Type: Journal Article

Levenson, Jill S., & Grady Melissa D.; Preventing Sexual Abuse: Perspectives of Minor- Attracted Persons About Seeking Help; Sexual Abuse
The primary aim of this exploratory research was to gain information from minor-attracted persons (MAPs) about their
(a) formal and informal experiences with help-seeking for minor attraction,
(b) perceived barriers to seeking help for concerns about minor attraction, and
(c) treatment priorities as identified by consumers of these services.
A nonrandom, purposive sample of MAPs (n = 293, 154 completed all questions) was recruited via an online survey.
Results show that 75% of participants did seek formal help from a professional; however, just less than half of them found the experience to be helpful. Characteristics of helpful therapeutic encounters included nonjudgmental attitudes, knowledge about minor attraction, and viewing clients in a person-centered and holistic way. Barriers to help seeking included uncertainty about confidentiality, fear of negative reaction or judgment, difficulties finding a therapist knowledgeable about MAPs, and financial constraints. Understanding or reducing attraction to minors were common treatment goals, but participants also prioritized addressing general mental health and well-being related to depression, anxiety, loneliness, and low self-esteem.
Implications for effective and ethical counseling and preventive interventions for MAPs are discussed.
Ward, Tony, & Hudson Stephen; Finkelhor's precondition model of child sexual abuse: a critique; Psygology, Crame & Law; 7, 291 - 307
This paper critically discusses an extremely influential multi-factorial theory of child molestation, Finkelhor’s Precondition Model. This model was one of the first comprehensive theories of the sexual abuse of children and represents a significant achievement. It provides a clear framework for approaching the study of men who have sexually abused children and has lead to both clear treatment goals and clinical innovations. It has rarely, however, been systematically critically examined and the cogency of its core constructs evaluated.

Our analysis suggests that alongside its strengths, Finkelhor’s Precondition Model has some conceptual problems. It suffers from vagueness; contains overlapping constructs; and a rich array of vulnerability factors that require teasing out and clarification.
The model’s attempts to provide a taxonomy highlight the diversity inherent in child sexual abuse, but it has not yet provided a structure to adequately inform treatment.
Wakefield, Hollida; The Effects of Child Sexual Abuse: Truth Versus Political Correctness; IPT Journal, 2006; 16,
ABSTRACT: Research over many years establishes the negative effects of child sexual abuse are not as pervasive, severe, and long-lasting as generally assumed. But rather than being seen by victims' advocates as good news, such research results are met with resistance, anger, and personal attacks. This controversy reached its height in 1999 when the media, conservative organizations, and the United States Congress condemned a 1998 meta-analysis in the Psychological Bulletin by Rind, Tromovitch, and Bauserman. The American Psychological Association's response to the furor was to distance itself from the article and its authors. This episode demonstrates the difficulty of doing and reporting research where conclusions contradict strongly held beliefs.
Malón, Augustin; References of Malón's Adult-Child Sex and the Demands of Virtuous Sexual Morality; Sexuality & Culture; 21(1), 
References of: Adult-Child Sex and the Demands of Virtuous Sexual Morality
Sexuality & Culture, by Malón, Augustin
Malón, Augustin; Adult-Child Sex and the Demands of Virtuous Sexual Morality; Sexuality & Culture; 21(1), 247-269
This article is the continuation of a previous analysis of the usual arguments —
lack of consent, exploitation and harm — used to evaluate sexual experiences
between adults and children from general moral principles. It has been suggested that those arguments were insufficient to condemn all adult-child sexual experiences, and that it would be of interest to study others that come from a specific sexual morality based on a more complex and transcendent conception of human eroticism and sexual conduct.
This paper develops three different arguments against adult-child sex from this perspective, a view which, while not rejecting the Kantian and utilitarian approaches,complements and transforms them with a virtue ethic that questions not only the permissibility of certain acts but also their moral desirability under this frame of reference.
This helps us to clarify the scientific discourse on adult-child sex and directs us to the importance of attending to the educational dimension of this moral problem.
Josephs, Lawrence; How Children Learn About Sex: A Cross-Species and Cross- Cultural Analysis; Arch Sex Behav (2015) 44:1059–1069, Feb 18 2015
Scattered and not widely disseminated evidence from primatology, anthropology, and history of childhood sexuality support the hypothesis that throughout much of human behavioral evolution that human children have learned about sex through observing parental sexuality and then imitating it in sexual rehearsal play with peers. Contemporary theories of psychosexual development have not considered the possibility that young children are predisposed to learn about sex through observational learning and sexual rehearsal play during early childhood, a primate-wide trait that is conserved in humans but suppressed in contemporary contexts.
Malón, Agustín; Quotes from Malón's "Participating Victim"; Archives of Sexual Behavior
During the 20th century, erotic experiences between minors and adults occupied a position of increasing interest, both public as well as scientific. In this area of research, one of the most notable evolutions in how these experiences are treated has been the progressive disappearance and/or the intense redefinition of what earlier researchers called ‘‘participating victims,’’ i.e., minors apparently interested in accepting and/or sustaining these relationships.

