Pedophilia: A Specific Instance of New Phylism Theory ...

Money, John
Place PublishedNew York
PublisherSpringer Verlag
Extent18 pp

Pedophilia: A Specific Instance of New Phylism Theory as Applied to Paraphilic Lovemaps

John Money

Johns Hopkins University and Hospital Baltimore, Maryland 21205

Chapter 17 ofJay R. Feierman, Editor; Pedophilia, Biosocial Dimensions; Springer Verlag New York, 1990

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Introduction: Phylism and Pairbonding

In many species, pairbonding between the neonate and one or each parent is necessary for the survival of the dependent young. In mammals, pairbonding of the infant with the mother, or a mother substitute, is a sine qua non of nutrition and survival. In terms of the evolutionary neurobiology of behavior, parent/offspring pairbonding is a primordial characteristic of mammalian phylogeny. Thus, the capability for pairbonding between a human parent and his or her baby is phylogenetically programmed into the species. That is to say, pairbonding is a species-determined unit of human existence, predetermined to occur, other things being equal, simply because humans are members of their species. There has been no satisfactory name suggested that includes all phylogenetic, or species-determined, units of human existence. Some, though not all, of them have been rather loosely categorized as instincts and as reflexes. The generic term "phylism"* that this author has adopted is derived from "phylogeny." [*1]

  • *Denotes words or close variations thereof that are defined in the Glossary to this chapter.
  • [*1] Editor's Note:
    A "phylism" also is compatible with the ethological definition "a unit of adaptive functioning." This definition would make the
    relationship of a phylism to function similar to the relationship of a fixed-action pattern to (behavioral) structure. Fixed-action patterns change in function phylogenetically but maintain structural integrity, whereas phylisms change in structure phylogenetically but maintain functional integrity. Although it is likely that fixed-action patterns are under the control of the same or similar DNA on homologous chromosomes in closely related species, this mechanism is unknown and unlikely for phylisms. The mechanism of genetic transmission through phylogeny for a trait that is defined on the basis of function is yet to be fully understood. Nevertheless, the concept of a phylism seems to fill a certain need at this time inasmuch as there is no other term that means the same thing.

A phylism is defined as "a unit or building block of human existence that belongs to human beings, as individuals, through their heritage as members of their species."

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Some phylisms have everyday, vernacular names, such as "breathing" "coughing," "sneezing," "hiccupping," "drinking," "swallowing," "biting," "chewing," "pissing," "shitting," "fucking," "laughing," "crying," "walking," "grasping," "holding," "sweating," "touching," "hurting," "tasting," "smelling," "hearing," and "seeing." The complete list has not been counted. Other phylisms have Latinate names, like "thermoregulation," "salt regulation," and "immunoregulation." Still others exist that have yet to be named, or that have been named only recently, for example, "pairbonding" and "troopbonding" (Money, 1983).

In the human species, the phylism of pairbonding applies to the sensuous relationship of parent and child and to the sensual relationship of lovers and of breeding partners. Although the pairs of individuals differ between one kind of pairbonding and the other, these two manifestations share some features in common (see Eibl-Eibesfeldt, this volume). In nature's design of things, the pairbonding of infancy serves a dual developmental role. As it does with other mammals, it ensures the survival of the individual, and as a precursor of later sexuoerotic pairbonding, it also ensures the survival of the species.

Both manifestations of pairbonding are intimately related to the skin senses through the acts of holding, cuddling, hugging, rubbing, patting, rocking, and kissing. They are both related to sucking of the nipples and to the possibility of an orgastic climax (which delights some breast-feeding mothers and morally terrorizes others) that is induced by the stimulation of the nipple. In addition, both manifestations of pairbonding may be intimately related to genital arousal. Whereas the signs of genital arousal in female infants at the breast are inconspicuous, in naked male infants they are conspicuously displayed as erection of the penis (personal observation).

The male infant's erection during breast-feeding is a developmental phenomenon in the same category as a fetus's erection, which at times is accompanied by manual manipulation as observed by sequential ultrasound imaging in utero (Meizner, 1987). It is also in the same category as sleep erections, which occur off and on for an average of 2 to 3 hours a night in earliest infancy and continue, generally at the same rate, until advanced senescence (Karacan et al., 1972, 1975).

Entrainment of Sexuoerotic Phylisms

Despite nature's economy in the overlapping sexological aspects of pairbonding between parent and child and lover and lover, the majority of adults require no particular effort to keep the love of a child separate and different from the love of a sexual partner. It is precisely this differentiation that fails in the case of pedophilia* (pedo- + -philia*). For the pedophile, male or female, gynephilic or androphilic, the phylism of the sexuoeroticism of lover/lover bonding becomes entrained with the caretaking of the phylism of parent/child bonding.

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Among the paraphilias*, the phenomenon of entrainment is not unique to pedophilia. On the contrary, there is a corresponding entrainment of a phylism that can be identified in each of the paraphilias. In the case of coprophilia* and of urophilia*, for example, the phylism that becomes entrained in the service of sexuoerotic arousal is the one, observed in many primate species, according to which the mother keeps her infant clean of excrement by licking it clean (Money, 1986, pp. 87-88). There is also the phylism investigated in rats (Moltz and Lee, 1983; Moltz, 1984) according to which a pheromone in the mother's fecal pellets induces the weanling to eat them, whereby the weanling gains a degree of immunological competence to resist infection.

