Library 4

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Garland, Randall J., & Dougher Michael J.; The Abused/Abuser Hypothesis of Child Sexual Abuse: A Critical Review of Theory and Research; 488-509
A widespread belief among the general public and professionals alike is that “sexual abuse causes sexual abuse”. That is, sexually abused children and adolescents who have engaged in sexual behavior with an adult (or a significantly older adolescent) are commonly thought to be at risk in later years of themselves becoming sexually involved with children and adolescents. This belief is referred to here as the “abused/abuser hypothesis of child and adolescent sexual abuse.”
Given the popularity of the abused/abuser hypothesis, it is perhaps surprising to find that there is a dearth of evidence supporting it. This is not to say that there is a substantial body of contradictory evidence. Rather, only a handful of studies have actually investigated the presumed association, and the designs and methods of these studies have been less than ideal. Most of the relevant data come from retrospective studies of adults that do not allow for direct causal analysis.
"The conclusion that seems warranted from the review is that childhood and adolescent sexual contact with adults is neither a necessary nor a sufficient cause for becoming an adjudicated sex offender of children or adolescents."
"Thus, sexual contact with an adult during childhood or adolescence is not a necessary cause for becoming an adjudicated adult sex offender of children and adolescents. Sexual contact with an adult during childhood or adolescence also does not appear to be a sufficient cause for becoming an adjudicated sex offender of children and adolescents."
"In summary, the abused/abuser hypothesis — the belief that sexual behavior between adults and children or adolescents causes those children and adolescents, as adults, to become sexually involved with other children and adolescents — is inadequate and incorrect."
"The belief that sexual abuse causes sexual abuse, the so-called “abused/abuser hypothesis,” is simplistic and misleading."
"The conclusion reached is that sexual contact with an adult during childhood or adolescence is neither a necessary nor a sufficient cause of adult sexual interest in children or adolescents."
Goode, Sarah D.; Paedophiles in Society: Reflecting on Sexuality, Abuse and Hope; 243 pp
This book is not like any other book you may have read on paedophiles, or adult sexual attraction to children, or child protection. It is not about the medical, forensic, psychological, psychiatric, legal or criminological aspects of these phenomena.
Those issues are adequately dealt with in other texts. Instead, this book is about ordinariness, about culture and society around us and about how people in everyday life think about and make sense of men being sexually attracted to children
(the book says something too about women sexually attracted to children but the focus is predominantly on men).
Kinsey, Alfred C., B. Pomeroy Wardel, E. Martin Clyde, & Gebhard Paul; The Sexual Behavior of the Human Female; 888 pp
Kinsey c.s.' book "The Sexual Behavior of the Human Female", 1953, is given here as a long pdf file.
Goode, Sarah D.; Understanding and Addressing Sexual Attraction to Children: A Study of Paedophiles in Contemporary Society; ?
This ground-breaking book demystifies the field of adult sexual attraction to children, countering the emotionality surrounding the topic of paedophilia in the popular media by careful presentation of research data and interview material. Addressing how we can work together to reduce sexual offending in this population, this text bridges the gulf in understanding between those who want to protect children and those who feel sexual attraction to children – and recognises that they are sometimes the same people.
Journal Article
Gough, Jamie; Childhood Sexuality & Paedophilia; Gay Left A Gay Socialist Journal, Number 8, Summer 1979; 2 pp
I have argued that it is vital to see this issue in its class context, to see its place in the contradictory structures of society as a whole and its relation to the power of the ruling class. Seen in this way, it is evident that the questions of child sexuality and paedophilia cannot be solved except by a massive social and political struggle. This is in the first place the struggle of young people themselves, whose rebellion has made child sexuality a political issue.
The oppression of children and young people, and in a secondary way that of paedophiles, is a cruel oppression, and the struggle against it cannot be 'managed' or postponed.
Geraci, Joseph; Interview: Hollida Wakefield & Ralph Underwager; Paidika # 9, pp 2-12, 1993; pp 2-12
"Paedophiles can boldly and courageously affirm what they choose. They can say that what they want is to find the best way to love."
"Paedophiles can make the assertion that the pursuit of intimacy and love is what they choose. With boldness they can say, "I believe this is in fact part of God's will."
