?
Levine, Judith; Doing Justice, Feb 06 2008
Judith Levine tells the story of falsely convicted Baran, who has been freed after 21 years in prison.
Levine, Judith; Standing Member, Oct 25 2006
Judith Levine critisizes Foley as a hypocrite: 'protecting the children', in the meantime having intimacy with his page. She also critisize the comments on Foley, naming him 'a pedophile', as well as the laws and other measures to 'protect children' against their own sexuality: "The words child and protection lose all meaning.
Levine, Judith; Harmful to Minors; 304 pp.
In the book, Levine lambastes US laws concerning child pornography, statutory rape, and abortion for minors using a variety of studies and interviews with teenagers and adults alike (see Acknowledgments). Levine also analyzes abstinence-only sex education, which Levine considers counter-productive and dangerous.
The book also examines the terms "harmful to minors" and "indecency," which Levine considers to be umbrella terms for censorship, ...
Levine, Judith; Redeeming the Worst, Jul 21 2010
What we’re watching is a morality play about the meanings of crime and punishment, a play whose antagonists have shaped the history of the American penal system.
On one side are those who seek retribution. To them, criminals, especially sex criminals, are unchangeable (or, in modern parlance, incurable), their sins indelible. The state’s duty, therefore, is not just to protect society but also to avenge the victims.
The other side believes, foremost, in rehabilitation — in moral language, redemption. To their supporters, Polanski has attained secular redemption through art; Berkowitz, divine redemption through worship.
Evidence overwhelmingly favors rehabilitation.
The rehabilitation principle dominated American criminology for much of the 20th century.
But in the law-and-order 1980s, the punishers began to win.
I spent a recent weekend with [...] people — ex-sex offenders, along with their families and allies, at the national convention of an extraordinary national movement, gathered under the umbrella of RSOL, or Reform Sex Offender Laws.
Levenson, Jill S., & Grady Melissa D.; Preventing Sexual Abuse: Perspectives of Minor- Attracted Persons About Seeking Help; Sexual Abuse
The primary aim of this exploratory research was to gain information from minor-attracted persons (MAPs) about their
(a) formal and informal experiences with help-seeking for minor attraction,
(b) perceived barriers to seeking help for concerns about minor attraction, and
(c) treatment priorities as identified by consumers of these services.
A nonrandom, purposive sample of MAPs (n = 293, 154 completed all questions) was recruited via an online survey.
Results show that 75% of participants did seek formal help from a professional; however, just less than half of them found the experience to be helpful. Characteristics of helpful therapeutic encounters included nonjudgmental attitudes, knowledge about minor attraction, and viewing clients in a person-centered and holistic way. Barriers to help seeking included uncertainty about confidentiality, fear of negative reaction or judgment, difficulties finding a therapist knowledgeable about MAPs, and financial constraints. Understanding or reducing attraction to minors were common treatment goals, but participants also prioritized addressing general mental health and well-being related to depression, anxiety, loneliness, and low self-esteem.
Implications for effective and ethical counseling and preventive interventions for MAPs are discussed.
Lebrecht, Norman; The trouble with boys, May 10 2006
It is no secret that Britten liked boys, and liked them young. He wrote them into some 30 works. In his operas boys are pivotal, start to finish. [...] There is no masking the composer’s affinity for the puerile, a fascination glossed away as Peter Pannish while he was alive but hedged nowadays by widespread and wholly justified anxieties of paedophilia, a malignant vice borne on internet wings.
It is this love of boys that triggers our squeamishness about Britten and the sooner we get to the root of it the sooner we will be able to embrace the work without qualm. [...]
Yes, he was interested in boys, but they were no more than reflections of the boy in himself, an inner voice that was, as he sometimes hinted, the source of his inspiration, an ideal of beauty and goodness. [...]
The time has come to lay the rumours to rest and concentrate on the benefice of the Britten legacy.
Leahy, Terry; Sex and the age of consent : the ethical issues; Social Analysis; 39, 27-55, Apr 01 1996
Based on the authors’ dissertation work, Leahy discusses common arguments against intergenerational intimacy and contrasts them with the interviewees’ interpretations of their experiences.
K
Kutschinsky, Alexander; Russian Prison Encyclopedia
Description of a Russian jail, seen through the eyes of a prisoner, especially those of the lowest cast in the intern hierarchy according to the harsh informal rules. Translated from Russian.
In a Russian cell tens of people are living together. The most despised caste of a zone is pulled-downs and "obízhennys". This caste is made of passive homosexuals, sexual offenders and victims of zone violence.
Pulled down are called "petúkhs" [...]. There must always been a separate territory for them, so called pethúkhs' corner". [...] Sometimes they are made to produce screens and isolate themselves from the other. In dining-rooms there are special tables and benches just for petúkhs. If some normal prisoner sits in a petukhs' place he'll become "contaged" and loose universal esteem.
The pulled down is charged with the most disgusting work: [...]
Most of the pulled down cannot stand and commit a suicide.