Keyword: child sexual abuse

Wakefield, Hollida; The Effects of Child Sexual Abuse: Truth Versus Political Correctness; IPT Journal, 2006; 16,
ABSTRACT: Research over many years establishes the negative effects of child sexual abuse are not as pervasive, severe, and long-lasting as generally assumed. But rather than being seen by victims' advocates as good news, such research results are met with resistance, anger, and personal attacks. This controversy reached its height in 1999 when the media, conservative organizations, and the United States Congress condemned a 1998 meta-analysis in the Psychological Bulletin by Rind, Tromovitch, and Bauserman. The American Psychological Association's response to the furor was to distance itself from the article and its authors. This episode demonstrates the difficulty of doing and reporting research where conclusions contradict strongly held beliefs.
Reviewer, Anonymous; Flavie Flament: La Consolation - Book review
The recently published book La Consolation by Flavie Flament (42) demonstrates that things that superficially might seem to be completely okay, actually can be immoral after all.
In the late 1980s, Flament was one of the models of the controversial photographer David Hamilton, who for many “girl lovers” seemed to embody the very standard of responsible, harmless, and respectful erotica. In what may be termed an autobiographical novel, the author describes how she unearthed repressed memories of her childhood.
Her aversion to the photo sessions is soon accompanied by a revulsion towards Hamilton as a person, especially after he starts fondling her erogenous zones and forces himself upon her, which culminates in a shocking rape scene under the shower. Hamilton uses her as a sex toy or slave without showing her any compassion.
...
For now, it seems important to stress that in order to be morally acceptable, softcore erotica must
(a) be consensual in the everyday, non-judicial sense,
(b) not be accompanied by any type of sexual abuse, and
(c) be released after the model has grown up and has become fully aware of the possible social consequences of its publication.
Revell, Arlynn, Vansteenwegen Alfons, Nicholas Lionel, & Dumont Kitty; Unwanted early sexual experiences (UESE) and relationship adjustment among students in committed relationships; Electronic Journal of Human Sexuality; 11, , Oct 23 2008
This study examined the association between unwanted early sexual experiences (UESE also referred to as “child sexual abuse” (CSA)) and relationship adjustment among first year students (South Africans = 1,081 and Belgians = 2,608) and the association of the severity of the experience with relationship adjustment. Of South African women 31.3% (231) and 14.2% (226) of Belgian women reported UESE. Of South African men 56.4% (189) and 12.3% (125) of Belgian men reported UESE. Of these respondents 39.6% (1464) were in a committed relationship and of these respondents 20.1 % (n = 295) reported UESE.
No statistically significant differences were found between those students with less severe experiences vs. more severe experiences with regard to the relationship adjustment.
Maniglio, Roberto; The role of child sexual abuse in the etiology of suicide and non-suicidal self-injury; Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica; 2011(124), 30 - 41
Objective: To address the best available scienti?c evidence on the role of child sexual abuse in the etiology of suicide and non-suicidal self-injury. Seven databases were searched.

There is evidence that child sexual abuse is a statistically signi?cant, although general and non-speci?c, risk factor for suicide and non-suicidal self-injury.
Child sexual abuse may not have a psrimary role in the etiology of suicide and non-suicidal self-injury.
The role of child sexual abuse in the etiology of suicide and non-suicidal self-injury is complex.
Additional biological and psychological risk factors may, in some cases, be directly responsible for, or, in other cases, contribute to the risk of suicidal en on-suicidal self-injurious behavior by mediating the relationship between child sexual abuse and self-injurious behavior.
The presence of confounding variables and the poor quality of the studies do not allow for causal inferences to be made.
Stanley, Jessica L., Bartholomew Kim, & Oram Doug; Gay and Bisexual Men's Age-Discrepant Childhood Sexual Experiences; The Journal of Sex Research; 41(4), 381-389
This study examined childhood sexual abuse (CSA) in gay and bisexual men. We compared

  • the conventional definition of CSA based on age difference with



  • a modified definition of CSA based on perception [CSE - Child Sexual Experience]


to evaluate which definition best accounted for problems in adjustment.