The present work, through a comparative analysis of the literature, seeks to substantiate this transformation during the second third of the 20th century.
Malón, Agustín; References of The ‘‘Participating Victim’’ in the Study of Erotic Experiences Between Children and Adults: An Historical Analysis; Archives of Sexual Behavior, 2009
The references of The ‘‘Participating Victim’’ in the Study of Erotic Experiences Between Children and Adults: An Historical Analysis, August Malón, Archives of Sexual Behavior, 2009, in a separate file.
Malón, Agustín; The ‘‘Participating Victim’’ in the Study of Erotic Experiences Between Children and Adults: An Historical Analysis; Archives of Sexual Behavior, 2009
During the 20th century, erotic experiences between minors and adults occupied a position of increasing interest, both public as well as scientific. In this area of research, one of the most notable evolutions in how these experiences are treated has been the progressive disappearance and/or the intense redefinition of what earlier researchers called ‘‘participating victims,’’ i.e.,minors apparently interested in accepting and/or sustaining these relationships.
The present work, through a comparative analysis of the literature, seeks to substantiate this transformation during the second third of the 20th century. It will also argue that this evolution can be fundamentally explained in terms of the intense emotional, moral, and ideological importance that is ascribed to these experiences in the rise of the current victimological paradigm.
Finally, this study endeavors to contribute to the understanding of childhood and the scientific study of child sexuality as well as of these experiences
with adults.
O'Carroll, Tom; References at Childhood ‘Innocence’ is Not Ideal: Virtue Ethics and Child–Adult Sex, Tom O'Carroll; Sexuality & Culture
References at "Childhood ‘Innocence’ is Not Ideal: Virtue Ethics and Child–Adult Sex" by Tom O'Carroll.
O’Carroll, Thomas; Childhood ‘Innocence’ is Not Ideal: Virtue Ethics and Child–Adult Sex; Sexuality & Culture; April 2018,
Malón (Arch Sexual Behav 44(4):1071–1083, 2015) concluded that the usual arguments against sexual relationships between adults and prepubertal children are inadequate to rule out the moral permissibility of such behaviour in all circumstances.
Malón (Sex Cult 21(1):247–269, 2017) applied virtue ethics in an attempt to remedy the postulated deficiency. The present paper challenges the virtue ethics approach taken in the second of Malón’s articles by:
(1) contesting the view that sex is an exceptional aspect of morality, to which a virtue approach needs to be applied;
(2) contesting the view that virtue ethics succeed, where other arguments fail, against the moral admissibility of child–adult sexual relations;
(3) proposing that such relations can be seen as virtuous in the context of an alternative view of what constitutes virtue.
Note / Anmerkung: Sehen Sie im Datei: Uebersetzung.
Malón, Agustín; Quotes from: Pedophilia, A Diagnosis in Search of a Disorder; Arch Sex Behav; 41, 1083 - 1097, Feb 25 2012
This article presents a critical review of the recent controversies concerning the diagnosis of pedophilia in the context of the preparation of the fifth edition of theDSM.
The analysis focuses basically on the relationship between pedophilia and the currentDSM-IV-TR’s definition ofmental disorder. Scholars appear not to share numerous basic assumptions ranging from their underlying ideas about what constitutes a mental disorder to the role of psychiatry in modern society, including irreconcilable theories about human sexuality, which interfere with reaching any kind of a consensus as to what the psychiatric status of pedophilia
should be.
It is questioned if the diagnosis of pedophilia containedin the DSM is more forensic than therapeutic, focusing rather on the dangers inherent in the condition of pedophilia (dangerous dysfunction) than on its negative effects for the subject (harmful dysfunction).
The apparent necessity of the diagnosis of pedophilia in the DSM is supported, but the basis for this diagnosis is uncertain.
Kendall-Tackett, Kathleen A., Williams Linda Meyer, & Finkelhor David; Impact of Sexual Abuse on Children A Review and Synthesis of Recent Empirical Studies; Psychological Bulletin; 113(1), 164-180
A review of 45 studies clearly demonstrated that sexually abused children had more symptoms than nonabused children, with abuse accounting for 15—45% of the variance. Fears, posttraumatic stress disorder, behavior problems, sexualized behaviors, and poor self-esteem occurred most frequently among a long list of symptoms noted, but no one symptom characterized a majority of sexually abused children. Some symptoms were specific to certain ages, and approximately one third of victims had no symptoms. Penetration, the duration and frequency of the abuse, force, the relationship of the perpetrator to the child, and maternal support affected the degree of symptomatology. About two thirds of the victimized children showed recovery during the first 12—18 months. The findings suggest the absence of any specific syndrome in children who have been sexually abused and no single traumatizing process.
Houtepen, Jenny A. B. M., Sijtsema Jelle J., & Bogaerts Stefan; Being Sexually Attracted to Minors; Journal of Sex & Marital Therapy; ; 1-21(22 June 2015), , Jun 22 2015
This article aims to provide more insight into pedophilic attraction and risk and protective factors for offending in non-clinical pedophiles.

