Type: Journal Article

Rogers, Jon, & Pallenberg Monica; Child Pornography Study; The Express, UK
A study in Germany has looked at who watches child pornography.
[Jens Wagner's] study shows just half of those who watch child porn are paedophiles. [...]
Janis Wolak [...] describes three types of consumers who are interested in child pornography without being paedophilic.
Jahnke, S., Schmidt A. F., Geradt M., & Hoyer J.; Stigma-related stress and its correlates among men with pedophilic sexual interests.; Archives of Sexual Behavior; November 2015,
Despite decades of research on the adverse consequences of stereotyping and discrimination for many stigmatized groups, little is known about how people with pedophilia perceive and react to stigma.
In this article, we present a framework that outlines how stigma-related stress might negatively affect emotional and social areas of functioning, cognitive distortions, and the motivation to pursue therapy, all of which may contribute to an increased risk of sexual offending.
We tested our hypotheses in an online survey among self-identified German speaking people with pedophilia (N = 104) using a wide range of validated indicators of social and emotional functioning (...). Specific risk factors such as self-efficacy, cognitive distortions and the motivation to seek treatment were also assessed.
In line with our hypotheses, fear of discovery generally predicted reduced social and emotional functioning. Contrary to our predictions, perceived social distance and fear of discovery were not linked to self-efficacy, cognitive distortions, or treatment motivation. [...]
Kingston, Drew A., Fedoroff Paul, Firestone Philip, & Bradford John M.; Pornography Use and Sexual Aggression; Aggressive Behavior; 35, 1-11
In this study, we examined the unique contribution of pornography consumption to the longitudinal prediction of criminal recidivism in a sample of 341 child molesters. We specifically tested the hypothesis, based on predictions informed by the confluence model of sexual aggression that pornography will be a risk factor for recidivism only for those individuals classified as relatively high risk for re-offending. [...]
Results for both frequency and type of pornography use were generally consistent with our predictions. Most importantly, after controlling for general and specific risk factors for sexual aggression, pornography added significantly to the prediction of recidivism. Statistical interactions indicated
(1) that frequency of pornography use was primarily a risk factor for higher-risk offenders, when compared with lower-risk offenders, and
(2) that content of pornography (i.e., pornography containing deviant content) was a risk factor for all groups. The importance of conceptualizing particular risk factors (e.g., pornography), within the context of other individual characteristics is discussed.
Walter, Peter Fritz; The Roots of Violence; Essays on Law, Policy and Psychiatry, Vol. 10; 10,
‘The Roots of Violence: Why Humans Are Not By Nature Violent’ (Essays on Law, Policy and Psychiatry, Vol. 10, 2018) is an analytical and policy study that presents abundant evidence that human beings are not by nature violent and that violence therefore is a conditioned response. The scientific disciplines examined are anthropology, biology, neurology, pedagogy, psychoanalysis, and sociology.
The book shows the historical development of the roots of violence as they sprang forth from the patriarchal murder cultures that were putting an end to the peaceful matriarchal empires such as the Minoan Civilization in Crete.
[...]
Based on the research being on the table, the author draws policy conclusions for the prevention of violence both in the social and the educational domain.
Walter, Peter Fritz; Pedophilia Revisited; Essays on Law, Policy and Psychiatry; 7,
Pedophilia Revisited: The Making of a Crime for Justifying Lacking Social Policy (Essays on Law, Policy and Psychiatry, Vol. 7) — 2019 Apple Books Edition — is an extended study on the controversial subject of pedophilia, the sexual love of adults for children — humans who by legal definition are to be considered a ‘child’ for the purposes of criminal law.
This form of love, also called ‘child-love’ by those who feel sexually attracted to children, can be exclusive or non-exclusive, but the author’s research clearly points to the fact that pedophile attraction is not inborn, just as homosexual attraction is not inborn, but a conditioned response.
The article gives links to the PDF edition and the paperback edition of the book.