"Paedophiles need to become more positive and make the claim that paedophilia is an acceptable expression of God's will for love and unity among human beings."
Green, Richard; Is Pedophilia a Mental Disorder?; Archives of Sexual Behavior; 31(6), 467 - 471
Sexual arousal patterns to children are subjectively reported and physiologically demonstrable in a substantial minority of “normal” people. Historically, they have been common and accepted in varying cultures at varying times. This does not mean that they must be accepted culturally and legally today.
The question is: Do they constitute a mental illness? Not unless we declare a lot of people in many cultures and in much of the past to be mentally ill. And certainly not by the criteria of DSM.
McNally, Richard J., & Geraerts Elke; A New Solution to the Recovered Memory Debate; Perspectives on Psychological Science 2009; 4(2), 126-134
The controversy regarding recovered memories of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) has been characterized by two perspectives.
[1] According to one perspective, some people repress their memories of abuse because these experiences have been so emotionally traumatic, and they become capable of recalling the CSA only when it is psychologically safe to do so many years later.
[2] According to the other perspective, many reports of recovered memories of sexual abuse are false memories, often inadvertently fostered by therapists.

In this article, we provide evidence for a third interpretation that applies to a subset of people reporting recollections of CSA; it does not require the concepts of repression, trauma, or false memory. These people did not experience their CSA as traumatic; they either failed to think about their abuse for years or forgot their previous recollections, and they recalled their CSA spontaneously after encountering reminders outside of psychotherapy. Their recovered memories are corroborated at the same rate as those of people who never forgot their abuse. Hence, recalling CSA after many years is not the same thing as having recalled a previously repressed memory of trauma.
Levenson, Jill S., & Grady Melissa D.; Preventing Sexual Abuse: Perspectives of Minor- Attracted Persons About Seeking Help; Sexual Abuse
The primary aim of this exploratory research was to gain information from minor-attracted persons (MAPs) about their
(a) formal and informal experiences with help-seeking for minor attraction,
(b) perceived barriers to seeking help for concerns about minor attraction, and
(c) treatment priorities as identified by consumers of these services.
A nonrandom, purposive sample of MAPs (n = 293, 154 completed all questions) was recruited via an online survey.
Results show that 75% of participants did seek formal help from a professional; however, just less than half of them found the experience to be helpful. Characteristics of helpful therapeutic encounters included nonjudgmental attitudes, knowledge about minor attraction, and viewing clients in a person-centered and holistic way. Barriers to help seeking included uncertainty about confidentiality, fear of negative reaction or judgment, difficulties finding a therapist knowledgeable about MAPs, and financial constraints. Understanding or reducing attraction to minors were common treatment goals, but participants also prioritized addressing general mental health and well-being related to depression, anxiety, loneliness, and low self-esteem.
Implications for effective and ethical counseling and preventive interventions for MAPs are discussed.
Gardner, Richard A.; The Sex-Abuse Time-Line Diagrams; IPT Journal, Vol 6, 3-5, 1994
When evaluating sexual abuse allegations it is extremely important to differentiate between symptoms that arose prior to disclosure and those that arose afterwards. Symptoms arising after the disclosure and cessation of abuse can be caused by sexual abuse therapy, multiple interrogations, and other aspects of the legal process. Therefore, in a sex-abuse examination it is necessary to inquire as to the timing of the development of any claimed symptoms. Diagrams are presented to facilitate this inquiry.
Chen, Laura P., Murad Hassan M., Paras Molly L., Colbenson Kristina M., Sattler Amelia L., & Goranson Erin N.; Sexual abuse and lifetime diagnosis of psychiatric disorders; Mayo Clinic Proceedings ; 2011(July 31, 2011 ), 
There was no statistically significant association between sexual abuse and a diagnosis of schizophrenia or somatoform disorders. 
No longitudinal studies that assessed bipolar disorder or 
obsessive-compulsive disorder were found. 
Associations between sexual abuse and depression, eating disorders, and posttraumatic stress disorder were strengthened by a history of rape.
Conclusion: A history of sexual abuse is associated with an increased risk of a lifetime diagnosis of multiple psychiatric disorders.