Fifteen participants were interviewed about sexuality, coping, and sexual self-regulation. Many participants struggled with acknowledging pedophilic interest in early puberty and experienced psychological difficulties as a result. Furthermore, many committed sex offenses during adolescence when they were still discovering their feelings.

Early recognition of risk factors and early start of interventions seem vital in preventing offending. Moreover, results suggest that risk for offending can be diminished by creating more openness about pedophilia and by providing pedophiles with social support and control.
Houtepen, Jenny A. B. M., Sijtsema Jelle J., & Bogaerts Stefan; References at Being Sexual Attracted to Minors; Journal of Sex & Marital Therapy; 1-21(22 June 2015), 
References at "Being Sexually Attracted to Minors: Sexual Development, Coping With Forbidden Feelings, and Relieving Sexual Arousal in Self-Identified Pedophiles.
Adshead, Gwen, & Mezey Gillian; Ethical issues in the psychotherapeutic treatment of paedophiles: Whose side are you on?; The Journal of Forensic Psychiatry; 4(2), 361-368
Although there has been some published literature addressing ethical issues in the chemical treatment of sex offenders (Bowden, 1991 ; Greenland, 1988) there has been relatively little discussion about the ethics of offering psychotherapeutic treatments of various kinds. This article addresses several ethical issues that arise in the context of the community treatment of sex offenders against children, based on the authors’ experience of working in time-limited groups with child sex abusers (Mezey et al., 1991a). We would suggest that the ethical issues that arise in the treatment of paedophiles are different from, and additional to, those encountered in the treatment of other types of offender. We address these issues under a number of sub-headings.

As is common with ethical issues, more questions are raised than can be easily answered. This does not make discussion fruitless; rather it raises the quality of the debate. We argue that important ethical decisions are being made all the time in relation to the treatment of sex offenders. There is a real danger, however, that, like the original offences, such issues will be minimized, distorted and denied. We would suggest that workers need to achieve a balance of interests between the offender and the victim. To support one is not to harm the other.
Malón, Agustín; Adult–Child Sex and the Limits of Liberal Sexual Morality; Archives of Sexual Behavior, 2015 - 44 - Febr.
This article is a critical review of the most common arguments in the specialized literature about the moral status of sexual relationships between adults and prepubescent children.The intent is to reveal how the usual ethical analysis of these experiences, done from a general sexual morality, with a Kantian and utilitarian basis, very clearly shows us the limits and contradictions of contemporary liberal morality regarding sexual matters.
It leaves open the possibility that, under certain circumstances, these relationships may be morally admissible. Some shortcomings and contradictions in these liberal arguments suggest that it would be of interest to refer to other authors and ideas to value adult–child sex, approaches that are based on a specific sexual morality concerning the issue of sexual virtues and a more complex conception of human sexual desire. Some of the scientific implications of these moral issues are also discussed.