The sample consisted of 192 gay and bisexual men recruited from a randomly selected community sample. Men's descriptions of their CSA experiences [id est: CSE] were coded from taped interviews.

Fifty men (26%) reported sexual experiences before age 17 with someone at least 5 years older, constituting CSA according to the age-based definition.

  • Of these men, 24 (49%) perceived their sexual experiences as negative, coercive, and/or abusive and thus were categorized as perception-based CSA. Participants with perception-based CSA experiences reported higher levels of maladjustment than non-CSA participants.



  • Participants with age-based CSA experiences who perceived their sexual experience as non-negative, noncoercive, and nonabusive [51%?] were similar to non-CSA participants in their levels of adjustment.



These findings suggest that a perception-based CSA definition [CSE] more accurately represents harmful CSA experiences in gay and bisexual men than the conventional age-based definition [CSA].

In conclusion,
... the standard convention of defining age-based childhood sexual abuse as uniformly negative, harmful, and coercive may not accurately represent gay and bisexual men's sexual experiences.
Combining perception-based CSA experience [id est: CSE] with noncoercive, nonnegative, nonabusive experiences, as the age-based definition does, presents a misleading picture of childhood sexual abuse.
An age-based CSA definition inflates prevalence rates of childhood sexual abuse and inaccurately suggests that the maladjustment associated with perception-based CSA [id est CSE] experiences applies to all childhood age-discrepant sexual encounters.
In contrast, these results suggest that gay men with histories of nonnegative, noncoercive childhood sexual experiences [CSE] with older people are as well adjusted as those without histories of age-discrepant childhood sexual experiences.
However, both definitions of CSA [age-based CSA vs experience based CSE] account for only a very small proportion of the variance in adult adjustment problems.
Contrary to popular belief, negative outcomes do not inevitably follow from gay and bisexual men's childhood age-discrepant sexual encounters.
Furedi, Frank; Are we all condemned to live in ‘cycles of abuse’?
It is now heresy to question the idea that child abuse damages a person for life. But such a deeply fatalistic idea must be questioned.
The diagnosis that child sexual abuse causes long-term psychological damage is influenced by today’s ‘cycle of abuse’ theories. This model, which says there is an intergenerational transmission of violence, is one of the most uncontested themes of the modern-day literature on family violence.
The abuse model is based on a belief that human action is determined and conditioned by powerful forces beyond its control. Such a fatalistic world view is conveyed through the idea that the experience of psychological trauma in early childhood directly shapes the actions and behaviour of a person for the rest of hisor her life.
We need to have a more open-minded discussion about this difficult subject.
Clancy, Susan A., & McNally Richard J.; Who needs repression?; The Science Review of Mental health Practice, Vol. 4, Number 2, Fall-winter 2005-2006, pp 66 - 73. , Dec 01 2005
Who needs repression? Normal memory processes can explain 'forgetting' of childhood sexual abuse
Conclusions in short:
(1) CSA is not necessarily traumatic at the time it occurs,
(2) CSA can be forgotten via normal forgetting mechanisms, and
(3) it may be the retrospective interpretation of the event, rather than the event itself, that mediates its subsequent impact.
This article is in Ipce's Library 3 (because of the dubble frame needed for text and references) - here is the abstract and a link to the article.
Wolak, Janis, Finkelhor David, Mitchell Kimberly J., & Ybarra Michele L.; Online "predators" and their victims: Myths, realities, and implications for prevention and treatment.; American Psychologist; Vol 63(2)(Feb-Mar 2008), , 111-128
The publicity about online "predators" who prey on naive children using trickery and violence is largely inaccurate. Internet sex crimes involving adults and juveniles more often fit a model of statutory rape--adult offenders who meet, develop relationships with, and openly seduce underage teenagers--than a model of forcible sexual assault or pedophilic child molesting. This is a serious problem, but one that requires approaches different from those in current prevention messages emphasizing parental control and the dangers of divulging personal information. Developmentally appropriate prevention strategies that target youths directly and acknowledge normal adolescent interests in romance and sex are needed. These should provide younger adolescents with awareness and avoidance skills while educating older youths about the pitfalls of sexual relationships with adults and their criminal nature. Particular attention should be paid to higher risk youths, including those with histories of sexual abuse, sexual orientation concerns, and patterns of off- and online risk taking. Mental health practitioners need information about the dynamics of this problem and the characteristics of victims and offenders because they are likely to encounter related issues in a variety of contexts.
Ulrich, Heather, Randolph Mickey, & Acheson Shawn; Child sexual abuse - A replication of the meta-analytic examination ...; The Scientific review of Mental Health Practice ; 4(2, Fall/winter 2005-2006), pp 37-51,