Graupner, Helmut; Sexual consent and human rights; Thymos; 4(2), 99-102, Oct 01 2010
The basic human right to sexual autonomy and self-determination encompasses two sides: it enshrines both the right to engage in wanted sexuality on the one hand, and the right to be free and protected from unwanted sexuality, from sexual abuse and sexual violence on the other.

This concept elaborated by the European Court of Human Rights, in the light of European legal consensus, suggests that the age of consent for sexual relations (outside of relationships of authority and outside of pornography and prostitution) should be set between 12 and 16 years. In any event the age of criminal responsibility should be the same as the age of sexual consent.
Green, Richard; Sexual Preference for 14-Year-Olds as a Mental Disorder: You Can’t Be Serious!!; Archives of Sexual Behavior (published on line); 2010, March 4,
This letter addresses two papers by the DSM-V Sexual and Gender Identity Disorders Workgroup member Ray Blanchard published in this Journal. [...]
A series of biased terms or logically frail arguments are provided for including hebephilia as a mental disorder.
Jahnke, S., Schmidt A. F., Geradt M., & Hoyer J.; Stigma-related stress and its correlates among men with pedophilic sexual interests.; Archives of Sexual Behavior; November 2015,
Despite decades of research on the adverse consequences of stereotyping and discrimination for many stigmatized groups, little is known about how people with pedophilia perceive and react to stigma.
In this article, we present a framework that outlines how stigma-related stress might negatively affect emotional and social areas of functioning, cognitive distortions, and the motivation to pursue therapy, all of which may contribute to an increased risk of sexual offending.
We tested our hypotheses in an online survey among self-identified German speaking people with pedophilia (N = 104) using a wide range of validated indicators of social and emotional functioning (...). Specific risk factors such as self-efficacy, cognitive distortions and the motivation to seek treatment were also assessed.
In line with our hypotheses, fear of discovery generally predicted reduced social and emotional functioning. Contrary to our predictions, perceived social distance and fear of discovery were not linked to self-efficacy, cognitive distortions, or treatment motivation. [...]
Green, Richard; The Trauma Myth; Archives of Sexual Behavior
Book review of: The Trauma Myth, By Susan A. Clancy. Basic Books, New York, 2009.
The headline, press release, book title message trumpeted here is: Most children who experience sexual contact with adults are not traumatized at the time of the experience. [...]
Nevertheless, Clancy repeatedly reminds us how evil this non-traumatic (at the time) experience actually is. This moral mantra is identified as the catalyst of later trauma: ‘‘It is the act of sexual abuse and not the damage it causes that makes it wrong’’ (p. 185)
Graupner, Helmut; The 17-year-old Child An Absurdity of the Late 20th Century
No language in the world ever used the term “child” for persons beyond their early teens. No person beyond its early teens is a “child”.
It was the Convention on the Rights of the Child of 1989 which first did away with the distinction between children and adolescents and labelled all minors under 18 “child” (Art. 1).
The European Commission took this concept over into the criminal law area when it proposed an EU-Framework Decision on Combating the Sexual Exploitation of Children and Child Pornography in December 2000. This framework-decision obliges all the member states of the European Union to create certain sexual offences which goes far beyond what is known in that area in any European state so far.
The proposal of the Commission defined as “child” every person up to its 18th birthday (Art. 1 lit. a). It did not differentiate in any way between various age groups, i.e. it did not distinguish between children on the one hand and adolescents on the other. The proposal treated a 17-year-old young man in the same way as a 5 year old child.
This implementation of the same criteria for sexual protection and abuse to a five-year-old child and a 17-year-old adolescent leads to absurd and dangerous consequences.
Gilbert, Frederic, & Outram Simon; Chemical interventions and ethical side-effects: from pedophilia to depression. Where are the ethical boundaries of treating mental illness by neurochemical means?
Increasing biochemical knowledge of sexual functionality and attraction has allowed researchers to tentatively deduce a chemical cause for pedophilia and initiate various biochemical treatments for this condition. The availability of such knowledge, along with the development of new pharmaceutical treatment options, opens up new legal and ethical questions regarding how to chemically treat sexual criminality and how we, as a society, should reflect upon the use of chemicals in the treatment for other forms of deviant behaviour.