From the quotes:
- My intention is to show that, limiting ourselves to these three ethical criteria [*], it can be concluded that under certain circumstances sexual experiences between children and adults could be morally permissible.
[* (1) Consent (2) No instrumentalisation and exploitation (3) No harm]
- The adult’s exploitation of the child does not depend on the inequality in power, but rather on the use the adult makes of that power.
- The problem is precisely the fact that children are taught to be submissive with adults, especially concerning sexual matters, where they are kept in dangerous ignorance that makes them especially vulnerable. Giving the child more information and more power would mean they could reject, refuse and say no, something that then puts us in the dangerous position where they could also say yes.
- It has been argued that under certain circumstances these experiences are not only harmless, but are in fact even positive and beneficial for the child. When there is no violence, coercion, deception, concealment, etc., some state that the negative consequences attributed to these events no longer exist. In these cases the simple will of the child to participate in a relationship they find pleasurable is more than enough to allow it.
- Ultimately, based on the possibility of damage that even though it may be only hypothetical and sometimes caused by society’s reaction, makes it more plausible to opt for a cautious prohibition.
- I judge it to be the case that, even if only for prudential reasons, this general rejection seems to be justified, especially when social condemnation is so intense in the large majority of people.
- I have also taken the principal criticisms to these arguments into consideration, concluding that there are sufficient reasons, even of a prudential nature, to uphold the social rejection of sexual relationships between adults and minors under a certain age.
- My aim, however, was focused on showing how these arguments are incapable of justifying a definitive and universal rejection of these relationships, as they always leave the possibility open that some of them are or could be morally permissible.
Jahnke, Sara, Imhoff Roland, & Hoyer Juergen; Stigmatization of People with Pedophilia: Two Comparative Surveys; Arch Sex Behav
Despite productive research on stigma and its impact on people's lives in the past 20 years, stigmatization of people with pedophilia has received little attention. We conducted two surveys estimating public stigma and determining predictors of social distance from this group.
Both studies revealed that nearly all reactions to people with pedophilia were more negative than those to the other groups, including social distance.
Results strongly indicate that people with pedophilia are a stigmatized group who risk being the target of fierce discrimination. We discuss this particular form of stigmatization with respect to social isolation of persons with pedophilia and indirect negative consequences for child abuse prevention.
Pachankis, John E.; The Psychological Implications of Concealing a Stigma: A Cognitive–Affective–Behavioral Model; Psychological Bulletin; 133(2), 328–345
Many assume that individuals with a hidden stigma escape the difficulties faced by individuals with a visible stigma. However, recent research has shown that individuals with a concealable stigma also face considerable stressors and psychological challenges. The ambiguity of social situations combined with
the threat of potential discovery makes possessing a concealable stigma a difficult predicament for many individuals. The increasing amount of research on concealable stigmas necessitates a cohesive model for integrating relevant findings. This article offers a cognitive–affective–behavioral process model for
understanding the psychological implications of concealing a stigma. It ends with discussion of potential points of intervention in the model as well as potential future routes for investigation of the model.
- - -
Ipce remarks that several stigma's are mentioned here, but just not having pedophilic feelings and desires - clearly even here a taboo that still might be kept in mind. Also, several examples of secrets that must be kept hidden are mentioned, but just not the secret of a child or teenager who has had sexual experience with an adult.
The first taboo might be deminished if the feelings will not be lead to acts, and thus ever might be accepted as human feelings. The second taboo, the secret to be kept hidden, should be avoided by the same: feelings that do not lead to an act.

O’Brien, Erin; Fear: The Emotional Outcome Of Mass Media In America; Hohonu; 2, 49-52
The mass media in America serves many functions that have had an array of effects on those exposed. Throughout time, technological innovations have given rise to the mass communications and media, leading to an escalation of its effects on the world’s people. The most important effect has been a psychological shift to a constant state of fear due to media exposure.