Walter, Peter Fritz; Minotaur Unveiled: The Truncated Account of Adult-Child Erotic Attraction; Essays on Law, Policy and Psychiatry; 5,
Minotaur Unveiled: The Truncated Account of Adult-Child Erotic Attraction (Essays on Law, Policy and Psychiatry, Vol. 5) — 2019 Apple Books Edition — is a historical assessment of adult-child sexual relations as they are to be found not only in historical and forensic literature, but also in the poetic writings of many famous authors around the world. [...]
The study establishes a basis for the view that adult-child sexual interaction is a universal phenomenon that passes over cultural and epochal borders. [...]
Sadly, many of those adult-child sexual relations were and are the result of social and moral corruption and have to be called abusive and exploitative.
The article gives links to the PDF edition and the paperback edition of the book.
Walter, Peter Fritz; The Legal Split in Child Protection - Overcoming the Double Standard; Essays on Law, Policy and Psychiatry; 9,
The Legal Split in Child Protection: Overcoming the Double Standard (Essays on Law, Policy and Psychiatry, Vol. 9) - 2019 Apple Books Edition - is a study that attempts to redefine child protection, and goes as far as formulating a new paradigm of child protection that is healed of the legal split that pervades it until now. The study explains that the laws for protecting the child against abuse are following a fundamental split in social mores and statutory regulation of physical violence against children, on one hand, and sexual relationships with children, on the other.
Links to the book in PDF Format and the paperback edition are given.
Walter, Peter Fritz; Love or Laws: When Law Punishes Life; Essays on Law, Policy and Psychiatry; 4,
Love or Laws: When Law Punishes Life (Essays on Law, Policy and Psychiatry, Vol. 4, 2018) is a study on so-called ‘sex laws’ or age-of-consent laws. The study takes a critical point of departure and attempts to demonstrate that ages of consent are rather arbitrary legal instruments for so-called child protection. In fact, they are ineffective and do not protect children effectively against sexual abuse. [...]
The essays sets out to propose an altogether different solution: a love reform instead of a law reform, which means a different way of looking at the problem.
[...] With links to PDF and paper edition of the book
Walter, Peter Fritz; The Commercial Exploitation of Abuse - A Study on Policy; Essays on Law, Policy and Psychiatry; 8,
‘The Commercial Exploitation of Abuse: A Study on Policy (Essays on Law, Policy and Psychiatry, Vol. 8)’ is an essay about what the author calls the ‘abuse-centered culture,’ which is obviously a culture that puts people behind bars for love, when only focusing on certain ways how bodies are touched, fondled or otherwise erotically stimulated, when those bodies belong to a group of people legally defined as ‘children.’
Intro to a book in a pdf edition and a printed edition.
Tenbergen, Gilian, Wittfoth Matthias, Frieling Helge, Ponseti Jorge, Walter Martin, Walter Henrik, et al.; The Neurobiology and Psychology of Pedophilia: Recent Advances and Challenges; Frontiers in Human Neuroscience; 2015(9), 344, Jun 24 2015
A pedophilic disorder is recognized for its impairment to the individual and for the harm it may cause to others. Pedophilia is often considered a side issue and research into the nature of pedophilia is delayed in comparison to research into other psychiatric disorders.
However, with the increasing use of neuro-imaging techniques, such as functional and structural magnetic resonance imaging (sMRI, fMRI), together with neurop-sychological studies, we are increasing our knowledge of predisposing and accompanying factors contributing to pedophilia development.
At the same time, we are faced with methodological challenges, such as group differences between studies, including age, intelligence, and comorbidities, together with a lack of careful assessment and control of child sexual abuse.
Having this in mind, this review highlights the most important studies investigating pedophilia, with a strong emphasis on (neuro-) biological studies, combined with a brief explanation of research into normal human sexuality.
We focus on some of the recent theories on the etiology of pedophilia such as the concept of a general neuro-developmental disorder and/or alterations of structure and function in frontal, temporal, and limbic brain areas.
With this approach, we aim to not only provide an update and overview but also a framework for future research and to address one of the most significant questions of how pedophilia may be explained by neurobiological and developmental alterations.