The neurobiology of the entrainment of one phylism to another, as in the case of the paraphilias, constitutes a scientific problem still awaiting a solution. It is possible, of course, that the crossover may have its origin in an apparently minor error in the genome. It is also possible that its origin is not genomic but, rather, is a product of an error in the neurochemistries responsible for the prenatal or neonatal differentiation of sexual pathways in the developing brain (reviewed in Money, 1987a). Alternatively, the timing may be later in postnatal life, in which case the error would presumably be introduced into the brain during a critical period of development when the differentiation of its lovemap* (Money, 1986) is responsive to information received through the eyes, ears, and skin senses—in other words, through social learning, in a manner analogous to the acquisition of native language.

In syndromes of paraphilia, the biographies of sexological development that are retrieved retrospectively do, in some cases, include sufficient detail to implicate developmental learning as playing some role in the crossover, or entrainment, of phylisms. For example, in klismaphilia* (the enema paraphilia), the biographical information retrieved often reveals excessive perineal and genital stimulation that occurred in early childhood from the administration of enemas. In addition to information retrieved retro­spectively, either from personal memory or from the testimony of others, there is now the promise of anterospectively recorded information, from which the content of developmental experiences progressively recorded throughout childhood can be related to the content of the paraphilic ideation and imagery (Money and Lamacz, 1989).

In one published case (Money, 1986, Ch. 21), a paraphilic strategy through which one homosexual courted his own murder by soliciting a "straight" man (homosexual autassassino-philia*) could be related in concept to biographical experiences, including multiple genital operations, consequent on having been born with an intersexual abnormality (genital ambiguity) and, as a result, having had an early history of ambivalent sex assignment.

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The sexuoerotic entrainment of phylisms creates another characteristic that is common to all paraphilias, including pedophilia. Like the other paraphilias, pedophilia is not voluntarily chosen, nor can it be shed by voluntary decision. It is not a preference but a sexuoerotic orientation or status. It may be viewed as analogous to left-handedness or color blindness.

Juvenile Sexual Rehearsal Play

In the human species, as in other primates for which observations have been recorded, there is in the development of the juveniles a period of sexual rehearsal play that prepares them for maturity (reviewed in Money, 1988). Rhesus monkeys deprived of juvenile sexual rehearsal play by being raised in isolation do not become competent in copulatory presenting and mounting as adults and do not reproduce their species. Juveniles that are released to play with age mates for as briefly as half an hour a day may become capable of copulation but only after a delay from the expected age of 6-9 months to 18-24 months and only in about one-third of cases. These latter juveniles, even though they do copulate, have a low birth rate.

As a species, human beings who are heirs to Western civilization have a long cultural heritage of negative strategies for dealing with juvenile sexual rehearsal play. These are strategies of vandalism that thwart, warp, and distort the normally developing lovemap and make it pathological. The interventions that induce the creation of this pathology include indifference and neglect instead of the active promotion of normophilic development; humiliation, prohibition, and abusive punishment of sexual rehearsal play; and coercive traumatization, wrong timing, and wrong matching of ages in sexual rehearsal play. The malignancy shared by all of these sources of lovemap pathology is the Catch-22 dilemma, [*2] or entrapment, inherent in any type of taboo activity, namely, that you're damned if you do reveal it, and damned if you don't. Therefore, no help is available.

  • [*2] "Catch-22": An American colloquialism invented by Joseph Heller and introduced in his novel Catch-22 (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1961).
When the Catch-22 dilemma prevails, a juvenile involved in a relation­ship with an older pedophile has no way to escape without being traumatized by the penalties of disclosure and no way to remain without experiencing the penalties of not escaping. A history of this type of entrapment can sometimes be retrieved from adults who were thus entrapped as juveniles and became pedophiles upon reaching maturity. (See The Opponent-Process Principle, later in this chapter.) By contrast, the juvenile who is in a pedophile relationship but is not entrapped in it and is not at risk of retributive punishment if he or she stays in it is not at risk of becoming a pedophile in adulthood (Money and Weinrich, 1983). An example of this latter proposition may be found in certain localities of some big cities. In these localities, by tradition, boys have been sponsored by older pedophiles for three, four, or five generations (unpublished Baltimore data; Reeves, 1981). Since they are following in the footsteps of older male

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relatives, these boys are not threatened by the outcome of discovery. In addition, they are able to predict that their period of sponsorship will extend from around age 11 to age 15 and that at the latter age, they will begin heterosexual, age-mate dating.

The cultural tradition of pedophilia may belong not just to a small enclave of a population but also to an entire community, as in the case of various tribal peoples scattered across the Pacific in Melanesia and New Guinea (Herdt, 1984). The Sambia of the New Guinea Highlands (Herdt, 1981) are such a tribe. Their ancient customs as fierce head-hunting warriors survived European contact until after World War II.

