Subject: s sexology

Malón, Agustín; Quotes from: Pedophilia, A Diagnosis in Search of a Disorder; Arch Sex Behav; 41, 1083 - 1097, Feb 25 2012
This article presents a critical review of the recent controversies concerning the diagnosis of pedophilia in the context of the preparation of the fifth edition of theDSM.
The analysis focuses basically on the relationship between pedophilia and the currentDSM-IV-TR’s definition ofmental disorder. Scholars appear not to share numerous basic assumptions ranging from their underlying ideas about what constitutes a mental disorder to the role of psychiatry in modern society, including irreconcilable theories about human sexuality, which interfere with reaching any kind of a consensus as to what the psychiatric status of pedophilia
should be.
It is questioned if the diagnosis of pedophilia containedin the DSM is more forensic than therapeutic, focusing rather on the dangers inherent in the condition of pedophilia (dangerous dysfunction) than on its negative effects for the subject (harmful dysfunction).
The apparent necessity of the diagnosis of pedophilia in the DSM is supported, but the basis for this diagnosis is uncertain.
Kendall-Tackett, Kathleen A., Williams Linda Meyer, & Finkelhor David; Impact of Sexual Abuse on Children A Review and Synthesis of Recent Empirical Studies; Psychological Bulletin; 113(1), 164-180
ABSTRACT
A review of 45 studies clearly demonstrated that sexually abused children had more symptoms than nonabused children, with abuse accounting for 15—45% of the variance. Fears, posttraumatic stress disorder, behavior problems, sexualized behaviors, and poor self-esteem occurred most frequently among a long list of symptoms noted, but no one symptom characterized a majority of sexually abused children. Some symptoms were specific to certain ages, and approximately one third of victims had no symptoms. Penetration, the duration and frequency of the abuse, force, the relationship of the perpetrator to the child, and maternal support affected the degree of symptomatology. About two thirds of the victimized children showed recovery during the first 12—18 months. The findings suggest the absence of any specific syndrome in children who have been sexually abused and no single traumatizing process.
Padding, R.; Pedophilia and Conflict
This research is centered on pedophiles and their place in Dutch society and based on the question: To what extent is there a conflict due to the presence of pedophiles in Dutch society?

Data was gathered and analyzed through

a qualitative content analysis of newspaper articles and
semi-structured interviews with pedophiles.

In this research pedophiles are defined as people with a sexual age orientation directed towards children younger than sixteen years old. A sexual orientation does not only revolve around sexual feelings, but romantic feelings as well.

Two main results were found.

First, newspapers present a generalized image of pedophiles as people who have engaged or are likely to engage in a form of pedosexuality. This overgeneralization leads to the formation of a stigmatized stereotype, that of a criminal sexual child abuser.

Second, the respondents experience that stigma in their daily life, since they do not feel accepted by society. Instead they experience structural conflict to some extent in the form of unequal life chances. The fact that they are unable to speak out about their sexual identity can lead to difficulties in the social life, in asking for protection and professional help, and in living without fear of discovery. The latter is a form of latent violence.

This research builds further on both classic and recent literature, yet is innovating in the sense that it connects conflict studies to the concept of pedophilia. Conflict is being used as a fluid and broad concept, instead of keeping it static and narrow. This research shows how conflict studies can be relevant in addressing conflict that is not directly visible, since it helps in understanding societal developments and structures.
Houtepen, Jenny A. B. M., Sijtsema Jelle J., & Bogaerts Stefan; Being Sexually Attracted to Minors; Journal of Sex & Marital Therapy; ; 1-21(22 June 2015), , Jun 22 2015
This article aims to provide more insight into pedophilic attraction and risk and protective factors for offending in non-clinical pedophiles.

Fifteen participants were interviewed about sexuality, coping, and sexual self-regulation. Many participants struggled with acknowledging pedophilic interest in early puberty and experienced psychological difficulties as a result. Furthermore, many committed sex offenses during adolescence when they were still discovering their feelings.