Research conducted during the 1970s, 1980s, and 1990s consistently reported widely accepted negative outcomes associated with child sexual abuse. 
In 1998, Rind, Tromovitch, and Bauserman conducted a meta-analysis challenging the four most often reported correlates of child sexual abuse. 
The present study attempted to reexamine the four main objectives of the Rind et al. (1998) study, correcting for methodological and statistical problems identified by Dallam et al. (2001) and Ondersma et al. (2001). 
The current meta-analysis supported the findings by Rind et al. (1998) in that child sexual abuse was found to account for 1% of the variance in later psychological outcomes, whereas family environment accounted for 5.9% of the variance. 
In addition, the current meta-analysis supported the finding that there was a gender difference in the experience of the child sexual abuse, such that females reported more negative immediate effects, current feelings, and self-reported effects. 
The implications of these findings, problems with replicating the Rind et al. (1998) meta-analysis, and future directions are discussed.
Geraci, Joseph; Interview: Hollida Wakefield & Ralph Underwager; Paidika # 9, pp 2-12, 1993; pp 2-12
Quotes:
"Paedophiles can boldly and courageously affirm what they choose. They can say that what they want is to find the best way to love."
"Paedophiles can make the assertion that the pursuit of intimacy and love is what they choose. With boldness they can say, "I believe this is in fact part of God's will."
"Paedophiles need to become more positive and make the claim that paedophilia is an acceptable expression of God's will for love and unity among human beings."
Underwager, Ralph, & Wakefield Hollida; Misinterpretation of a Primary Prevention Effort; Child Abuse Accusations, 6(2), 96-107. (1994).; 1994(6(2), ), 96-107., Jan 01 1994
In 1990, Ralph Underwager and Hollida Wakefield gave an interview to the editor of Paidika, The Journal of Paedophilia, a scholarly journal published in Holland. The interview was published in 1993.
Since that time, statements from the interview have been taken out-of-context and misinterpreted as indicating that RU and HW approve of pedophilia and child sexual abuse.
Here, they respond to these criticisms and accusations.
The authors add an Appendix: A Proposal: Primary Prevention Program for Child Sexual Abuse.
Dube, Rebecca; Hikind Retreating On Tough Tactics Against Molesters; Forward, The Jewish Daily, Mar 25 2009
Assemblyman Dov Hikind of Brooklyn, a leading voice in the fight to end child sexual abuse in Orthodox communities, is backing down from some of his previous claims and backing away from one of his most confrontational stands against an alleged pedophile.
Janssen, Diederik; Crimen sollicitations: Tabooing incest after the orgy ; Thymos; 4(2), 168, Oct 01 2010
Late modernity's binary intrigue of child sexuality/abuse is understood as a backlash phenomenon reactive to a general trans-Atlantic crisis concerning the interlocking of kinship, religion, gender, and sexuality. Tellingly dissociated from 1980s gay liberation and recent encounters between queer theory and kinship studies, the child abuse theme articulates modernity's guarded axiom of tabooed incest and its projected contemporary predicament "after the orgy"-after the proclaimed disarticulation of religion-motivated, kin-pivoted, reproductivist, and gender-rigid socialities. "Child sexual abuse" illustrates a general situation of decompensated nostalgia: an increasingly imminent loss of the child's vital otherness is counter-productively embattled by the late modern overproduction of its banal difference, its status as "minor. " Attempts to humanize, reform, or otherwise moderate incest's current "survivalist" and commemorative regime of subjectivation, whether by means of ethical, empirical, historical, critical, legal, or therapeutic gestures, typically trigger the latter's panicked empiricism. Accordingly, most "critical" interventions, from feminist sociology and anthropology to critical legal studies, have largely been collusive with the backlash: rather than appraising the radical precariousness of incest's ethogram of avoidance in the face of late modernity's dispossessing analytics and semiotics, they tend to feed its state of ontological vertigo and consequently hyperextended, manneristic forensics.
Yuill, Richard; Interrogating the Essential: Moral Baselines on Adult-Child Sex; Thymos; 4(2), 149-167 , Oct 01 2010
In this paper I emphasize the multiple ways dominant moral and essentialist understandings feed into the wider regulatory norms and conventional thinking governing adult-child sexual relations. Clearly, researchers are not immune from the ascendant material and symbolic hegemony enjoyed by child sexual abuse (CSA) paradigms. Indeed the experience of the seven critical writers and researchers cited in the paper, coupled with the author's own experiences carrying out PhD research in this area, clearly reinforce this point. I contend that sociological and Foucauldian insights on age and sexual categorization can offer a helpful tool-kit for unpacking the contested claims from CSA survivors, child liber ationists, and the specific case of one respondent who resists victimological labelling of his sexual experiences with adults.