According to their folklore concerning their children, a boy could not become a warrior if he stayed living with women and children after age 8. So, he was taken into the men's longhouse to remain in the company of males only, there to be subjected to the rituals of indoctrination and initiation. As a baby, he had been nourished by woman's milk. As a juvenile, he would have to be nourished with men's milk so that his body would mature in the way that maturation occurs during puberty. It was an obligation of youths still too young to be married not to waste their semen but to have it sucked out of their penises by the prepubertal boys who, once able to ejaculate themselves, would nourish those still younger. At age 19, the age of marriage, their two-way experience of androphilic pedophilia would cease, and their lives would become heterosexual with an adult partner.

The Vulnerability Factor

The universal male/male pedophilia of the Sambia demonstrates the sexological plasticity of the human organism and the making of pedophilia into the social norm. In a society in which pedophilia is not the social norm, however, postnatal social experiences responsible for the development of lifelong pedophilia that exists in defiance of the social norm cannot, in the present state of knowledge, be specified definitely. At best, such experiences can be specified only as necessary causes, but not as sufficient causes of the development of a pedophile. Conceptually, it is still necessary to postulate that there exists at least one intervening variable or vulnerability factor that is extant between the prenatal and the adult life of a pedophile, the precise nature of which remains to be ascertained.

There are some cases of pedophilia, as well as of the other syndromes of paraphilia, in which there is evidence of a vulnerability factor that may be related to actual brain injury, or so-called "minimal brain damage" (Lehne, 1986; Money, 1986, Ch. 16), whereas there are other cases that suggest a vulnerability factor related to eidetic imagery and schizoid hallucinosis (Money, 1986, Ch. 16, Ch. 21) and still other cases suggestive of the cyclicity of manic-depressive illness (unpublished data). The preponderance of evidence, however, points

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to a vulnerability factor that is epileptiform and akin to temporal-lobe psychomotor epilepsy (Money, 1986, Ch. 16).

There are some cases of pedophilia, as well as cases of all paraphlias in which there is definite clinical evidence of an altered state of consciousness for which an appropriate name is "paraphilic fugue* state"(Money, 1986, Ch. 16).

While in this fugue state, the patient may have an alternative name and an alternative juvenile wardrobe, as well as a juvenile appearance, bearing, and personality. His or her behavior gives the impression of a juvenile social age and of a juvenile sexuoerotic age. The pedophile in this state relates to the younger partner in the manner of a child engaging in sexual rehearsal play with another child.

However, the pedophile is likely to have undergone the experience of limerence, that is, of sexuoerotic pairbonding and falling in love. It is doomed to be love unrequited, for the juvenile does not fall in love but, rather, responds with parent/child pairbonding and maybe a touch of hero worship. The latter is greatly enhanced by the juvenile's being treated indulgently and as an equal by the sponsor, without disciplinary moralizing.

For the juvenile, engaging in sexual activity is a trade-off, not something that is spontaneously yearned for. The analogy is with a marriage as an arrangement rather than as a consummation of romantic passion. The juvenile's pairbonding to the pedophile is as to a parent or to a charismatic leader and not sexuoerotically as to a lover.

The pedophile's lovemap dictates that, for him or her, sexuoerotic attraction will be able to occur only if the partner is a member of a specified age group. In pedophilia, the age is juvenile and prepubertal. When the younger partner matures and enters a higher age group, then the glue of sexuoerotic attachment fails, and the relationship, if it continues, becomes one of friendship, mutually devoid of erotic passion.

The Opponent-Process Principle

Participation in a pedophilic act is not synonymous with having the syndrome of pedophilia—the Sambia headhunters bear witness to this truth. For pedophilia to become permanently lodged in the lovemap, some pertinent mechanism has to operate during the course of development. Such a mechanism may be similar to the one that creates addictions. Among the principles of learning, there is only one that fits the data and makes reasonable sense, namely, the principle of opponent-process learning (Solomon, 1980).

According to the opponent-process principle, that which at the outset is aversive subsequently reverses and becomes addictive. For example, the terror that accompanies the first free-fall parachute jumps of some learners may transmogrify into euphoria that gets the jumper "hooked" and addicted to parachuting as either a career or a sport. It is possible,

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though not yet proven, that the change is mediated by a brain-released flood of the body's own opiates or endorphins.

It is sometimes possible in a case of pedophilia to retrieve biographical information consistent with the principle of opponent process. One such example is the case history of a juvenile who was separated from his mother by death and then from his father and his familiar environment by being sent overseas to be taken care of by an aunt and uncle. These latter relatives promptly consigned him to a boys' boarding school. Grief-stricken and devoid of attachments, he was befriended by a pedophilic teacher—and entrapped in a Catch-22 dilemma that decreed that he would lose his only friend if he reported the relationship and would lose his honor if he did not.

A resolution of the dilemma lay in a spontaneous reversal from aversion to attraction with respect to the illicit genital activity. It was an attraction that became an addiction. After the maturation of puberty, he continued to be represented in his own lovemap as a juvenile engaging in juvenile sexual rehearsal play, and like his erstwhile pedophilic lover, he was himself addicted sexuoerotically to male juveniles exclusively. The mother of one of his juvenile partners fell in love with him and tried to convert him to having sex with her, but the conversion did not take.