Early recognition of risk factors and early start of interventions seem vital in preventing offending. Moreover, results suggest that risk for offending can be diminished by creating more openness about pedophilia and by providing pedophiles with social support and control.
Houtepen, Jenny A. B. M., Sijtsema Jelle J., & Bogaerts Stefan; References at Being Sexual Attracted to Minors; Journal of Sex & Marital Therapy; 1-21(22 June 2015), 
References at "Being Sexually Attracted to Minors: Sexual Development, Coping With Forbidden Feelings, and Relieving Sexual Arousal in Self-Identified Pedophiles.
Gieles, Frans E. J.; Sympathetic research in the wrong frame
A renewing view on people with pedophile feelings who massively are willing and able to control themselves … is seen through the spectacles or within the frame of the more familiar ‘good old’ offender-model, just the people that could not control themselves.
Adshead, Gwen, & Mezey Gillian; Ethical issues in the psychotherapeutic treatment of paedophiles: Whose side are you on?; The Journal of Forensic Psychiatry; 4(2), 361-368
Abstract:
Although there has been some published literature addressing ethical issues in the chemical treatment of sex offenders (Bowden, 1991 ; Greenland, 1988) there has been relatively little discussion about the ethics of offering psychotherapeutic treatments of various kinds. This article addresses several ethical issues that arise in the context of the community treatment of sex offenders against children, based on the authors’ experience of working in time-limited groups with child sex abusers (Mezey et al., 1991a). We would suggest that the ethical issues that arise in the treatment of paedophiles are different from, and additional to, those encountered in the treatment of other types of offender. We address these issues under a number of sub-headings.
Conclusion:

As is common with ethical issues, more questions are raised than can be easily answered. This does not make discussion fruitless; rather it raises the quality of the debate. We argue that important ethical decisions are being made all the time in relation to the treatment of sex offenders. There is a real danger, however, that, like the original offences, such issues will be minimized, distorted and denied. We would suggest that workers need to achieve a balance of interests between the offender and the victim. To support one is not to harm the other.
Gieles, Frans; A Comment on Seto's "Is Pedophilia a Sexual Orientation?", Jun 29 2015
Seto's proposal to view pedophilia as 'being attracted to ..', thus as a feeling -- as an orientation similar to heterosexuality, bisexuality, and homosexuality -- may be a first step towards humanizing those of our fellow human beings who have such feelings.
However ...
Thus ...
Moreover ...
Seto, Michael C.; Is Pedophilia a Sexual Orientation?; Arch Sex Behav; 41, 231–236
In this article, I address the question of whether pedophilia in men can be construed as a male sexual orientation, and the implications for thinking of it in this way for scientific research, clinical practice, and public policy.
I begin by defining pedophilia and sexual orientation, and then compare pedophilia (as a potential sexual orientation with regard to age) to sexual orientations with regard to gender (heterosexuality, bisexuality, and homosexuality), on the bases of age of onset, correlations with sexual and romantic behavior, and stability over time. I conclude with comments about the potential social and legal implications of conceptualizing pedophilia as a type of sexual orientation in males.

Gieles, Frans; Born as a pedophile?
A critical comment on
“Minor Physical Anomalies as a Window into the Prenatal Origins of Pedophilia”, by Fazio, Rachel L., Dyshniku Fiona, Murray Michelle E., Lykins Amy D., & Cantor James M.; Archives of Sexual Behavior; Jun 10 2015.
These authors report that they have found correlations between specific physical anomalies that are supposed to date from an early stage in utero, and what they call "pedophiles".
The conclude that the origins of 'pedophilia' also must date from that early stage in utero.
Tha author of this Comment argues the weakness of that study, and thus of its conclusion.
In an Epilogue he argues an alternative way to cope with the phenomenon 'pedophilic feelings', for person and for society.
Fazio, Rachel L., Dyshniku Fiona, Murray Michelle E., Lykins Amy D., & Cantor James M.; Minor Physical Anomalies as a Window into the Prenatal Origins of Pedophilia; Archives of Sexual Behavior; 2015(564), , Jun 10 2015
Evidence is steadily accumulating to support a neurodevelopmental basis for pedophilia. This includes increased incidence of non-right-handedness, which is a result primarily of prenatal neural development and solidified very early in life. Minor physical anomalies (MPAs; superficial deviations from typical morphological development, such as un-detached earlobes) also develop only prenatally, suggesting them as another potential marker of atypical physiological development during the prenatal period among pedophiles.

This study administered the Waldrop Physical Anomaly Scale to assess the prevalence of MPAs in a clinical sample of men referred for assessment following a sexual assault, or another illegal or clinically significant sexual behavior.