The chosen format is here (on Ipce): Quotes and summaries from this article.
Okami, Paul, Olmstead Richard, & Abramson Paul R.; Sexual experiences in early childhood: 18‐Year longitudinal data from the UCLA family lifestyles project; THE JOURNAL OF SEX RESEARCH ; 34 - 4(JANUARY 1997), 339-347
We present results of the first longitudinal study of long-term outcome correlates of sexual experiences in early childhood ("sex play"). Two hundred children participated in the UCLA Family Lifestyles Project (FLS), beginning at birth to the current wave of data collection at ages 17-18. ...
These results converge on earlier cross-sectional retrospective work, suggesting that the experience of childhood sex play in itself is unrelated to long-term adjustment.
Okami, Paul, Olmstead Richard, Abramson Paul R., & Pendleton Laura; Early childhood exposure to parental nudity and scenes of parental sexuality and scenes of parental sexuality; Archives of Sexual Behavior; 27(4, August 1998), 
As part of the UCLA Family Lifestyles Project (FLS), 200 male and female children participated in an 18-year longitudinal outcome study of early childhood exposure to parental nudity and scenes of parental sexuality ("primal scenes").
At age 17-18, participants were assessed for levels of self-acceptance; relations with peers, parents, and other adults; antisocial and criminal behavior; substance use; suicidal ideation; quality of sexual relationships; and problems associated with sexual relations.
No harmful "main effect" correlates of the predictor variables were found.
Cochran, Susan D.; Emerging Issues in Research on Lesbians’ and Gay Men’s Mental Health: Does Sexual Orientation Really Matter?; American Psychologist; 932-947
Theoretical writings and research suggest that the onset, course, treatment, and prevention of mental disorders among lesbians and gay men differ in important ways from those of other individuals. Recent improvements in studies of sexual orientation and mental health morbidity have enabled researchers to find some elevated risk for stress-sensitive disorders that is generally attributed to the harmful effects of antihomosexual bias, Lesbians and gay men who seek mental health services must find culturally competent care within systems that may not fully address their concerns. The affirmative therapies offer a model for intervention, but their efficacy and effectiveness need to be empirically documented. Although methodological obstacles are substantial, failure to consider research questions in this domain overlooks the welfare of individuals who may represent a sizable minority of those accessing mental health services annually.
Pendergrast, Mark; A victim of memory recalls; Unknown
After his children 'remembered' in therapy that he had abused them, Mark Pendergrast helped sound the alert about false memory syndrome in the USA.
He wrote Victims of Memory: incest accusations and shattered lives.
[...]
The recovered memory epidemic was just the most virulent and destructive in a long line of pseudoscientific psychological fads. Unless we change the way we approach messing with one another's minds, we will repeat the past, including its witch hunts, in other forms in the future. Right now, I am deeply concerned over the repeated questioning of young children who are bullied into 'disclosing' fictional abuse, even though they denied that it took place initially.
Fitzpatrick, Michael; The memories linger on; LM
Dr Michael Fitzpatrick asks why the professional reaction against this psychotherapeutic irrationality has been so slow and so muted.
The Brandon report is widely regarded as the final nail in the coffin of the recovered memory movement. Published in April this year in the form of an article: 'Recovered memories of child sexual abuse: implications for clinical practice', British Journal of Psychiatry, 172, S Brandon, J Boakes, D Glazer and R Green, the committee chaired by professor Sydney Brandon is categorical in its condemnation of the theory and practice of the movement.
Brandon's conclusion is that 'there is no evidence to support the wholesale forgetting of repeated experiences of abuse, nor of single episodes of brutality or sadistic assault, apart from the normal experience of infantile amnesia'.
[...]
The Brandon report notes that a significant proportion of abused children grow up to become well-adjusted adults, and that there is no evidence that childhood abuse leads to any specific pattern of symptoms in adults, or that recovering memories of abuse helps to alleviate such symptoms (indeed there is much evidence to the contrary).