Chronophilias: Their Age Ranges

Pedophilia belongs in the category of the chronophilias*, which are part of a still larger category of paraphilias, namely, those of the eligibilic and/or stigmatic types. (The categories of paraphilia are described later in this chapter.) These types are the paraphilias in which the paraphile's partner must meet a particular criterion of eligibility, such as being an amputee (acrotomophilia*,one of the morphophilias*)or a member of another racial stock (an as yet unnamed morphophilia) or another age group (one of the chronophilias).

The chronophilias are named according to the developmental age of the eligible partner, which approximates the sexuoerotic age of the chronologically adult chronophile. If the eligible partner is an infant, "infantophilia"* is the diagnostic term. If it is essential that the infant be wearing diapers, however, the Greek-derived term for the diapered infant, "nepiophilia"*,applies. (Look twice at those who come to a masquerade party in diapers!)

In the sequence of the chronophilias, infantophilia is followed by pedophilia, pertaining to the ages between infancy and puberty. For the exclusive pedophile, the maturational changes of puberty introduce not only pubic hair but also, in particular, the odors of the axillary and crotch exocrine glands, all of which nullify the sexuoerotic attractiveness of the juvenile partner.

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The sequence of the chronophilias continues with ephebophilia*, in which the eligible partner is in chronological adolescence. In the United States, federal legislation that was passed in 1984 raised the legal age of childhood to 18 years in order to expand the age range within which sexual contact is applicable for prosecution as "pedophilia" (Public Law 98-292, the Child Protection Act). Therefore, if one week before his 18th birthday a youth of 17 has sexual contact with a male or female friend aged 18, then the 18-year-old qualifies, in the technicality of the law, as a "pedophile." The discrepancy regarding age is not of days, however, but of years if the older partner has a fixation on adolescents exclusively, because the correct term for the chronophilia would be not "pedophilia" but "ephebophilia."

It would be feasible to have additional terms, like "twentyophilia" and so on, for describing the diagnosis of the person whose idealized partner, as represented in the lovemap, has no birthdays but instead remains forever at a particular stage of youthful maturity. In the current nosology, however, there is no terminology for chronophilias that may exist between ephebo­philia and gerontophilia*, the final diagnosis in the chronological sequence. In gerontophilia, the idealized partner represented in the lovemap of an adolescent or a young adult is one who belongs in age to the parental generation or, in some cases, to the grandparental generation. Such a partnership, though not illegal, may be stigmatized in some social circles.

Pedophilic Genius

There are two 19th-century geniuses in children's literature who, if they lived today, would risk imprisonment, possibly for a lifetime, on accusations of ostensible sexual child abuse as pedophiles. One is the Oxford University mathematician Reverend Charles Dodgson [1832-1898], better known as Lewis Carroll, the author' of Alice's Adventures in Wonderland and Through the Looking Glass. Both books were written for one of the young girls to whom he was attached. The other genius is Sir James Barrie [1860-1937], the author of Peter Pan.

Lewis Carroll's devotion was to prepubertal girls. From 1856, when he purchased his first camera, until he gave up photography in 1880, he befriended the mothers of several young girls and charmed the women into giving him permission to obtain an image of their daughters' naked innocence—this was an era when young children might be seen naked at the seaside. Though he was one of the earliest portrait photographers of adults as well as children, his reputation was local, not international, like his fame as an author (Cohen, 1978).

Before he died, he destroyed his own copies of nude portraits of young girls. The surviving copies are those that he had given to the girls' mothers. Four of them, to which Carroll had had oil-painted color and scenery added, are reproduced in Cohen (1978). There is no known

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evidence as to whether his devoted fondness for his little girl friends was or was not ever expressed in physical caresses.

Of Sir James Barrie it is known that, as a boy of 6, he was indelibly affected by his mother's prolonged mourning for her favorite son, David, who had died in a skating accident at age 13. Barrie became the boy who never grew up and who became intensely attached to young boys. As a writer in London, on his way to literary fame at the end of the 19th century, he became accepted in the household of the Llewelyn-Davies family in the role of an honorary uncle of the five sons.

At the outset, he adored in particular the oldest son, George, aged 5, and subsequently, Michael, the fourth son. While still young, each parent became mysteriously stricken with a lethal illness, ostensibly cancer but possibly poisoning. The father died first and, three years later, the mother. After her death, Barrie mistranscribed one word in her will, substituting his own name, Jimmy, for Jenny, so as to ensure for himself legal guardianship of the five sons. George was killed in battle in France in 1915. Michael was drowned with a fellow student at Oxford in 1921 in what was presumed to be a lovers' suicide pact (Birkin, 1979).

In 1901, Barrie invented the character Peter Pan as a projection of himself. The character would achieve instantaneous fame on opening night, December 27, 1904, in the dramatic play that bore his name. In 1901, however, the character was part of a game named The Boy Castaways, the stage setting was Black Lake, a large and shallow pond on Barrie's summer estate, and the character's supporting cast was three young boys, the oldest of the Llewelyn-Davieses' sons (Birkin, 1979).

The genius of Sir James Barrie, like that of Lewis Carroll a generation before him, confronts society with a question for which it as yet has no answer: How great is too great a price to pay for the literary works of pedophilic genius? The appearance of such works, though unpredictable, is contingent upon nature's unfathomable scheme of things whereby, in some people, the phylism of parent/child bonding attaches to the phylism of lover/lover bonding. In the era of Carroll and Barrie, the wisdom of nature's scheme of things was tolerated, whereas today it is not. In the current era of nuclear physics, space flight, and microchip computers, pedophilic attachment has become a crime.