Significant associations emerged between MPA indices and indicators of pedophilia, including penile responses to depictions of children, number of child victims, and possession of child pornography. Moreover, greater sexual attraction to children was associated with an elevated craniofacial-to-peripheral anomalies ratio. The overall sample demonstrated a greater number of MPAs relative to prior samples of individuals with schizophrenia as well as to healthy controls.
Jahnke, Sara, & Hoyer Juergen; Stigmatization of People with Pedophilia: A Blind Spot in Stigma Research; International Journal of Sexual Health
Stigmatization restricts people’s opportunities in life and has severe consequences on mental health and psychological wellbeing. This article focuses on stigmatization research on pedophilia. Based on an extensive literature search, it reviews studies that have empirically determined lay theories, stereotypes, prejudices, and discrimination against people with pedophilia, as well as the effect of stigma on this group. The review reveals a scarcity of empirical studies on the subject.

While the majority of studies give at least an indication that stigma against people with pedophilia is highly prevalent, we also identified severe methodological limitations and a lack of a unifying and systematic research agenda.

We discuss the need for more theory-driven, rigorous, and representative empirical studies and propose perspectives and requirements for the scientific study of stigma against people with pedophilia.
Money, John; Pedophilia: A Specific Instance of New Phylism Theory ...; 18 pp
In society and in the criminal justice system, there are the prevalent assumptions that pedophilia is a voluntary orientation and a product of jaded depravity and that the next step will be sadistic assault and molestation ending up in lust murder. These assumptions are faulty and are based on rare and sporadic cases in which there is an overlapping of pedophilia, which is a paraphilia of the eligibilic/stigmatic type, with a paraphilia of the sacrificial/expiatory type. Pedophilia, both androphilic and gynephilic, is its own syndrome, unaccompanied by sacrificial or expiatory cruelty.
. . .
The pedophile's attachment to a child represents a merger of parental and erotic love.
. . .
Based on its roots in the Greek language, "pedophilia" means "child love." Two meanings of love are telescoped into the one word. One meaning is love as in parental love and pairbonding between parent and child. The other meaning is love as in making love and the sexual bonding of two partners, one of which is a juvenile. The two meanings share in common the reciprocality of bonding between two people.
Kutschinsky, Alexander; Russian Prison Encyclopedia
Description of a Russian jail, seen through the eyes of a prisoner, especially those of the lowest cast in the intern hierarchy according to the harsh informal rules. Translated from Russian.
In a Russian cell tens of people are living together. The most despised caste of a zone is pulled-downs and "obízhennys". This caste is made of passive homosexuals, sexual offenders and victims of zone violence.
Pulled down are called "petúkhs" [...]. There must always been a separate territory for them, so called pethúkhs' corner". [...] Sometimes they are made to produce screens and isolate themselves from the other. In dining-rooms there are special tables and benches just for petúkhs. If some normal prisoner sits in a petukhs' place he'll become "contaged" and loose universal esteem.
The pulled down is charged with the most disgusting work: [...]
Most of the pulled down cannot stand and commit a suicide.
Schuster, Filip; Every fifth boy and man is pedophilic or hebephilic, Sep 24 2014
Abstract

A meta-analysis of all seven relevant phallometric studies reveals that 22% of normal men show greater or equal sexual arousal to child stimuli (individuals up to 13 years old) than to adult stimuli.
Combined results of two of these studies reveal male prevalence rates of about 3% for pedophilia (mostly sexually aroused by prepubescents) and about 16% for hebephilia (mostly sexually aroused by pubescents). Details of these studies are described, and implications of the results for sexual science and society are discussed.
(ed.), Jay Feierman R.; Pedophilia: Biosocial Dimensions; 600 pp
Most of the lay and professional literature although voluminous, reflect a narrow anthropo-, ethno-, and chrono-centrism that precludes any real understanding of the topic with anything more than the preconceptions of our times. [...]
[...] This volume adds to this data base by including new, biosocial contribution from the perspectives of history, political science, sexology, biology, primatology, anthropology, experimental and developmental psychology, and psychiatry. What results is a transspecies, transcultural, and transhistorical perspective that gives new biosocial insights into the roots of pedophilia as the phenomenon is found in contemporary industrialized societies.
Naudé, Jonelle; Reconstructing Paedophilia; 133 pp
There is a growing need for research to facilitate a better understanding of paedophilia. This study aims to make a contribution in this regard by providing an analysis of current discourses in paedophilia research as well as a phenomenological exploration of how the male paedophile constructs his close relationships with children.
In an attempt to circumvent these obstacles, it is argued that the psychological need to form close relationships is a universal one. On this basis the central components of close relationships are presented as a conceptual framework. These components are then applied to an exploratory phenomenological investigation and analysis of the ways in which three paedophilic men interpret, understand and construct their relationships with children.
The-Gay-Left-Collective; Paedophilia Examined
For convenience we define a paedophile as someone who is emotionally and sexually attracted towards children, that is towards pre-pubertal people.