Furthermore, the report insists that 'no evidence exists for the repression and recovery of verified, severely traumatic events, and their role in symptom formation has yet to be proved'.
Thomson, Alice; Sex education: why the British should go Dutch; The Times UK
Britain's Schools Minister plans to introduce sex lessons for five-year-olds. They already have them in the Netherlands. Is that why they also have the lowest teenage pregnancy rate in Europe? [...]
The Government has chosen the Dutch model rather than the Nordic way of tackling the subject of sex because the Netherlands, unlike Scandinavian nations, also manages to have one of the lowest abortion rates in Europe. In Britain, the number of abortions performed on under-16s rose by 10 per cent last year to 4,376.
So how do the Dutch do it? [.... Sex Educationion ....]
This openness seems to work. [...]
Children in their final year of primary school have not been shielded from anything, but their teachers have continually reinforced the message that sex is about love and commitment. The pupils all agree that they will not sleep with anyone until they have finished secondary school and are in a serious relationship. [...]
Maybe, instead of expecting schools to teach children morality and the missionary position, the British should adopt a few other Dutch lessons.
Safiye Tozdan, Arne Dekker, Dr Phil, Janina Neutze, and Pekka Santtila, & Briken Peer; Sexual Interest in Children Among Women in Two Nonclinical and Nonrepresentative Online Samples; Sex Med; 2020(1), 1-14
Regarding women, little research is available about the prevalence of sexual interest in children (SIC), especially in nonclinical samples.
The present study aimed to investigate the extent to which adult women from 2 nonclinical and non-representative samples indicate sexual interest in prepubescent and/or pubescent children.
Participants took part in an online survey either via general websites or via websites directed toward individuals with a SIC.
The samples included are non-representative and therefore not generalizable to the female population.
Nevertheless, they strongly suggest that SIC is a phenomenon also found in women. We therefore recommend professionals in the field of sexual medicine to increase their attention and engagement for women with SIC. Based on the present results, the development of preventive treatment services specifically tailored to women with a SIC has to be strongly encouraged in the near future.
Cantor, James M., & McPhail Ian V.; Non-offending Pedophiles; Current Sexual Health Reports; 8(3, september 2016; on line May 2016), 121-128
Non-offending pedophiles are a unique population of individuals who experience sexual interest in children, but despite common misperceptions, have neither had sexual contact with a child nor have accessed illegal child sexual exploitation material.
An emerging body of research has examined the prevalence of pedophilic interests, characteristics of non-offending pedophiles, correlates of pedophilic interests, and stigma associated with pedophilia.
Treatment programs are beginning to produce findings regarding the effectiveness of treatment in supporting non-offending pedophiles to remain
offense-free.
The current review spans these areas of research and discusses potential treatment options for working with non-offending pedophiles based on that research base.
Moen, Ole Martin; The ethics of pedophilia; Nordic Journal of Applied Ethics ; 9(1), 111-124
Pedophilia is bad. But how bad is it? And in what ways, and for what reasons, is it bad? This is a thorny issue, and sadly, one seldom discussed by ethicists. I argue in this article that pedophilia is bad only because, and only to the extent that, it causes harm to children, and that pedophilia itself, as well as pedophilic expressions and practices that do not cause harm to children, are morally all right. I further argue that the aim of our social and legal treatment of pedophilia should be to minimize harm to children, and that current practices are often counterproductive in this respect.
Levenson, Jill S., & Grady Melissa D.; Preventing Sexual Abuse: Perspectives of Minor- Attracted Persons About Seeking Help; Sexual Abuse
The primary aim of this exploratory research was to gain information from minor-attracted persons (MAPs) about their
(a) formal and informal experiences with help-seeking for minor attraction,
(b) perceived barriers to seeking help for concerns about minor attraction, and
(c) treatment priorities as identified by consumers of these services.
A nonrandom, purposive sample of MAPs (n = 293, 154 completed all questions) was recruited via an online survey.