Six Categories of Paraphilia and Their Associated Grand Stratagems

As was explained previously, pedophilia and ephebophilia are among the eligibilic/stigmatic paraphilias, within which category they are classified as chronophilias. The eligibilic/stigmatic category is one of six categories of paraphilia, each of which incorporates a grand stratagem whereby lust and carnality are dissociated from love and romantic affection. Each of these six

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grand stratagems has a sexuoerotic application in the paraphilias and, also, an application in the nonsexuoerotic cultural heritage of Western society. Thus sacrifice and expiation apply to religion; marauding and predation to warfare; mercantilism and venality to commerce; fetishes and talismans to magic; eligibility and stigmata to kinship; and solicitation and allure to fashion. Whereas these stratagems are acceptable in the nonsexuoerotic aspects of Western society, they are not acceptable where sex and eroticism are involved. However, they become acceptable to the paraphile, and they allow him or her to partake of sexuoerotic experiences of lust, even while failing to include love.

The significance to paraphilia of each of the six grand stratagems is as follows.

The sacrificial/expiatory stratagem requires reparation or atonement for the sin of lust by way of penance and sacrifice. The extreme sacrifice is lust murder—erotophonophilia* when the partner is sacrificed and autassassinophilia when one stage-manages the sacrifice of oneself. Excluding death, there are varying degrees, from major to minor, of sadomasochistic sacrifice and penance for the sin of lust.

The marauding/predation stratagem requires that, because saintly lovers do not consent to the sin of lust, a partner in lust must be stolen, abducted, or coerced by force. The extreme case of this stratagem is the syndrome of assaultive and violent paraphilic rape (raptophilia* or biastophilia*). The spectrum of coercion ranges from major to minor. In statutory rape, there may be no coercion, but a consensual and pairbonded love affair, one of the partners being below the legal age of consent.

The mercantile/venal stratagem requires that sinful lust be traded, bartered, or purchased and paid for, because saintly lovers do not engage consensually in its free exchange. The very existence of this stratagem gets masked by reason of its place in the orgasm trade. Nonetheless, there are some hustlers and prostitutes, as well as their customers, who are paraphiles whose paraphilia is chrematistophilia*—marketing and purchasing sex. Some chrematistophiles who are not in the commercial orgasm trade pretend with play money or have the partner impersonate a whore or a hustler and watch while the partner interacts with a third person. Some set themselves up to be victims of blackmail or robbery, and some are blackmailers or robbers.

The fetishistic/talismanic stratagem spares the saintly lover from the sin of lust by substituting a token, fetish, or talisman for the lover. Fetishes are predominantly either smelly (in olfactophilia*) or touchy-feely (in hyphephilia*), and both kinds are derived from the similarity in smell and feel to parts of the human body. Devotion to the fetish may be all-consuming or minor.

The eligibilic/stigmatic stratagem requires that the partner in lust be, metaphorically, a pagan infidel--disparate in religion, race, color, nationality, social class, or age from the saintly lovers of one's own social

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group. The disparity in morphophilia pertains to disparity of bodily appearance, and as explained previously, the disparity in chronophilia relates to age. An exceptional example of morphophilia is acrotomophilia, in which the partner must have an amputation stump. The age-range limits of chronophilia are infantophilia/nepiophilia and gerontophilia, respectively.

The solicitational/allurative stratagem protects the saint by displacing from the act of copulation in the acceptive phase to an invitational gesture or overture of the proceptive phase. This behavior might be called in the vernacular "the paraphilia of the cockteaser" or, in gay argot, "of the loving queen." Among primates, exhibiting the genitals and inspecting them are prototypic invitations to copulate. In paraphilic exhibitionism of the penis (peodeiktophilia*) and in voyeurism* (being a Peeping Tom), the preliminary overture displaces the main act in lustful importance. Displacement in this stratagem is the counterpart of inclusion of something in the other five stratagems.

In addition to these six grand stratagems of paraphilia,

there is a tellite stratagem that may function within the orbit of any one of the other six. In the vocabulary of the theater, it is the stratagem of "the understudy," the one who, in case of emergency, is prepared to replace the leading actor and play the actor's role.

In the course of growing up, children who have no direct experience of the theater know about taking the role of the other, for it is an intrinsic aspect of childhood play. In addition, they hear stories of people who heroically substitute themselves and die to rescue another. They also become acquainted with this theme as a basic tenet of Christianity.

As a stratagem of paraphilia, the subrogation/understudy stratagem is one in which someone who represents saintly love is rescued from the defilement of lust by being replaced by an understudy, or subrogate, who becomes defiled instead. The understudy is oneself.

The subrogation/understudy stratagem has different manifestations. It applies to some highly specific cases of paraphilic adultery. To illustrate, Joe, the adulterer, saves his own lust from extinction, but only on the condition that, by having adulterous sex with Jill, he is a stand-in for her abstinent husband, who recoils from being defiled by lust. As another example, there are some highly specific cases of paraphilic incest in adolescent girls in which the only condition whereby such a girl is entitled to her own lust is that she become a stand-in for her mother, who, otherwise, would suffer unwanted defilement by the lust of the man, the girl's father or stepfather, whose lust her mother has renounced. This same girl eventually may run away from home to become a prostitute. She may also become pairbonded as a lesbian while earning her living by sexual service to men.