The Gay Left Collective, like many others in the gay movement, has had many discussions about paedophilia. We do not feel it would be a justified position to discuss adult-child sexual relationships simply on libertarian grounds. It is no good merely to say, people feel like that, feeling is valid, let it all happen, right on. We know that feelings are socially constructed and we must view all feelings with great suspicion and scrutiny.

There is an argument that has been developed from some quarters of the gay movement and the left which suggests that children are sexual beings like adults and that since they are oppressed by parents, teachers etc and no paedophile experience could be any more harmful, therefore paedophilic relationships are alright. This is a false and idealist arguement.

Conservative thought dismisses any idea of childhood sexual feelings and experiences and much public opinion is reticent in acknowledging their existence. At the other extreme are those who see childhood sexual feelings as being identical to adult ones. Both are wrong.

Paedophilia in many cases is a matter of identity rather than actual sexual activity, and many of those adults who have sexual experiences with children would not in fact identify themselves as paedophiles.

It is important to stress that the paedophile issue is not one of molestation. No-one can defend sexual violence in any situation where one party is unwilling. It is in a crucial sense an issue of consent — an appallingly difficult concept to define in this particular context.
Revell, Arlynn, Vansteenwegen Alfons, Nicholas Lionel, & Dumont Kitty; Unwanted early sexual experiences (UESE) and relationship adjustment among students in committed relationships; Electronic Journal of Human Sexuality; 11, , Oct 23 2008
This study examined the association between unwanted early sexual experiences (UESE also referred to as “child sexual abuse” (CSA)) and relationship adjustment among first year students (South Africans = 1,081 and Belgians = 2,608) and the association of the severity of the experience with relationship adjustment. Of South African women 31.3% (231) and 14.2% (226) of Belgian women reported UESE. Of South African men 56.4% (189) and 12.3% (125) of Belgian men reported UESE. Of these respondents 39.6% (1464) were in a committed relationship and of these respondents 20.1 % (n = 295) reported UESE.
No statistically significant differences were found between those students with less severe experiences vs. more severe experiences with regard to the relationship adjustment.
Tsang, Daniel C.; Taboo Sex Research: Thinking Outside the Box; 10 pp, Aug 31 2013
Foreword to a collection of essays on Censoring Sex Research, reviewing recent history of sex research censorship.
Hubbard, Thomas K., & Verstraete Beert; Censoring Sex Research: The Debate over Male Intergenerational Relations; 368 pp
This volume sheds light on one of the most explosive episodes of censure of academic scholarship in recent decades. Bruce Rind, a former psychology professor at Temple University, investigated sexual relations between male adults and adolescents through history and across cultures, from highly institutionalized relationships in Ancient Greece and Rome, to 33 contemporary cultures including the USA, and among various species. His conclusions that these relations, when consensual, are not always negative was radical, but based in his research findings. Even before publication of an invited article on the topic, he was subjected to intensive attacks, censured, and censored. This book presents a substantially extended version of Rind’s original, unpublished article, plus 12 scholarly responses to his work that argue for or against Rind’s conclusions or offer useful context on his work. For anyone interested in sex research and the academic freedom issues surrounding it, whether supportive of or vehemently opposed to Rind’s ideas, this book is a must-read.
Stanley, Jessica L., Bartholomew Kim, & Oram Doug; Gay and Bisexual Men's Age-Discrepant Childhood Sexual Experiences; The Journal of Sex Research; 41(4), 381-389
This study examined childhood sexual abuse (CSA) in gay and bisexual men. We compared

  • the conventional definition of CSA based on age difference with



  • a modified definition of CSA based on perception [CSE - Child Sexual Experience]


to evaluate which definition best accounted for problems in adjustment.