Witt, Philip H.; [Review of] Seto, M. C., Pedophilia and sexual offending against children; Open Access Journal of Forensic Psychology; 2009(1), R1-3
Rapold, Monika *1966– *; Schweigende Lämmer und reißende Wölfe, moralische Helden und coole Zyniker : zum öffentlichen Diskurs über „sexuellen Kindesmißbrauch“ in Deutschland; Pädagogik und Sozialwissenschaften; 12, 492 pp. 21 cm.
Using a sociology-of-knowledge approach, this book critically examines the German discourse on the ‘sexual abuse of children’ in the 1990s when it was already an emotionally highly charged subject. The author first identifies four concepts and illustrates each of them with a representative monograph: the ‘pedophile’ (Bernard, 1982); the feminist (Kavemann/Lohstöter, 1984); the incest theoretical (Hirsch, 1987); and the critical (Rutschky, 1992). A fifth variant, the child molester discourse, with its connotations of violence, death, and conspiracies, is found later to dominate the popular press to the near-exclusion of all others. On the basis of these concepts she then analyses both professional (articles and monographs) and popular (newspapers and weeklies) media. It was the feminist point of view that was found to be dominant, even penetrating the pedophile discourse, except in the popular press as previously mentioned.

The second part puts these results in wider contexts. The newer German feminism is examined first. It is shown how sexual abuse became the rallying point of this movement, how it served its interests, and how it transformed it. Only by adopting the child-saving rhetoric could feminism occupy its current influential position, ironically replacing in the process its original emancipatory, anti-patriarchal stance with a stout reliance on the state, the quintessential patriarchal power.

The discourse on children and childhood comes next. The connections between the child-saving and feminist movements, both in Germany and the USA, are discussed as well as the idealization of children in much of contemporary culture. The books by Ariès, de Mause, and Postman are cited as evidence for conflicting views currently held about childhood. Often childhood is elevated to a utopian ideal and associated with myths and felt to be endangered by reality and myths likewise.

The author next turns to the discourse on sexuality. Rousseau here has stressed the innocence of children, simultaneously seen as naturally given and extremely endangered. With the repudiation of Freud's insight into the essential psychic predisposition of trauma, the sexual life of children was also negated, and the aetiology of trauma became the subject of an extreme reductionism. The political right has had a field day here with the resurrection of sexual repression and censorship. The author turns to Foucault for insight into the historical interplay between politics and sexuality. If the person of the confessor has changed, she notes, the practice of (public) confession has regained prominence.

Violence and crime are the leading ideas of the discourse which is examined next. The almost universally negative appreciation of intergenerational sexuality (which, as she notes, ignores the voices of many children themselves) is not founded in reality or argument but grounded in a constant appeal to demagoguery and emotion. The law creates the very myth it defends.

The last discussion returns to the sociological vantage point and traces the career of intergenerational sexuality as a social problem. Like the deficient child or dangerous (male) sexuality, it is a myth (Barthes) which serves symbolic politics.