It may not be a daughter but a son who is the stand-in, saving his mother from the defilement of his father's lust by diverting it to himself in a relationship that is both incestuous and homosexual. In that case, the

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subrogation/understudy stratagem entails a degree of gender crosscoding, or transposition, in the son that may be full-fledged transsexualism* or gynemimesis* at one extreme, or episodic transvestophilia*,or entirely noneffeminated male/male bonding at the other extreme. Homosexual incest between a son and his father or stepfather protects the boy's mother from the lust of only one man. However, insofar as the son becomes the recipient of the lust of other males, he diverts their lust away from other women, as well. In addition, he himself does not defile the saintly love of a woman, because his own lust is directed toward males. The logical counterpart may apply to female homosexuality.


In society and in the criminal justice system, there are the prevalent assumptions that pedophilia is a voluntary orientation and a product of jaded depravity and that the next step will be sadistic assault and molestation ending up in lust murder. These assumptions are faulty and are based on rare and sporadic cases in which there is an overlapping of pedophilia, which is a paraphilia of the eligibilic/stigmatic type, with a paraphilia of the sacrificial/expiatory type. Pedophilia, both androphilic and gynephilic, is its own syndrome, unaccompanied by sacrificial or expiatory cruelty.

One makes these kinds of distinctions regarding pedophilia first by examining this syndrome in relation to several concepts, such as the lovemap, the phylism, pairbonding, and paraphilia. Then, one broadens the perspective by enumerating the characteristics of each paraphilia, by using these characteristics to devise categories of paraphilia, of which there currently are six, and finally, by determining the category in which pedophilia seems to lie.

Thus, one can attempt to show the relationship of pedophilia to other paraphilias and to the behavior that is normative in the eyes of Western society. These efforts, however, are only minimal in the scheme of what is needed if science is to understand and treat the pedophilia syndrome--and all paraphilias. (See Money, 1987b, for a review of the author's treatment guidelines). Indeed, if the levels of social tolerance and funding for research into pedophilia and the other paraphilias remain as low as they are at present, scientific knowledge will remain as it is now—rudimentary—and science's approach and perspective will continue to be narrow.


The prevalent legal and public conceptions that a paraphilia is a morally depraved and degenerate sexual preference and that it is voluntarily chosen and, therefore, is deserving of disciplinary action are erroneous.

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Because the respective levels of social tolerance and funding of research into the origins of paraphilia are very low, sexology is still at the prescientific stage of debating whether paraphilias are biologically or socially acquired—another version of the oversimplified and discredited nature-versus-nurture debate.

This author's way of circumventing the debate is to say that there are in the human species phylogenetic building blocks, or phylisms, that in the course of individual sexuoerotic development are capable of being diverted from their usual expression, so as to become entrained to sexuoerotic arousal. In the case of pedophilia, the phylism of parent/child pairbonding becomes diverted and entrained to sexuoerotic, lover/lover pairbonding. The pedophile's attachment to a child represents a merger of parental and erotic love.

This merger originates, at least in part, in the childhood of the future pedophile during the developmental period when the lovemap is differen­tiating. In the human species, this period is the stage of juvenile sexual rehearsal play, a stage that is normal in primate development. If sexual rehearsal play is subject to being thwarted or warped, then the outcome may be a permanent thwarting or warping of the lovemap and, possibly, the subsequent appearance of pedophilia or some other paraphilia.

The full catalogue of interventions that may create the lovemap of a pedophile has yet to be ascertained. Though it is highly likely that the lovemap development of some children is more resistant, and of other children, less resistant, to alteration, it still must be confirmed that some children, perhaps at a critical life phase, are more vulnerable than others to developing as pedophiles. In some, though not all, instances of pedophilia, it is possible to retrieve a juvenile history of a Catch-22 entrapment in a dramatically intense, conspirational, or traumatizing sexual affair with an older partner.

If the development of the lovemap subsequently fails to progress in synchrony with chronological age, then the individual remains erotosexually juvenile and is attracted to juveniles. The sex of the original older partner most likely determines whether the subsequent pedophilic attraction will be gynephilic or androphilic.

However, a history of being the juvenile partner of a pedophile does not automatically dictate a future history of pedophilia in adulthood. Being entrapped as a juvenile by a pedophile is what jeopardizes the outcome. Among the tribal Sambia of NewGuinea (discussed previously in this chapter), where there is no entrapment, a period of pedophilic experience in childhood may be fully compatible with normophilia* in adulthood.

Based on its roots in the Greek language, "pedophilia" means "child love." Two meanings of love are telescoped into the one word. One meaning is love as in parental love and pairbonding between parent and child. The other meaning is love as in making love and the sexual bonding of two partners, one of which is a juvenile. The two meanings share in common the reciprocality of bonding between two people.