The sample consisted of 192 gay and bisexual men recruited from a randomly selected community sample. Men's descriptions of their CSA experiences [id est: CSE] were coded from taped interviews.

Fifty men (26%) reported sexual experiences before age 17 with someone at least 5 years older, constituting CSA according to the age-based definition.

  • Of these men, 24 (49%) perceived their sexual experiences as negative, coercive, and/or abusive and thus were categorized as perception-based CSA. Participants with perception-based CSA experiences reported higher levels of maladjustment than non-CSA participants.



  • Participants with age-based CSA experiences who perceived their sexual experience as non-negative, noncoercive, and nonabusive [51%?] were similar to non-CSA participants in their levels of adjustment.



These findings suggest that a perception-based CSA definition [CSE] more accurately represents harmful CSA experiences in gay and bisexual men than the conventional age-based definition [CSA].

In conclusion,
... the standard convention of defining age-based childhood sexual abuse as uniformly negative, harmful, and coercive may not accurately represent gay and bisexual men's sexual experiences.
Combining perception-based CSA experience [id est: CSE] with noncoercive, nonnegative, nonabusive experiences, as the age-based definition does, presents a misleading picture of childhood sexual abuse.
An age-based CSA definition inflates prevalence rates of childhood sexual abuse and inaccurately suggests that the maladjustment associated with perception-based CSA [id est CSE] experiences applies to all childhood age-discrepant sexual encounters.
In contrast, these results suggest that gay men with histories of nonnegative, noncoercive childhood sexual experiences [CSE] with older people are as well adjusted as those without histories of age-discrepant childhood sexual experiences.
However, both definitions of CSA [age-based CSA vs experience based CSE] account for only a very small proportion of the variance in adult adjustment problems.
Contrary to popular belief, negative outcomes do not inevitably follow from gay and bisexual men's childhood age-discrepant sexual encounters.
Nicolaï, N. J.; The Consequences of Sexual Abuse of Minors; Chapter, summarized
The Consequences of Sexual Abuse of Minors - On behalf of the Commission for Examination of Sexual Abuse of Minors in the Roman-Catholic Church [* in the Netherlands]; In: Rapport Commissie Deetman, Balans, 2011, Part 2. Summary and conclusions in English by Frans E J Gieles, PhD.

In this essay, sexual abuse is, conform the scientific and juridical mores, defined as "... sexual-genital manipulation of a child below the age of sixteen, by an adult of whom the child is dependent or with whom he or she has a relationship of confidence, with the aim of satisfaction of the sexual need of the first. [...] There is an age difference, and/or a difference in power, by which the child is not able to refuse the sexual contact, which is not consensual." 
Research of the later consequences of sexual abuse is done in three phases or generations of research.
The most recent research explores what has appeared to be the most central factor: disturbance of the stress regulation.
There is consensus about harm for the physical and emotional health, especially the attachment and sexuality, even if the consequences are invisible at first sight. They are just like a time bomb, that explodes as soon as, in adulthood, the impact of the events becomes significant. 
Chen, Laura P., Murad Hassan M., Paras Molly L., Colbenson Kristina M., Sattler Amelia L., & Goranson Erin N.; Sexual abuse and lifetime diagnosis of psychiatric disorders; Mayo Clinic Proceedings ; 2011(July 31, 2011 ), 
There was no statistically significant association between sexual abuse and a diagnosis of schizophrenia or somatoform disorders. 
No longitudinal studies that assessed bipolar disorder or 
obsessive-compulsive disorder were found. 
Associations between sexual abuse and depression, eating disorders, and posttraumatic stress disorder were strengthened by a history of rape.
Conclusion: A history of sexual abuse is associated with an increased risk of a lifetime diagnosis of multiple psychiatric disorders.
Gardner, Richard A.; The Sex-Abuse Time-Line Diagrams; IPT Journal, Vol 6, 3-5, 1994
When evaluating sexual abuse allegations it is extremely important to differentiate between symptoms that arose prior to disclosure and those that arose afterwards. Symptoms arising after the disclosure and cessation of abuse can be caused by sexual abuse therapy, multiple interrogations, and other aspects of the legal process. Therefore, in a sex-abuse examination it is necessary to inquire as to the timing of the development of any claimed symptoms. Diagrams are presented to facilitate this inquiry.