[... D]espite the early evidence of effectiveness in treatment, it is unclear how SSRIs work in relation to the treatment of pedophilia. [...]
A further dilemma raised by the chemical treatment of pedophilia is the expectation of a permanent cure for this form of sexuality. Studies have demonstrated that pharmacological interventions do not change the pedophile's basic sexual orientation toward children. [...]
However, caution is required to make sure that we do not find ourselves dis-enhancing or normalising traits that are simply the tail ends of a normal range of personality traits
Goode, Sarah D.; Finding Children Sexually Attractive, Mar 01 2013
This booklet is for anyone who finds that they are sexually attracted to children. In it, people talk in their own words about their own experiences and provide advice on how to handle this situation.
I hope you will find this booklet encouraging, helpful and inspiring! [...]
This booklet will provide you with a route-map for handling this situation, with examples of people who have been dealing competently with their sexual feelings for many years.
This booklet is based on research.
Galaburda, Cyril E.; Hello Susan Clancy
Hello, Susan
I am a paedophile and I've read your book ["The Trauma Myth"]. ...
But despite of your wit you write really stupid things about the question. Your prejudice against the child lovers does not allow you to understand simple things. If you are real scientist, not moralist, you would be able to answer the next topics: ... ... ...
So, Susan, I disproved all ideological stratification on your scientific work. ...
And if "victims need to hear the truth" tell them truth.
Guyon, Rene; Human Rights and the Denial of Sexual Freedom
René Guyon had the following text privately printed in Bangkok in the form of a rather flimsy brochure. He then sent it to all European and American sexologists whose addresses he knew. [...] As a public service, we are here providing the full text of our own copy. - Ipce.

[...] Human dignity is no more affected by sexual acts than it is by individual preferences in food or in recreation. It is an infantile stratagem of the puritans to pretend that there is any "indignity" in living Sexually outside the range of their childish and inexperienced conceptions. [...]
Modern men and women proclaim and loudly repeat that they no longer wish to be slaves. Yet the anti-sexual mores and laws have established for them a servitude from which they suffer at all ages of their lives. They are the slaves of the prohibitory laws that govern them. [...]
The Sexual Freedom which I have proposed is that which rests firmly upon the reciprocal consent of the parties involved in the sexual act or any of its varieties. [...]
Galaburda, Cyril E.; Letter to the Ukrainian Parliament
Dear the Supreme Soviet of Ukrainian state.
I ask the Supreme Soviet to legalize any forms of sexual relations between an adult and a minor on conditions that the minor wants to participate in the concrete relations, ...
Gieles, Frans; Not 50% but 0,4% … Summarized, Sep 22 2021
An English short summary of:
0,4 Prozent, nicht 50 Prozent Anteil der „pädophilen“ Männer an allen „Tätern“ des „sexuellen Kindesmissbrauchs“, by Filip Schuster,
by Frans Gieles, PhD, webmaster of Ipce.
Open this summary to see the link to Schuster's article in German language.
Galaburda, Cyril E.; Putin Saves From Pedophiles
In Russia robbers and even murderers gain journalists', people's and judges' sympathy when call their victims pedophiles. [...]
There are lots of cases when minors are used to date "pedophiles" through the Internet for the sake of pillage. [...]
[The case of] Vladimir Zaitsev, the man killed by Sankin [...]
The Russian government has always been hostile towards Western liberalism, and struggle against human rights is justified now as saving children from homosexuality. The propagandist campaign around Vladimir Sankin case can be explained as distracting people's attention from the new despotic Russian constitution.
Gieles, Frans E. J.; Short Explanation, short comment, questions
Pornography Use and Sexual Aggression: The Impact of Frequency and Type of Pornography Use on Recidivism Among Sexual Offenders
Drew A. Kingston, Paul Fedoroff, Philip Firestone, Susan Curry, and John M. Bradford. AGGRESSIVE BEHAVIOR, Volume 34, pages 1–11 (2008).
It is a quite difficult article, at least for the average student and Ipce reader.
Thus: Explanation of the used statistics, some comments and some questions.
Ginsberg, Alan; Thoughts on NAMBLA
Alan Ginsberg describes the reason why he joined NAMBLA. He also describes the task NAMBLA has to fulfil.