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acrotomophilia: a paraphilia of the eligibilic/stigmatic type in which sexuoerotic arousal and facilitation or attainment of orgasm are responsive to and dependent upon having a partner who is an amputee (from the Greek, akron, extremity + tom?, a cutting + -philia). An acrotomophile is erotically excited by the stump(s) of the amputee partner. The reciprocal paraphilic condition, namely, self-amputation, is apotemnophilia.

autassassinophilia: a paraphilia of the sacrificial/expiatory type in which sexuoerotic arousal and facilitation or attainment of orgasm are responsive to and dependent upon stage-managing the possibility of one's own masochistic death by murder (from the Greek, autos, self + assassin + -philia). The reciprocal condition is lust murder, or erotophonophilia.

biastophilia: a paraphilia of the sacrificial/expiatory type in which sexuoerotic arousal and facilitation or attainment of orgasm are responsive to and dependent upon the surprise attack and continued violent assault of a nonconsenting, terrified, and struggling stranger (from the Greek, biastes, rape or forced violation + -philia). Acquiescence on the part of the partner induces a fresh round of threat and violence from the biastophile. Biastophilia may be homosexual as well as heterosexual but is predominantly the latter, whether the biastophile is male or female. There is no term for the reciprocal paraphilic condition, namely, stage-managing one's own brutal rape by

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a stranger, which probably exists only in attenuated form and rarely gets transmuted from fantasy into actuality. Synonym: raptophilia.

chrematistophilia: a paraphilia of the mercantile/venal type in which sexuoerotic arousal and facilitation or attainment of orgasm are responsive to and dependent upon being charged or forced to pay, or being robbed by the sexual partner for sexual services (from the Greek, chremistes, moneydealer + -philia). There is no technical term for the reciprocal paraphilic condition of forced charging or robbing.

chronophilia: one of a group of paraphilias of the eligibilic/stigmatic type in which the paraphile’s sexuoerotic age is discordant with his or her actual chronological age and is concordant with the chronological age of the partner, as in, respectively, infantilism and nepiophilia; juvenilism and pedophilia; adolescentilism and ephebophilia; and gerontilism and gerontophilia (from the Greek, chronos, time + -philia).

coprophilia: a paraphilia of the fetishistic/talismanic type in which sexuoerotic arousal and facilitation or attainment of orgasm are responsive to and dependent upon being smeared with and/or ingesting feces (from the Greek, kopros, dung + -philia). There is no technical term for the reciprocal paraphilic conditions of defecating in the mouth or over the body of the partner. See also urophilia. Synonym: coprolagnia (from the Greek kopros, dung + lagneia, lust).

ephebophilia: a paraphilia of the eligibilic/stigmatic type in which sexuoerotic arousal and facilitation or attainment of orgasm in an adult male or female are responsive to and dependent upon having a partner who is postpubertal and adolescent (from the Greek, ephebos, a postpubertal young person + -philia). The age of the younger partner distinguishes ephebophilia from infantophilia/nepiophilia and pedophilia. The ‘technical term for the reciprocal paraphilic condition in which an older person impersonates an adolescent is paraphilic adolescentilism. See also gerontophilia.

erotophonophilia: a paraphilia of the sacrificial/expiatory type in which sexuoerotic arousal and facilitation or attainment of orgasm are responsive to and dependent upon stage-managing and carrying out the murder of an unsuspecting sexual partner (from the Greek, eros, love + phonein, to murder + -philia). The erotophonophile’s orgasm coincides with the expiration of the partner. The reciprocal paraphiliccondition is autassassinophila. Synonym: lust murder.

fugue: an altered state of consciousness in which what is happening now is unrelated to or dissociated from what had happened then, in the preceding phase of existence; as, for example, in the alternating manifestations of dual or multiple personality (from the Latin, fuga, a flight).

gerontophilia: a paraphilia of the eligibilic/stigmatic type in which sexuoerotic arousal and facilitation or attainment of orgasm are

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responsive to and dependent upon having a partner who is parental or grandparental in age (from the Greek, ger?s, old age + -philia). Its parallels are infantophilia/nepiophilia, pedophilia, and ephebophilia. The technical term for the reciprocal paraphilic condition in which a younger person must impersonate a parent or grandparent is paraphilic gerontilism.

gynemimesis: a syndrome of female impersonation in a natal male who is able to relate sexuoerotically exclusively with men and who may be hormonally but not surgically sex reassigned. It is a syndrome of gender transposition, not a paraphilia.

hyphephilia: one of the paraphilias of the fetishistic/talismanic type in which the sexuoerotic stimulus is associated with the touching or rubbing or the feel of skin, hair, leather, fur, and fabric, especially if worn in proximity to erotically significant parts of the body (from the Greek, hyph?, web + -philia).

infantophilia: a paraphilia of the eligibilic/stigmatic type in which sexuoerotic arousal and the facilitation or attainment of orgasm in a postpubertal adolescent or adult male or female are responsive to and dependent upon having an infant as a partner. The reciprocal paraphilic condition is paraphilic infantilism. See nepiophilia.

klismaphilia: a paraphilia of the fetishistic/talismanic type in which sexuoerotic arousal and facilitation or attainment of orgasm are responsive to and dependent upon being given an enema by the partner (from the Greek, klusma, enema + -philia). There is no technical term for the reciprocal paraphilic condition, namely, of being the enema giver. Klismaphilia may be adjunctive to rubber fetishism or to bondage and discipline.