Results show that 75% of participants did seek formal help from a professional; however, just less than half of them found the experience to be helpful. Characteristics of helpful therapeutic encounters included nonjudgmental attitudes, knowledge about minor attraction, and viewing clients in a person-centered and holistic way. Barriers to help seeking included uncertainty about confidentiality, fear of negative reaction or judgment, difficulties finding a therapist knowledgeable about MAPs, and financial constraints. Understanding or reducing attraction to minors were common treatment goals, but participants also prioritized addressing general mental health and well-being related to depression, anxiety, loneliness, and low self-esteem.
Implications for effective and ethical counseling and preventive interventions for MAPs are discussed.
Ward, Tony, & Hudson Stephen; Finkelhor's precondition model of child sexual abuse: a critique; Psygology, Crame & Law; 7, 291 - 307
This paper critically discusses an extremely influential multi-factorial theory of child molestation, Finkelhor’s Precondition Model. This model was one of the first comprehensive theories of the sexual abuse of children and represents a significant achievement. It provides a clear framework for approaching the study of men who have sexually abused children and has lead to both clear treatment goals and clinical innovations. It has rarely, however, been systematically critically examined and the cogency of its core constructs evaluated.

Our analysis suggests that alongside its strengths, Finkelhor’s Precondition Model has some conceptual problems. It suffers from vagueness; contains overlapping constructs; and a rich array of vulnerability factors that require teasing out and clarification.
The model’s attempts to provide a taxonomy highlight the diversity inherent in child sexual abuse, but it has not yet provided a structure to adequately inform treatment.
Wakefield, Hollida; The Effects of Child Sexual Abuse: Truth Versus Political Correctness; IPT Journal, 2006; 16,
ABSTRACT: Research over many years establishes the negative effects of child sexual abuse are not as pervasive, severe, and long-lasting as generally assumed. But rather than being seen by victims' advocates as good news, such research results are met with resistance, anger, and personal attacks. This controversy reached its height in 1999 when the media, conservative organizations, and the United States Congress condemned a 1998 meta-analysis in the Psychological Bulletin by Rind, Tromovitch, and Bauserman. The American Psychological Association's response to the furor was to distance itself from the article and its authors. This episode demonstrates the difficulty of doing and reporting research where conclusions contradict strongly held beliefs.
Malón, Augustin; References of Malón's Adult-Child Sex and the Demands of Virtuous Sexual Morality; Sexuality & Culture; 21(1), 
References of: Adult-Child Sex and the Demands of Virtuous Sexual Morality
Sexuality & Culture, by Malón, Augustin
Malón, Augustin; Adult-Child Sex and the Demands of Virtuous Sexual Morality; Sexuality & Culture; 21(1), 247-269
This article is the continuation of a previous analysis of the usual arguments —
lack of consent, exploitation and harm — used to evaluate sexual experiences
between adults and children from general moral principles. It has been suggested that those arguments were insufficient to condemn all adult-child sexual experiences, and that it would be of interest to study others that come from a specific sexual morality based on a more complex and transcendent conception of human eroticism and sexual conduct.
This paper develops three different arguments against adult-child sex from this perspective, a view which, while not rejecting the Kantian and utilitarian approaches,complements and transforms them with a virtue ethic that questions not only the permissibility of certain acts but also their moral desirability under this frame of reference.
This helps us to clarify the scientific discourse on adult-child sex and directs us to the importance of attending to the educational dimension of this moral problem.
Josephs, Lawrence; How Children Learn About Sex: A Cross-Species and Cross- Cultural Analysis; Arch Sex Behav (2015) 44:1059–1069, Feb 18 2015
Scattered and not widely disseminated evidence from primatology, anthropology, and history of childhood sexuality support the hypothesis that throughout much of human behavioral evolution that human children have learned about sex through observing parental sexuality and then imitating it in sexual rehearsal play with peers. Contemporary theories of psychosexual development have not considered the possibility that young children are predisposed to learn about sex through observational learning and sexual rehearsal play during early childhood, a primate-wide trait that is conserved in humans but suppressed in contemporary contexts.