Fear of black men,
fear of airplane crashes,
fears of violence amongst children, and
fears of cultural domination
Quinn, Diane M., & Earnshaw Valerie A.; Concealable Stigmatized Identities and Psychological Well-Being; Soc Personal Psychol Compass.; Jan 7(1), 40–51
Many people have concealable stigmatized identities: Identities that can be hidden from others and that are socially devalued and negatively stereotyped. Understanding how these concealable stigmatized identities affect psychological well-being is critical. We present our model of the components of concealable stigmatized identities including valenced content – internalized stigma, experienced discrimination, anticipated stigma, disclosure reactions, and counter-stereotypic/positive information – and magnitude – centrality and salience. Research has shown that negatively valenced content is related to increased psychological distress. However, smaller identity magnitude may buffer this distress. We review the research available and discuss important areas for future work.
Seto, Michael C.; Is Pedophilia a Sexual Orientation?; Arch Sex Behav; 41, 231–236
In this article, I address the question of whether pedophilia in men can be construed as a male sexual orientation, and the implications for thinking of it in this way for scientific research, clinical practice, and public policy.
I begin by defining pedophilia and sexual orientation, and then compare pedophilia (as a potential sexual orientation with regard to age) to sexual orientations with regard to gender (heterosexuality, bisexuality, and homosexuality), on the bases of age of onset, correlations with sexual and romantic behavior, and stability over time. I conclude with comments about the potential social and legal implications of conceptualizing pedophilia as a type of sexual orientation in males.

Fazio, Rachel L., Dyshniku Fiona, Murray Michelle E., Lykins Amy D., & Cantor James M.; Minor Physical Anomalies as a Window into the Prenatal Origins of Pedophilia; Archives of Sexual Behavior; 2015(564), , Jun 10 2015
Evidence is steadily accumulating to support a neurodevelopmental basis for pedophilia. This includes increased incidence of non-right-handedness, which is a result primarily of prenatal neural development and solidified very early in life. Minor physical anomalies (MPAs; superficial deviations from typical morphological development, such as un-detached earlobes) also develop only prenatally, suggesting them as another potential marker of atypical physiological development during the prenatal period among pedophiles.

This study administered the Waldrop Physical Anomaly Scale to assess the prevalence of MPAs in a clinical sample of men referred for assessment following a sexual assault, or another illegal or clinically significant sexual behavior.

Significant associations emerged between MPA indices and indicators of pedophilia, including penile responses to depictions of children, number of child victims, and possession of child pornography. Moreover, greater sexual attraction to children was associated with an elevated craniofacial-to-peripheral anomalies ratio. The overall sample demonstrated a greater number of MPAs relative to prior samples of individuals with schizophrenia as well as to healthy controls.
Jahnke, Sara, & Hoyer Juergen; Stigmatization of People with Pedophilia: A Blind Spot in Stigma Research; International Journal of Sexual Health
Stigmatization restricts people’s opportunities in life and has severe consequences on mental health and psychological wellbeing. This article focuses on stigmatization research on pedophilia. Based on an extensive literature search, it reviews studies that have empirically determined lay theories, stereotypes, prejudices, and discrimination against people with pedophilia, as well as the effect of stigma on this group. The review reveals a scarcity of empirical studies on the subject.

While the majority of studies give at least an indication that stigma against people with pedophilia is highly prevalent, we also identified severe methodological limitations and a lack of a unifying and systematic research agenda.

We discuss the need for more theory-driven, rigorous, and representative empirical studies and propose perspectives and requirements for the scientific study of stigma against people with pedophilia.
Ng, Emil M. L.; Pedophilia from the Chinese perspective; Archives of Sexual Behavior; 31, 491–492
In traditional Chinese medicine, there has never been a mental disease called pedophilia (or an equivalent term), or homosexuality, or most of the other so-called sexual variations for that matter. Depictions of “child-romance” in ancient or modern Chinese literature are not difficult to find. Children are usually described as natural sexual beings and erotic stimulation and sex-play are seen as beneficial to their healthy development.
Some writers very vehemently question the capacity of children to give valid consent to sexual activity with adults. Despite their arguments, to the Chinese [...] the focus of discussions on the child consent issue in pedophilic activities is blatantly irrelevant and hypocritical.
There are certain occasions when the adults do respect the children’s wishes and ask for their consent, but only when the choices are within the adult acceptable range. [...]
Indeed, when it comes to a child’s sexual activity, the debate begins ...