lovemap: a developmental representation, or template, in the mind and in the brain depicting the idealized lover and the idealized program of sexuoerotic activity projected in imagery or actually engaged in with that lover.

morphophilia: a paraphilia of the eligibilic/stigmatic type in which sexuoerotic arousal and facilitation or attainment of orgasm are responsive to and dependent upon having a partner whose body characteristics are selectively particularized, prominent, or different from one's own (from the Greek, morph?, form + -philia).

nepiophilia: a paraphilia of the eligibilic/stigmatic type in which sexuoerotic arousal and the facilitation or attainment of orgasm in a postpubertal adolescent or adult male or female are responsive to and dependent upon having as a partner an infant wearing diapers (from the Greek, nepon, infant + -philia). The reciprocal paraphilic condition is autonepiophilia, or paraphilic infantilism, impersonating a baby. The parallel paraphilias are ephebophilia, gerontophilia, and pedophilia.

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normophilia: a condition of being erotosexually in conformity with the standard as dictated by customary, religious, or legal authority (from the Latin, norma, carpenter's square + -philia).

olfactophilia: a paraphilia of the fetishistic/talismanic type in which the sexuoerotic stimulus is associated with smell and with odors emanating from parts of the body, especially the sexual and adjacent parts (from the Latin, olfacere, to smell + -philia).

paraphilia: a condition occurring in men and women of being compulsively responsive to and obligatively dependent on an unusual and personally or socially unacceptable stimulus, perceived or in the ideation and imagery of fantasy, for the optimal initiation and maintenance of erotosexual arousal and the facilitation or attainment of orgasm (from the Greek, para-, altered + -philia). Paraphilic imagery may be replayed in fantasy during solo masturbation or during intercourse with a partner. In legal terminology, a paraphilia is a perversion or deviancy; and in the vernacular, it is kinky or bizarre sex. Antonym: normophilia.

pedophilia: a paraphilia of the eligibilic/stigmatic type in which sexuoerotic arousal and the facilitation or attainment of orgasm in a postpubertal adolescent or adult male or female are responsive to and dependent upon having a juvenile partner of prepubertal or peripubertal developmental status (from the Greek, paidos, child + -philia). Pedophile relationships may be heterosexual or homosexual or, more rarely, bisexual. They may take place in imagery or actuality or both. The technical term for the reciprocal paraphilic condition in which an older person impersonates a juvenile is paraphilic juvenilism. The age and developmental status of the partner distinguishes pedophilia from infantophilia/nepiophilia and ephebophilia.

peodeiktophilia: a paraphilia of the solicitational/allurative type in which sexuoerotic arousal and facilitation or attainment of orgasm are responsive to and dependent upon evoking surprise, dismay, shock, or panic from a stranger by illicitly exhibiting the penis, either flaccid or erect, with orgasm induced or postponed (from the Greek, peos, penis + deiknunain, to show + -philia). There is no technical term for the reciprocal paraphilic condition, namely, staring at a penis, which is subsumed under the broader concept of voyeurism. Voyeurism is the reciprocal condition of exhibitionism, which is a paraphilia that is similar to peodeiktophilia in that any erotic part of the body, including the genitalia, is exhibited by either a male or a female.

-philia: a word ending meaning love or erotic and sexual love of a person, thing, or activity (from the Greek, philos, loving, dear).

phylism: a newly coined term (Money, 1983) used to refer to an element or unit of response or behavior of an organism that belongs to an individual through its phylogenetic heritage as a member of its species. raptophilia: (from the Latin, rapere, to seize + -philia). See biastophilia.

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transsexualism: the condition of crossing over to live full time in the role of the other sex, with hormonal and surgical sex reassignment (from the Latin, trans, across + sexual). The term signifies a method of treatment and rehabilitation rather than a diagnostic entity. There are different biographical antecedents to sex reassignment, one of which may be paraphilic transvestism (transvestophilia [see next entry]). Transsexualism itself is not a paraphilia.

transvestophilia: a paraphilia of the fetishistic/talismanic type in which sexuoerotic arousal and facilitation or attainment of orgasm are responsive to and dependent upon wearing clothes, especially underwear, of the other sex (from the Latin, trans, across + vestis, garment + -philia). The syndrome is believed to occur predominantly in men and seldom, if ever, in women. There is no technical term for the reciprocal paraphilic condition, namely, being sexuoerotically dependent on a cross-dressed partner. Transvestism is a synonym for this paraphilic syndrome, but it also refers to the act of cross-dressing,

urophilia: a paraphilia of the fetishistic/talismanic type in which sexuoerotic arousal and facilitation or attainment of orgasm are responsive to and dependent upon being urinated upon and/or swallowing urine (from the Greek, ouron, urine + -philia). There is no technical term for the reciprocal condition of urinating on or in the mouth of the partner. See also coprophilia.

voyeurism: a paraphilia of the solicitational/allurative type in which sexuoerotic arousal and facilitation or attainment of orgasm are responsive to and dependent upon the risk of being discovered while covertly or illicitly watching a stranger disrobing or engaging in sexual activity (from the French, voir, to look at). The reciprocal paraphilic condition is exhibitionism. See also peodeiktophilia.


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